Skip to main content

Full text of "The Huguenots; their settlements, churches, and industries in England and Ireland"

See other formats


From a painting by Vasari in the Sala Regia of the Vatican. 










LIVES OF THE ENGINEERS, Illustrated by 9 Steel Portraits and 
342 Engravings on Wood. Five vols. ^s. 6d. each. 




*** Each volume may be had separately. 
LIFE OF GEORGE STEPHENSON, Large 8vo Edition, 2is. Crown 

8vo Edition, 75. 6d. Smaller Edition, as. 6d. 
SELF-HELP: with Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance. Post 8vo. 


CHARACTER : a Book of Noble Characteristics. Post 8vo. 6s. 
DUTY : with Illustrations of Courage, Patience, and Endurance. Post 8vo. 


THRIFT: a Book of Domestic Counsel. Post 8vo. 6s. 
LIFE AND LABOUR: or Characteristics of Men of Culture and Genius. 

Post 8vo. 6s. 
INDUSTRIAL BIOGRAPHY: Iron Workers and Tool Makers. Post 

8vo. 6s. 

MEN OF INVENTION. Post 8vo. 6s. 
JAMES NASMYTH, ENGINEER : an Autobiography. With Portrait 

and 90 Illustrations. Post 8vo. 6s. 
LIFE OF A SCOTCH NATURALIST. With Portrait and Illustrations 

by George Reid, R.S.A. Post 8vo. 6s. 

ROBERT DICK: Baker of Thurso, Geologist and Botanist. With Portrait 
etched by Rajon, and numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 125. 


THE First Edition of this work was published in 1868, 
and it has since been frequently reprinted, with 
additions. It was stated in the First Edition that 
important names might have been omitted from the 
List of Huguenot Refugees and their Descendants at 
the close of the volume ; but the Author invited further 
contributions on the subject, which would be inserted 
in any future edition. 

Numerous memoirs have accordingly been sent to 
the Author from England, Ireland, Scotland, and even 
India, in reply to his invitation. Many of these had 
never before been published, though they are of much 
interest. They are now included in the List of 
Distinguished Huguenots and their Descendants, and 
in the Appendix to the same list, at the end of this 
volume. The memoirs in the Appendix are the most 
recent additions. 

The Author has also received numerous inquiries 
from descendants of Huguenots who had lost traces of 




their origin, requesting information as to their ances- 
tors. Sometimes he was enabled to supply information, 
after consulting Haag's La France Protestante, Cooper's 
Lists of Foreign Protestants and Aliens, Burns' His- 
tory of the Foreign Refugees, the Ulster Journal of 
Archceology, and Agnew's Protestant Exiles from 
France ; but, in a large number of cases, he could 
give no information. During the last few years, 
however, a Huguenot Society has been established in 
London, from which all accessible facts can be easily 

The First Edition of this work was translated into 
French in 1870, with an excellent Preface by M. 
Athanase Coquerel fils. It was printed by Heitz, at 
Strasburg; and, while it was ready for transport to 
Paris, the city was surrounded and bombarded by the 
German army, when a considerable part of the edition 
was destroyed. After the conclusion of the Franco- 
German war, the book was eventually published by 
Cherbuliez, of Paris. 

The surrenders of Bazaine at Metz, and of Napo- 
leon III. at Sedan, will never be forgotten. Sedan, 
prior to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, was 
the renowned seat of Protestant learning ; but after the 
university had been suppressed, and the Protestants 
driven away by persecution, Sedan withered, and had 
become almost forgotten. Now, however, it is known 
as the scene of the greatest military catastrophe which 
has happened in modern times. 

" Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou shalt 


find it after many days," is a counsel which has 
received a significant realization in the relations 
between France and Prussia. A large number of 
the expatriated refugees took refuge in Prussia, 
which was then slowly emerging from the marshes 
of Brandenburg. France was the dominant power 
in Europe, while Prussia was of comparatively little 
moment. Now, Prussia, from a Dukedom has 
become a Kingdom, and, on the soil of France, an 

What France lost by religious intolerance was 
forcibly expressed by M. Jules Simon, when Prime 
Minister. Discussing the ecclesiastical questions then 
perplexing French politicians, he recalled the fact that 
not less than eighty of the German staff, in the recent 
Franco-German war, were representatives of Protestant 
families who had been driven from France by the 
persecutions which followed the Ee vocation of the 
Edict of Nantes. It was meet that the descendants of 
the men whom Louis XIV., the despot of the seven- 
teenth century, had cast out, should be conspicuous 
in dethroning the despot of the nineteenth. 

LONDON : October, 1889. 


INTRODUCTION . f Page xvii 


General ferment in Europe in the 16th century Papal church and 
its despotism Sale of indulgences Luther Invention of printing 
Gutenberg, Faust, and Schceffer Printing of the Bible Luther 
and the Bible Effects of reading the Bible Reformation in Meaux 
Jacques Lefevre Opposed by the Sorbonne Printers and Bibles 
publicly burnt Origin of the term " Huguenot " . Pages 1 21 


The life of Palissy illustrative of his epoch Palissy travels in France 
and Germany Joins " The Religion " Life at Saintes His pursuit 
of the enamel His sufferings The early Gospellers Progress of 
" The Religion " The Huguenots a political power Religious 
persecutions at Saintes Palissy imprisoned His perseverance and 
triumph , . Pages 22 37 


Huguenot men of genius Increase of the Reformed party Influence 
of Catherine de Medic-is and the Guises Burning of Lutherans 
Francis Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine Mary Queen 
of Scots The conspiracy of Amboise Massacre of the conspirators 
Francis II. and Charles IX. Chancellor de 1'Hopital Religious 
conference Massacre of Vassy Triumph of the Guises Massacres 
throughout France Civil war Peace of St. Germains . 

Pages 3851 




Prosperity of the Low Countries Rise of the Jesuits Philip II. es- 
tablishes the Inquisition in Flanders The Duke of Alva, his war 
of extermination The Duke of Parma Flight of Protestants from 
the Low Countries Interview at Bayonne Plot to exterminate 
the French Protestant chiefs Marriage of Henry of Navarre to 
Margaret, Princess of France The massacre determined on At- 
tempt to murder Admiral Coligny Charles IX. orders a general 
massacre of the Protestants The massacre of St. Bartholomew 
Rejoicings at Rome Death of Charles IX. Siege of La Rochelle 
Henry III. Murder of the Guises Wars of the League Assas- 
sination of Henry III. Accession of Henry IV. . Pages 52 71 


England at the accession of Elizabeth Perils of Elizabeth The Pope 
denounces her, and denies her legitimacy She gives free asylum 
to foreign Protestants Plots against her life Maiy Queen of Scots 
The Northern rebellion The Pope excommunicates Elizabeth 
Assassin's hired to murder her Ridolfi The plots defeated News 
of the massacre of St. Bartholomew arrive in England Reception 
of the French ambassador by the Court Execution of the Queen 
of Scots Defeat of the Sacred Armada The reigns of Philip II. 
and Elizabeth contrasted Pages 72 87 



Early industry of England Extensive immigration of Flemish and 
French Protestant artizans The foreigners welcomed by Edward VI. 
and Elizabeth Landings at Deal, Sandwich, Rye, and Dover Pros- 
perity of the Flemings at Sandwich The industries introduced by 
them Protestant exiles in London In Southwark and Bermond- 
sey At Bow, Wandsworth, and Mortlake Native jealousy The 
Flemish merchants Numbers of the immigrants Settlement at 


Norwich Protected by Duke of Norfolk and Queen Elizabeth Es- 
tablishment of the cloth manufacture Thread and lace makers 
Glass makers Workers in iron and steel Fish curers Drainers of 
fen-lands Refugees find asylum in Scotland Flemish Protestants 
at Swords in Ireland . . . . . Pages 88 115 


Desire of the refugees for freedom of worship The first Walloon and 
French churches in London John A'Lasco Dutch church in 
Austin Friars French church in Threadneedle Street Church at 
Glastonbury Churches at Sandwich, Rye, Norwich "God's 
House" at Southampton Register of their church Their fasts 
and thanksgivings Queen Elizabeth at Southampton Walloon 
church at Canterbury Memorial of the Refugees The Undercroft 
in Canterbury Cathedral The Lady Chapel Occupation of the 
Undercroft by the Walloons The French church still in Canter- 
bury Cathedral Archbishop Laud and the Refugees Many of them 
fly from England Laud's reactionary course checked 

Pages 116129 


Accession of Henry IV. in France Promulgates the Edict of Nantes 
Assassination of Henry IV. by Ravaillac Marie de Medicis 
Renewal of civil war Cardinal Richelieu Second siege of 
Rochelle The besieged attempted to be relieved by England The 
Huguenots cease to exist as a political body Edict of pardon 
Loyalty of the Huguenots Their industry Their manufactures 
Their honesty Their integrity as merchants Colbert Absolutism 
of Louis XIV. His ambition His wars His extravagance Death 
of Colbert His encouragement of the Huguenots Colbert's policy 
and character ... ... Pages 130142 


Enmity of Louis XIV. to the Huguenots His edicts against them 
Death of the Queen-mother, and her bequest The persecutions re- 


newed Emigration prohibited Cruel edicts of Louis His amours 
and " conversion " Madame de Maintenon Attempt to purchase 
Huguenot consciences Abduction of Protestant children The 
Dragonnades Forced conversions The Protestant churches des- 
troyed Property confiscated Incident at Saintonge Dragonnade 
in Beam Louis XIV. revokes the Edict of Nantes, and marries 
Madame de Maintenon Pages 143 155 


Rejoicings at Rome on the revocation of the Edict Bossuet's and 
Massillon's praises of Louis XIV. Consequences of the revocation 
The military Jacquerie Demolition of Protestant churches 
Employment of the Huguenots proscribed Pursued beyond death 
Conversion or flight Schomberg, Ruvigny, Duquesne The 
banished pastors General flight of the Huguenots Closing of the 
frontier Capture and punishment of the detected Flight in dis- 
gnise Traditions of hair-breadth escapes Flight of women 
Widow of Lord de Bourdieu Judith Mariengault The Morells 
Henri de Dibon Jean Marteilhe of Bergerac The captured con- 
demned to the galleys Young galley-slaves Old galley-slaves 
Louis de Marolles John Huber The flight by sea Count de 
Marance The Lore! of Castelfranc The Misses Raboteau French 
gentlewoman refugee David Garric Fumigation of ships' holds 
Numbers of Huguenot fugitives from France Death-blow given to 
French industry The '' Churches of the desert " . Pages 156 178 


The countries of the Refuge The asylum of Geneva The Huguenots 
in Switzerland; in Bradenberg and Germany Refugees at the 
Cape of Good Hope ; in the United States Holland " The Great 
Ark of the Fugitives " Eminent refugees in the Low Countries 
Their hospitable reception by the Dutch Refugee soldiers and 
sailors William, Prince of Orange : his relation to the English 
throne The Stuart kings and the Protestant refugees Accession 
of James II. Compared with Louis XIV. Attempts to suppress 
Protestantism Popular reaction William of Orange invited over 
to England French Huguenot officers and soldiers in the Dutch 
army Marshal Schomberg .... Pages 179 201 



OF 1689-90. 

Dumont de Bostaquet, a Protestant gentleman of Normandy His 
Church at Lindebceuf demolished Dragonnades in Normandy 
Soldiers quartered in Protestant families De Bostaquet meditates 
flight from France Journey to the sea-coast Attacked by the 
coast-guard De Bostaquet wounded His flight through Picardy, 
and sufferings Refuge in Holland Expedition of William of 
Orange to England Landing at Torbay Advance to Exeter and 
London Revolution of 1688 The exiles in London The Marquis 
de Ruvigny at Greenwich Huguenot regiments sent into Ireland 
Losses of the army at Dundalk Landing of James IL in Ireland 
with a French army Huguenot regiments recruited in Switzerland 
William III. takes the field in person Campaign of 1690 Battle 
of the Boyne Death of Marshal Schomberg . Pages 202226 


Henry, second Marquis de Ruvigny, distinguishes himself at the battle 
of Aughrim, and is created Earl of Galway War in Savoy Earl 
of Galway placed in command Appointed Lord Justice in Ireland 
Founding of Portarlington The Huguenot regiments Earl of 
Galway takes command of the army in Spain Bravery of the 
Huguenot soldiers Jean Cavalier, the Camisard leader The war 
of the Blouses Cavalier enters the service of William III. His 
desperate valour at the battle of Almanza in Spain Made gover- 
nor of Jersey and major-general Rapin-Thoyras, the soldier- 
historian John de Bodt, the engineer Field-marshal Lord Ligonier 
The Huguenot sailors Admiral Gambier . . . Pages 227 241 


The Huguenots refugees for liberty The emigration a protest against 
intellectual and religious tyranny Eminent refugees Solomon de 
Caus Denis Papin, his scientific eminence Dr. Desaguliers 
David Durancl Abraham de Moivre Refugee Literati Jean 
Graverol Refugee pastors: Abbadie ; Saurin ; AUix; Pinetoa, 


his escape from France Huguenot Churchmen and Dissenters 
The Du Moulins James Capel Claude de la Mothe Armand du 
Bourdieu . Pages 242260 


Flight of the manufacturing class from France Districts from which 
they chiefly came Money brought by them into England Mea- 
sures taken for relief of the destitute French Belief Committee 
The Huguenots self-helping and helpful of each other Their 
Benefit societies Their settlements in Spitalfields and other parts of 
London They introduce new branches of industry from France 
Establishment of the silk-manufacture Silk stocking trade Glass- 
works Paper-mills The De Portal family Henry de Portal, the 
paper-maker Manufactures at Canterbury, Norwich, and Ipswich 
Lace-making Refugee industries in Scotland . Pages 261 277 


Large number of refugee churches in London French church of 
Threadneedle Street Church of the Savoy Swallow Street church, 
Piccadilly French churches in Spitalfields Churches in subur- 
ban districts The Malthouse church, Canterbury " God's House," 
Southampton French churches at Bristol, Plymouth, Stonehouse, 
Dartmouth, and Exeter Churches at Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex 
Gradual decadence of the churches Lamentations of the Rev. M. 
Bourdillon Founding of the French Hospital Governors and 
directors of the institution Remnant of the refugee churches a 
Canterbury and Norwich Pages 278 291 



Attempts to establish the linen-trade in Ireland by refugees 
Flemish refugees The Duke of Ormond Efforts of William III. 
to promote Irish industry French refugee colony at Dublin 
Settlement at Lisburn, near Belfast Louis Crommelin appointed 
" Overseer of Royal Linen Manufactory of Ireland " His labours 
crowned with success Peter Goyer Settlements at Kilkenny and 
Cork Life and adventures of James of Fontaine in England and 


Ireland Settlement at Youghal Refugee colony at Waterford 
The French town of Portarlington Its inhabitants and their des- 
cendants Prosperity of the north of Ireland . Pages 292 317 


The descendants of the refugee Flemings and French still recognisable 
in England Changes of name by the Flemings The Des Bouveries 
family Hugesseas Houblons Eminent descendants of Flemish 
refugees The Grote family Changes of French names Names 
still preserved The Queen's descent from a Huguenot The Trench 
family Peers descended from Huguenots Peerages of Taunton, 
Eversley, and Romilly The Lefevres Family of Romilly Baro- 
nets descended from Huguenots Members of Parliament Emi- 
nent scholars : Archdeacon Jortin, Maturin, Dutens, Rev. William 
Romaine Eminent lawyers descended from refugees Eminent 
literary men of the same origin The handloom wearers of Spital- 
fields The Dollonds Lewis Paul, inventor of spinning by rollers 
Migration from Spitalfields The last persecutions in France 
The descendants of the Huguenot refugees become British . 

Pages 318343 



Effects of the persecutions in Flanders and France Spain Suppres- 
sion of Protestantism and liberty Disappearance of great men in 
France after the Revocation Triumph of the Jesuits Aggrandise- 
ment of the Church Hunger and emptiness of the people Extinc- 
tion of religion The Church assailed by Voltaire Persecution of 
the clergy The Reign of Terror Flight of the nobles and clergy 
from France into Germany and England The dragonnades of the 
Huguenots repeated in the noyades of the Royalists Louis XVI. 
and Marie Antoinette the victims of Louis XIV. Relation of the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to the French Revolution 
Conclusion . . ..... Pages 344 356 

cendants ........ Pages 357431 

APPENDIX ....... . 431448 

INDEX ......... 449458 

THE geographical position of Britain has, from the 
earliest times, rendered it a country of refuge. Front- 
ing Europe, yet separated from it by a deep sea-moat, 
the proscribed of other lands have by turns sought 
the protection of the island fortress, and made it their 
home. To the country of the Britons the Saxons 
brought their industry, the Northmen their energy, 
and the Flemings and French their skill and spirit 
of liberty ; and out of the whole has come the English 

MICHELET, the French historian though his obser- 
vations in regard to England are usually conceived 
in a hostile spirit has nevertheless acknowledged 
the free Asylum which this country has in all times 
afforded to foreigners flying from persecution abroad. 
" Hateful as England is," says he, " she appears grand 
indeed, as she faces Europe, as she faces Dunkirk 
and Antwerp in ruins. All other countries Russia, 
Austria, Italy, Spain, and France have their capi- 
tals on the west, opposite the setting sun: the 


great European vessel seems to float with her sails 
bellied by the wind, which erst blew from Asia. 
England alone has hers pointed to the east, as if in 
defiance of that world unum omnia contra. This 
last country of the Old World is the heroical land ; 
the constant refuge of the exiled and the energetic. 
All who have ever fled servitude, Druids pursued 
by Rome, Gallo-Romans chased by the barbarians, 
Saxons proscribed by Charlemagne, famished Danes, 
grasping Normans, the persecuted Flemish manufac- 
turers, the vanquished French Calvinists, all have 
crossed the sea, and made the great island their coun- 
try : arva, beata petamus arva, divites et insulas . . . 
Thus England has thriven on misfortunes and grown 
great out of ruins." l 

The early industry of England was almost entirely 
pastoral Down to a comparatively recent period, it 
was a great grazing country, and its principal staple 
was Wool. The English people being as yet unskilled 
in the arts of manufacture, the wool was bought up 
by foreign merchants, and exported abroad in large 
quantities, principally to Flanders and France, there 
to be manufactured into cloth, and partly returned in 
that form for sale in the English markets. 

The English kings, desirous of encouraging home 
industry, held out repeated inducements to foreign 
artizans to come over and settle in this country for the 

1 History of France, Book III. 


purpose of instructing their subjects in the industrial 
arts. This policy was pursued during many successive 
reigns, more particularly in that of Edward III. ; and, 
by the middle of the fourteenth century, large numbers 
of Flemish artizans, driven out of the Low Countries 
by the tyranny of the trades-unions as well as by civil 
wars, embraced the offers held out to them, settled in 
various parts of England, and laid the foundations of 
English skilled industry. 

But by far the most important emigrations of 
skilled foreigners from Europe, were occasioned by the 
religious persecutions which prevailed in Flanders and 
France for a considerable period after the Reformation. 
Two great waves of foreign population then flowed 
over from the Continent into England, probably the 
largest in point of numbers which have occurred since 
the date of the Saxon settlement. The first took place 
in the latter half of the sixteenth century, and con- 
sisted partly of French, but principally of Flemish 
Protestants ; the second, towards the end of the seven- 
teenth century, consisted almost entirely of French 

The second of these emigrations, consequent on the 
religious persecutions which followed the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV., was of extra- 
ordinary magnitude. According to Sismondi, the loss 
which it occasioned to France was not far short of 
a million of persons, and these were her best and most 
industrious subjects. Although the circumstances con- 


nected with this remarkable exodus, as well as the 
events which flowed from them, exercised an important 
influence on the political, religious, and industrial 
history of Northern Europe, they have as yet, viewed 
in this connection, received but slight notice at the 
hands of the historian. 

It is the object of the following work io give an 
account of the causes which led to these great migrations 
of Flemish and French Protestants from Flanders and 
France into England, and to describe their effects upon 
English industry as well as English histoiy. The 
author merely offers the book as a contribution to the 
study of the subject, which seems to be one well 
worthy of further investigation. 




A GENERAL ferment pervaded Europe about the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century. The minds of men 
in all countries were fretting under the trammels 
which bound them. Privilege prevailed everywhere ; 
the people could not breathe freely ; they felt them- 
selves enslaved, and longed for liberty. 

At the same time intelligence was advancing. The 
leaders of thought were gradually adding to the domain 
of science. Important inventions had been made; a 
new world had just been discovered by Columbus ; 
and great thinkers were casting their thoughts abroad 
on the world, stimulating other minds to action, and 
pointing the way to greater freedom. 

But a great barrier stood in the way of all further 
advancement in the direction of human enfranchise- 
ment and liberty. The Papal Church upheld des- 
potism, arrested science, suppressed thought, and 
barred progress. Wherever free inquiry showed itself, 
whether in religion or science, the Church endeavoured 
to crush it. For this purpose, the Inquisition was 
established. Savonarola was burnt at Florence, and 
Huss at Constance; whilst, at Rome, Bruno was 
condemned to the stake, and Galileo was imprisoned, if 
he was not even put to the torture, and compelled to 
recant his theory of the earth's motion round the sun. 



Meanwhile, the Church itself was seen to be a 
mass of abuses ; and the feeling of its intolerableness 
at length broke out into a general demand for its 
reformation. There were many eminent churchmen 
who sought to reform it from within. Amongst these, 
St. Bernard and others raised their voices long before 
the sixteenth century ; but the corrupt influences 
which prevailed in the Church were too powerful to 
be overcome, and the reform was left to be done from 

The profligacy and despotism of the Papal Church 
might, however, have continued for centuries longer, 
had not its agents proceeded to insult too audaciously 
the common sense and conscience of mankind, by the 
open sale of indulgences to commit sin, as well as 
absolutions for sins that had been committed. The 
young and voluptuous Pope Leo X., who succeeded 
the warlike Pope Julius II. in 1513, entertained the 
ambition of rearing an ecclesiastical fabric which 
should surpass in magnificence all that had preceded 
it. He surrounded himself with the greatest artists : 
Bramante, who designed it; Raphael, who painted its 
galleries; and Michael Angelo, who finished it; and 
the cathedral of St. Peter's at Rome was at length 
achieved. But it was at an enormous cost ; for not 
only did it impoverish the Papal exchequer, but it 
split the Papal Church itself in pieces. 

The sale of Indulgences was invented for the purpose 
of replenishing the Roman exchequer, and agents were 
sent all over Europe to raise funds by this means. 
Germany was then the great stronghold of the Papal 
treasury. In Spain and France, it was the will of 
the King, rather than of the Pope, that ruled ; but in 
Germany the civil authority was in a great measure 
left to the ecclesiastical power. In Germany, therefore, 
the first great efforts were made to fill the coffers of 
Rome by the sale of indulgences ; and among the most 
zealous of all the agents who were so employed, was 
the Dominican monk, John Tetzel, who acted in 


subordination to Albert of Brandenburg, Elector of 
Mentz, the principal commissary of the Pope. 

The traffic of indulgences was carried on openly. 
Indulgences were sold by auction, at beat of drum, 
in public places. They were sold by wholesale and 
retail. The traffic had its directors and sub-directors, 
its officers, its tariffs, its travelling factors ; and 
those agents were employed who best knew the art 
of deceiving and cozening the people. 

Never had such privileges to commit sin been 
offered to the world, as those which were now openly 
hawked about by Tetzel. A regular tariff was fixed, 1 
so much for little sins, so much for great sins, so 
much for eating meat on Fridays, so much for lying, 
so much for theft, so much for adultery, so much for 
child-murder, so much for assassination. Bigamy cost 
only six ducats. This abominable traffic could not fail 
to rouse the indignation of good men, who saw, with 
affliction, people of all ranks running after Tetzel to 
buy indulgence for committing sin ; and at length the 
public conscience spoke through the voices of bold and 
earnest men, and, most loudly of all, through that of 
Martin Luther. 

In the meantime a great invention had been made, 
which gave wings to Luther's words, and accelerated 
the coming Reformation in a remarkable degree. 

Probably no invention has exercised a greater in- 
fluence upon modern civilisation than that of Printing. 
While it has been the mother and preserver of many 
other inventions which have changed the face of 
society, it has also afforded facilities for the intercourse 
of mind with mind of living men with each other, as 

1 The tariff of indulgences is excessively strict, from the year 

set forth at length in the cele- 1471 downwards, under the eyes 

brated book entitled Taxes of the of the successive Popes, and 

Roman Chancery. It is now re- doubtless with their sanction ; 

pudiated by Roman Catholics ; for no book could then be printed 

but repeated editions of it (ten or published that had not been 

in number) were published at previously licensed. 
Home, when the censorship was 


well as with the thinkers of past generations, which 
have evoked an extraordinary degree of mental activity, 
and exercised a powerful influence on the development 
of modern history. 

Although letters were diligently cultivated long 
before the invention of printing, and many valuable 
books existed in manuscript, and seminaries of learning 
flourished in all civilised countries, knowledge was for 
the most part confined to a comparatively small num- 
ber of persons. The manuscripts which contained the 
treasured thoughts of the ancient poets, scholars, and 
men of science, were so scarce and dear that they were 
frequently sold for double or treble their weight in 
gold. In some cases they were considered so precious, 
that they were conveyed by deed, like landed estates. 
In the thirteenth century, a manuscript copy of the 
Romance of the Rose was sold at Paris for over 33 
sterling. A copy of the Bible cost from 40 to 60 for 
the writing only; for it took an expert copyist about ten 
months' labour to make one. 1 Such being the case, it 
will be obvious that books were then for the most part 
the luxury of the rich, and comparatively inaccessible 
to the great body of the people. 

1 It is difficult to form an ac- 13s. 4d.), and of resident parish- 
curate idea of the relative value priests eight marks ; so that for 
of money to commodities in the about 5 10s. a-year, a single man 
thirteenth century, compared was expected to live cleanly and 
with present prices ; but it may decently. These prices multi- 
be mentioned that in 1445 (ac- plied by about twelve, would give 
cording to Fleetwood's Chronican something approaching their 
Pretwgum, 1707) the price of equivalent in modern money, 
wheat was 4s. 6d. the quarter, It is true, manuscripts were in 
and oats 2s.; bullocks and heifers many cases sold at fancy prices, 
sold for 5s., and sheep 2s. 5^d. as books are now. But copying 
each. In 1460 a gallon of ale had become a regular branch of 
sold for a penny, which was also business. At Milan, in the four- 
the ordinary day's wage of la- teenth century, about fifty per- 
bourers and servants, in addition sons earned their living by it. 
to meat and drink. As late as The ordinary charge for making 
1558, a good sheep sold for 2s. lOd. a copy of the Bible was eighty 
In 1414 the ordinary salary of Bologna livres, or equal to fifty- 
chaplains was five or six marks three gold florins, 
a-year (the mark being equal to 


Even the most advanced minds could exercise but 
little influence on their age. They were able to ad- 
dress themselves to only a very limited number of their 
fellow-men, and in most cases their influence died with 
them. The results of study, investigation, and ex- 
perience remaining unrecorded, knowledge was for the 
most part transmitted orally, and often inaccurately. 
Thus many arts and inventions discovered by in- 
dividuals became lost to the race, and a point of social 
stagnation was arrived at, beyond which further pro- 
gress seemed improbable. 

This state of things was entirely changed by the 
invention of printing. It gave a new birth to letters ; 
it enabled books to be perpetually renovated and 
multiplied at a comparatively moderate cost, and to 
diffuse the light which they contained over a much 
larger number of minds ; it gave a greatly increased 
power to individuals and to society, by facilitating the- 
intercourse of educated men of all countries with each 
other. Active thinkers were no longer restricted by 
the limits of their town or parish, or even of their 
nation or epoch ; and the knowledge that their printed 
words would have an effect where their spoken words 
did not reach, could not fail to stimulate the highest 
order of minds into action. The permanency of in- 
vention and discovery was thus secured ; the most 
advanced point of one generation became the starting- 
point of the next ; and the results of the labours of 
one age were carried forward into all the ages that 
succeeded. 1 

The invention of printing, like most others, struggled 
slowly and obscurely into life. The wooden blocks or 

1 See C. BABBAGE'S Ninth are letters to be magnified, which, 

Bridgenater Treatise, pp. 52-6. as ships, pass through the vast 

Lord Bacon has observed, " If seas of time, and make ages so 

the invention of ships was distant to participate of the wis- 

thought so noble, which carrieth dom, illuminations, and inven- 

ri^hes and commodities from tions, the one of the other 1 " 
place to place, how much more 


tablets of Laurence Coster were superseded by separate 
types of the same material. Gutenberg of Mentz next 
employed large types cut in metal, from which the 
impressions were taken. And, finally, Gutenberg's 
associate Schceffer cut the characters in a matrix, after 
which the types were cast, and thus completed the art 
as it now remains. 

It is a remarkable circumstance, that the first book 
which Gutenberg undertook to print with his cut- 
metal types, was a folio edition of the Bible in the 
Latin Vulgate, consisting of 641 leaves. When the 
immense labour involved in carrying out such a work 
is considered the cutting by hand, with imperfect 
tools, of each separate type required for the setting of 
a folio page, and the difficulties to be overcome with 
respect to vellum, paper, ink, and presswork one 
cannot but feel astonished at the boldness of the 
undertaking ; nor can it be matter of surprise that 
the execution of the work occupied Gutenberg and his 
associates a period of from seven to eight years. 1 

1 The first Bible printed by it with astonishing success. It 

Gutenberg is known as the was Minerva leaping on earth in 

Mazarin Bible, from a copy of her divine strength and radiant 

it having been found in Cardinal armour, ready at the moment of 

Mazarin's library at Paris about her nativity to subdue and destroy 

the middle of last century. John- her enemies. The Mazarin Bible 

son, in his Typographic, (p. 17), is printed, some copies on vellum, 

says : " It was printed with large some on paper of choice quality, 

cut-metal types, and published in with strong, black, and tolerably 

1450." Others give the date of handsome characters, but with 

publication as five years later, in some want of uniformity, which 

1455. Mr. Hallam inclines to has led, perhaps unreasonably, to 

think that it was printed with doubt whether they were cast in 

cast-metal types ; but there is a matrix. We may see in imagina- 

reason to believe that the casting tion this venerable and splendid 

of the types by a matrix was in- volume leading up the crowded 

vented at a subsequent period. myriads of its followers, and 

Mr. Hallam says : " It is a very imploring, as it were, a blessing 

striking circumstance that the on the new art, by dedicating 

high-minded inventors of this its first-fruits to the service of 

great art tried at the very outset Heaven." Literary History, 

so bold a flight as the printing edition 1864, pp. 156-7. 
an entire Bible, and executed 


We do not, however, suppose that Gutenberg and 
his associates were induced to execute this first printed 
Bible through any more lofty motive than that of 
earning a considerable sum of money by the enterprise. 
They were, doubtless, tempted to undertake it by the 
immense prices for which manuscript copies of the 
Bible were then sold ; and they merely sought to pro- 
duce, by one set of operations, a number of duplicates 
in imitation of the written character, which they hoped 
to be able to sell at the manuscript prices. But, as 
neither Gutenberg nor Schceffer were rich men, and as 
the work involved great labour and expense while 
in progress, they found it necessary to invite some 
capitalist to join them ; and hence their communication 
of the secret to John Faust, the wealthy goldsmith of 
Mentz, who agreed to join them in their venture, and 
supply them with the necessary means for carrying 
out the undertaking. 

The first edition of the printed Bible having been 
disposed of, without the secret having transpired, Faust 
and Schoaffer brought out a second edition in 1462, 
which they again offered for sale at the manuscript 
prices. Faust carried a number of copies to Paris to 
dispose of, and sold several of them for 500 or 600 
crowns, the price then paid for manuscript Bibles. 
But great was the astonishment of the Parisian copyists 
when Faust, anxious to dispose of the remainder, 
lowered his price to sixty and then to thirty crowns ! 
The copies sold having been compared with each other, 
were found to be exactly uniform ! It was immediately 
inferred that these Bibles must be produced by magic, 
as such an extraordinary uniformity was considered 
entirely beyond the reach of human contrivance. In- 
formation was forthwith given to the police against 
Faust as a magician. His lodgings were searched, 
when a number of Bibles were found there complete. 
The red ink, with which they were embellished, was 
supposed to be his blood. It was seriously believed 
that he was in league with the devil ; and he was 


carried off to prison, from which he was only delivered 
upon making a full revelation of the secret. 1 

Several other books, of less importance, were printed 
by Gutenberg and Schoeffer at Mentz ; two editions of 
the Psalter, a Catholicon, a Codex Psalmorum, and an 
edition of Cicero's Offices ; but they were printed in 
such small numbers, and were sold at such high prices, 
that, like the manuscripts which they superseded, they 
were only purchasable by kings, nobles, collegiate 
bodies, and rich ecclesiastical establishments. It was 
only after the lapse of many years, when the manufac- 
ture of paper had become improved, and Schoeffer had 
invented his method of cutting the characters in a 
matrix, and casting the type in quantity, that books 
could be printed in such forms as to be accessible to 
the great body of the people. 

In the meanwhile, the printing establishments of 
Gutenberg and Schceffer were broken up by the sack 
and plunder of Mentz by the Archbishop Adolphus in 
1462. Their workmen having thus become dispersed, 
and being no longer bound to secrecy, they shortly after 
carried with them the invention of the new art into 
nearly every country in Europe. 

Wherever the printers set up their trade, they usually 
began by issuing an edition of the Latin Bible. There 
was no author class in those days to supply " copy " 
enough to keep their presses going. Accordingly, they 
fell back upon the ancient authors issuing editions of 
Livy, Horace, Sallust, Cicero, and portions of Aristotle, 
with occasional devotional manuals ; but their favourite 
book, most probably because it was the one most in 
demand, was the Bible. Only twenty-four books were 
published in Germany during the ten years that fol- 
lowed the sack of Mentz ; but of these five were Latin 
and two were German Bibles. Translators were at the 
same time busily engaged upon it in different countries, 

1 Such is supposed to be the believed that Faust died of the 
origin of the tradition of "The plague at Paris iii 14G6. 
Devil and Dr. Faustus." It is 


and year by year the Bible became more accessible. 
Thus an Italian version appeared in 1471, a Bohemian 
in 1475, a Dutch in 1477, a French in 1477, and a 
Spanish (Valencian) in 1478. 1 

The Bible, however, continued a comparatively scarce 
and dear book ; being little known to the clergy 
generally, and still less to the people. By many of the 
former it was regarded with suspicion, and even with 
hostility. At length, the number of editions of the 
Bible which were published in Germany, as if heralding 
the approach of the coming Reformation, seriously 
alai'med the Church ; and in 1486 the Archbishop of 
Mentz placed the printers of that city, which had been 
the cradle of the printing-press, under strict censorship. 
Twenty-five years later, Pope Alexander VI. issued a 
bull prohibiting the printers of Cologne, Mentz, Treves, 
and Magdeburg, from publishing any books without 
the express licence of their archbishops. Although 
these measures were directed against the printing of 
religious works generally, they were more particularly 
directed against the publication of the Scriptures in 
the vulgar tongue. 2 

The printers, nevertheless, continued to print the 

1 Lord Spencer's famous library Testament was first printed at 
contains twenty editions of the Antwerp. The government tried 
Bible in Latin, printed between to suppress the book, and many 
the appearance of the Mazarin copies were seized and burnt. 
Bible in 1450-5, and the year 1480 John Tyndale, a merchant of 
inclusive. It also contains nine London, brother of the translator, 
editions of the German Bible, having been convicted of reading 
printed before the year 1495. the New Testament,was sentenced 
Kee EDWARDS on Libraries, p. by the venerable Sir Thomas 
430. More " that he should be set 

2 HALLAM Literary History, upon a horse with his face to 
ed. 1864. i. 254. No translation the tail, and have a paper pinned 
of the Bible was permitted to upon his head, and many sheets 
appear in England during the of New Testaments sewn to his 
fifteenth century ; and the read- cloak, to be afterwards thrown 
ing of Wycliffe's translation was into a great fire kindled in Cheap- 
prohibited under penalty of ex- side, and then pay to the king a 
communication and death. Tyn- fine which should ruin him." 
dale's translation of the New 


Bible, regardless of these prohibitions the Old Testa- 
ment in Hebrew, the New in Greek, and both in Latin, 
German, French, and other modern languages. Finding 
that the reading of the Bible was extending, the priests 
began to inveigh against the practice from the pulpit. 
" They have now found out," said a French monk, " a 
new language called Greek ; we must carefully guard 
ourselves against it. That language will be the mother 
of all sorts of heresies. I see in the hands of a great 
number of persons a book written in this language, 
called ' The New Testament ' ; it is a book full of 
brambles, with vipers in them. As to the Hebrew, 
whoever learns that becomes a Jew at once." 1 

The fears of the priests increased as they saw their 
flocks becoming more intent upon reading the Scrip- 
tures, and hearing them read, than attending mass ; and 
they were especially concerned at the growing disposi- 
tion of the people to call in question the infallibility of 
the Church and the sacred character of the priesthood. 
It was every day becoming clearer to them that if the 
people were permitted to resort to books, and pray to 
God .direct in their vulgar tongue, instead of praying 
through the priests in Latin, the authority of the mass 
would fall, and the Church itself would be endangered. 2 

1 SlSMOKDl Histoire dcs and to examine how far religion 
Franqais, xvi. 364. is departed from its primitive 

2 Lord Herbert, in his Life of institution. And that, which 
Henry VII. (p. 147), says that Car- particularly was most to be 
dinal Wolsey stated the effects of lamented, they hath exhorted 
printing to the pope in the follow- lay and ordinary men to read 
ing terms : " That his holiness the Scriptures, and to pray in 
could not be ignorant what di- their vulgar tongue ; and if this 
verse effects the new invention was suffered, besides all other 
of printing had produced ; for it dangers, the common people at 
had brought in and restored books last might come to believe that 
and learning ; so together it hath there was not so much use of the 
been the occasion of those sects clergy. For if men were per- 
and schisms which daily appear suaded once they could make 
in the world, but especially in their own way to God, and that 
Germany ; where men begin now prayers in their native and or- 
to call in question the present dinary language might pierce 
faith and tenets of the Church, heaven as well as Latin, how 


A most forcible expression was given to this view by 
the Vicar of Croydon in a sermon preached by him 
at Paul's Cross, in which he boldly declared that 
" we must root out printing, or printing will root out 

But printing could not be rooted out, any more than 
the hand of Time could be put back. This invention, 
unlike every other, contained within itself a self-pre- 
serving power which ensured its perpetuation. Its 
method had become known, and was recorded by itself. 
Printed books were now part of the inheritance of the 
human race; and though Bibles might lie burnt, as 
vast numbers of them were, so that they might be kept 
out of the hands of the people, so long as a single copy 
remained, it was not lost, but was capable of immediate 
restoration and of infinite multiplication. 

The intense interest which the publication of the Bible 
excited, and the emotion which it raised in the minds 
of those who read it, are matters of history. At this 
day, when Bibles are common in almost every house- 
hold, it is perhaps difficult to appreciate the deep feel- 
ings of awe and reverence with which men for the first 
time perused the sacred volume. We have become so 
familiar with it, that we are apt to look upon it merely 
as one amongst many books, as part of the current 
literature of the day, or as a record of ancient history, 
to be checked off" by the arithmetician or analysed 
by the critic. 

It was far different in those early times, when the 
Bible was rare and precious. Printing had brought 
forth the Book, which had lain so long silent in manu- 
script beneath the dust of old libraries, and laid it 
before the people, to be read by them in their own 
tongue. It was known to be the charter and title-deed 

much would the authority of the troducing all persons to dispute, 

mass fall ! For this purpose, to suspend the laity between fear 

sir.ce printing could not be put and controversy. This at most 

down, it was best to set up learn- would make them attentive tb 

ir against learning ; and by in- their superiors and teachers." 


of Christianity the revelation of God's will to man ; 
and now, to read it, or hear it read, was like meeting 
God face to face, and listening to His voice speaking 
directly to them. 

At first it could only be read to the people ; and in 
the English cathedrals, where single copies were placed, 
chained to a niche, eager groups gathered round to 
drink in its living truths. But as the art of printing 
improved, and copies of the Bible became multiplied 
in portable forms, it could then be taken home into the 
study or the chamber, and read and studied in secret. 
It was found to be an ever-fresh gushing spring of 
thought, welling up, as it were, from the Infinite. No 
wonder that men pondered over it with reverence, and 
read it with thanksgiving ! No wonder that it moved 
their hearts, influenced their thoughts, gave a colour 
to their familiar speech, and imparted a bias to their 
whole life I 1 

To the thoughtful, the perusal of the Bible gave 
new views of life and death. Its effect was to make 
those who pondered its lessons more solemn ; it made 
the serious more earnest, and impressed them with a 
deeper sense of responsibility and duty. To the poor, 
the suffering, and the struggling, it was the aurora of 
a new world. With this Book in their hands, what to 
them were the afflictions of time, which were but for a 
moment, working out for them " a far more exceeding 
and eternal weight of glory" ? 

It was the accidental sight of a copy of one of 
Gutenberg's Bibles in the library of the convent of 
Erfurt, where Luther was in training for a monk, that 

1 The perusal and study of the to all who studied it closely. This 

Bible in the fifteenth and six- tendency is noticeable in the early 

teenth centuries exercised an im- English writers in Latimer, 

portant influence on literature in Bradford. Jewell, More, Brown, 

all countries. The great writers Bacon, Milton, and others. Cole- 

of the period unconsciously ridge has said, " Intense study of 

adopted Bible phraseology to a the Bible will keep any writer 

large extent the thoughts of from being vulgar in point ol 

Scripture clothing themselves in style." 
language which became habitual 


fixed his destiny for life. 1 He opened it, and read with 
inexpressible delight the history of Hannah and her 
son Samuel. " God ! " he murmured, ' 4 could I but 
have one of these books, I would ask no other treasure !" 
A great revolution forthwith took place in his soul. 
He read, and studied, and meditated, until he fell 
seriously ill. Dr. Staupitz, a man of rank in the 
Church, was then inspecting the convent at Erfurt, in 
which Luther had been for two years. He felt power- 
fully attracted towards the young monk, and had much 
confidential intercourse with him. Before leaving, 
Staupitz presented Luther with a copy of the Bible 
a Bible all to himself, which he could take with him 
to his cell and study there. " For several years," said 
Luther afterwards, " I read the whole Bible twice in 
every twelvemonth. It is a great and powerful tree, 
each word of which is a mighty branch ; each of these 
branches have I shaken, so desirous was I to learn 
what fruit they every one of them bore, and what they 
could give me." 2 

This Bible of Luther's was, however, in the Latin 
Vulgate, a language known only to the learned. Several 
translations had been printed in Germany by the end 
of the fifteenth century ; but they were unsatisfactory 
versions, unsuited for popular reading, and were com- 
paratively little known. One of Luther's first thoughts, 
therefore, was to translate the Bible into the popular 
speech, so that the people at large might have free 
access to the unparalleled Book. Accordingly, in 1521, 
he began the translation of the New Testament during 

1 "I was twenty years old," again: "Dr. Usinger. an Augustan 

said Luther, " before I had ever monk, who was my preceptor at 

seen the Bible. I had no notion the convent of Erfurt, used to say 

that there existed any other Gos- to me, ' Ah, brother Martin ! why 

pels or Epistles than those in the trouble yourself with the Bible ? 

service. At last I came across a Bather read the ancient doctors 

Bible in the library at Erfurt, who have collected for you all 

and used often to read it to Dr. its marrow and honey. The Bible 

Staupitz with still increasing won- itself is the cause of all our 

der. " TISCHREDEN Table Talk, troubles.' " TISCHREDEN. p. 7. 
(Frankfort, 1568), p. 255. And 2 TlSCHREDEN, p. 311. 


his imprisonment in what he called his Patmos the 
castle of Wartburg. It was completed and published 
in the following year; and two years later, his Old 
Testament appeared. 

None valued more than Luther did, the invention 
of printing. " Printing," said he, " is the latest and 
greatest gift by which God enables us to advance the 
things of the Gospel." Printing was, indeed, one of the 
prime agents of the Reformation. The ideas had long 
been bom, but printing gave them wings. Had the 
writings of Luther and his fellow-labourers been con- 
fined only to such copies as could have been made by 
hand, they would have remained few in number, been 
extremely limited in their effects, and could easily have 
been suppressed and destroyed by authority. But the 
printing-press enabled them to circulate by thousands 
all over Germany. 1 Luther was the especial favourite 
of the printers and booksellers. The former took pride 
in bringing out his books with minute care, and the 
latter in circulating them. A large body of ex-monks 
lived by travelling about and selling them all over 
Germany. His books were also carried abroad, into 
Switzerland, Bohemia, France, and England. 2 

The printing of the Bible was also carried on with 
great activity in the Low Countries. Besides versions 
in French and Flemish for the use of the people in the 
Walloon provinces, where the new views extensively 

1 At Nuremberg, at Strasburg, ductions, he sang, in under-tones, 

even at Mentz, there was a con- ''The Nightingale of Wittenberg," 

stant struggle for Luther'a last and the song was taken up and 

pamphlets. The sheet, yet wet, resounded all over the land. 

was brought from the press under MICHELET Life of Luther, pp. 

some one's cloak, and passed from 70, 71 . 

shop to shop. The pedantic 2 Works printed in Germany or 
bookmen of the German trades' in the Flemish provinces, where 
unions, the poetical tinmen, the at first the administration con- 
literary shoemakers, devoured the nived at the new religion, were 
good news. Worthy Hans Sachs imported into England, and read 
raised himself above his wonted with that eagerness and delight 
commonplace ; he left his shoe which always compensate the 
half-made, and with his most risk of forbidden studies. RAL- 
high-flown verses, his best pro- LAM Hist, of England, i. p. 82. 


prevailed, various versions in foreign tongues were 
printed for exportation abroad. Thus Tyndale, unable 
to get his New Testament printed in England, where 
its perusal was forbidden, had tbe first edition printed 
at Antwerp in 1526, 1 as well as IT/TO subsequent editions 
at the same place. Indeed, Antwerp seems at that time 
to have been the head-quarters of Bible-printing. No 
fewer than thirteen editions of the Bible and twenty- 
four editions of the New Testament, in the Flemish or 
Dutch language, were printed there within the first 
thirty-six years of the sixteenth century, besides 
various other editions in English, French, Danish, and 
Spanish. 2 

An eager demand for the Scriptures had by this time 
sprung up in France. Several translations of portions 
of the Bible appeared there towards the end of the 
fifteenth century ; but these were all superseded by a 
version of the entire Scriptures, printed at Antwerp 
in successive portions, between the years 1512 and 
1530. This translation was the work of Jacques le 

1 A complete edition of the tion directing a large Bible to be 
Enprlish Bible, translated partly set up in every parish-church, 
by Tyndale and partly by Cover- while at the same time Bibles 
dale, was printed at Hamburg in were authorised to be publicly 
1535; and a second edition, edited sold. The Spencer collection 
by John Rogers, under the name contains copies of fifteen English 
of " Thomas Matthew," was editions of the Bible printed be- 
printed at Marlborow in Hesse, tween 1536 and 1581 ; showing 
in 1537. Tyndale suffered mar- that the printing-press was by 
tyrdom at Vilvorde, near Brus- that time actively at work in 
sels. in 1536, yet he died in the England. Wycliffe's translation, 
midst of victory ; for before his though made in 1380, was not 
death no fewer than fourteen printed until 1731. 
editions of the New Testament, * " There can be no sort of 
several of them of two thousand comparison," says Mr. Hallam, 
copies each, had been printed ; " between the number of these 
and at the very time when he died, editions, and consequently the 
the first edition of the Scriptures eagerness of the people of the 
printed in England was passing Low Countries for biblical know- 
through the press. Cranmer's ledge, considering the limited ex- 
Bible, so called because revised tent of their language, and any- 
by Cranmer, was published in thing that could be found in the 
1539-40. In the year 1542, Protestant states of the empire." 
Henry VIII. issued a proclania- Literary JUatory, i. 387. 


Fevre or Faber, of Etaples, and it formed the basis of 
all subsequent editions of the French Bible. 

The effects were the same wherever the Book ap- 
peared, and was freely read by the people. It was 
followed by an immediate reaction against the super- 
stition, indifferentism, and impiety, which generally 
prevailed. There was a sudden awakening to a new 
religious life, and an anxious desire for a purer faith, 
less overlaid by the traditions, inventions, and corrup- 
tions, which impaired the efficacy, and obscured the 
simple beauty, of Christianity. The invention of 
printing had also its political effects. For men to be 
able to read books, and especially the Scriptures, in 
the common tongue, was itself a revolution. It roused 
the hearts of the people in all lands, producing com- 
motion, excitement, and agitation. Society became 
electric, and was stirred to its depths. The sentiment 
of Right was created, and the long down-trodden 
peasants along the Rhine, in Alsace, and Suabia 
raised their cries on all sides, demanding freedom from 
serfdom, and to be recognised as Men. Indeed, this 
electric fervour and vehement excitement throughout 
society was one of the greatest difficulties that Luther 
had to contend with, in guiding the Reformation in 
Germany to a successful issue. 

The ecclesiastical abuses, which had first evoked the 
indignation of Luther, were not confined to Germany, 
but prevailed all over Europe. There were Tetzels 
also in France, where indulgences were things of com- 
mon traffic. Money had to be raised by the Church ; 
for the building of St. Peter's at Rome must be paid for. 
Each sin had its price, each vice its tax. There was a 
regular tariff for peccadilloes of every degree, up to the 
greatest crimes. The Bible, it need scarcely be said, 
was at open war with this monstrous state of things ; 
and the more extensively it was read and its precepts 
became known, the more strongly were these practices 
condemned. Hence the alarm occasioned at Rome by 
the rapid extension of the art of printing and the 


increasing circulation of the Bible. Hence also the 
prohibition of printing vv'hich shortly followed, and the 
burning of the printers who printed the Scriptures, as 
well as of the persons who were found guilty of read- 
ing them. 

The first signs of the Reformation in France showed 
themselves in the town of Meaux, about fifty miles 
north-east of Paris not far distant from the then 
Flemish frontier. It was a place full of working- 
people mechanics, wool-carders, fullers, cloth-makers, 
and artizans. Their proximity to Flanders, and the 
similarity of their trade to that of the larger Flemish 
towns, occasioned a degree of intercourse between 
them, which doubtless contributed to the propagation 
of the new views at Meaux, where the hearts of the 
poor artizans were greatly moved by the tidings of 
the Gospel which reached them from the north. 

At the same time men of learning in the Church had 
long been meditating over the abuses which prevailed 
in it, and devising the best means of remedying them. 
Among the most earnest of these was Jacques Lefevre, 
a native of Etaples in Picardy. He was a man of great 
and acknowledged learning, one of the most dis- 
tinguished professors in the university of Paris. The 
study of the Bible produced the same effect upon his 
mind as it had done on that of Luther ; but he was 
a man of far different temperament, gentle, retiring, 
and timid, though not less devoted to the cause of 
truth. He was, however, an old man of seventy. His 
life was fast fleeting ; but yet there was a world lying 
all in wickedness about him. He translated the four 
Gospels into French in 1523; had them printed at 
Antwerp ; and put them into circulation. He found 
a faithful follower in Guillaume Farel a young, 
energetic, and active man, who abounded in those 
qualities in which the aged Lefevre was so deficient. 
Another coadjutor shortly joined them Guillaume 
Bric.ormet, Count of Montbrun and Bishop of Meaux, 
who also became a convert to the new doctrines. 


The bishop, on taking charge of his diocese, had 
been shocked by the disorders which prevailed there, 
by the licentiousness of the clergy, and their general 
disregard for religious life and duty. As many of them 
were non-resident, he invited Lefevre, Farel, and others, 
to occupy their pulpits and preach to the people the 
bishop preaching in his turn ; and the people flocked 
to hear them. The bishop also distributed the four 
Gospels gratuitously among the poor, and very soon a 
copy was to be found in almost every workshop in 
Meaux. A reformation of manners shortly followed. 
Blasphemy, drunkenness, and disorder disappeared; 
and the movement spread far and near. 

It must not be supposed, however, that the sup- 
porters of the old Church were indifferent to these 
proceedings. At first they had been stunned by the 
sudden spread of the new views and the rapid increase 
of the " Gospellers," as they were called throughout the 
northern provinces; but they speedily rallied from 
their stupor. They knew that power was on their 
side, the power of kings and parliaments, and their 
agents; and they loudly called them to their help, 
to prevent the spread of heresy. At the same time, 
Rome, roused by her danger, availed herself of all 
methods for winning back her wandering children, by 
force if not by suasion. The Inquisition was armed 
with new powers ; and wherever heresy appeared, it 
was crushed, unsparingly, unpityingly. No matter 
what the rank or learning of the suspected heretic 
might be, he must satisfy the tribunal before which he 
was brought, or die at the stake. 

The priests and monks of Meaux, though mostly 
absentees, finding their revenues diminishing, appealed 
for help to the Sorbonne, the Faculty of Theology at 
Paris ; and the Sorbonne called upon parliament at once 
to interpose with a strong hand. The result was, that 
the Bishop of Meaux was heavily fined ; and he shrank 
thenceforward out of sight, and ceased to give any 
further cause for offence. But his disciples were less 


pliant, and continued boldly to preach the Gospel. 
Jean Leclerc was burnt alive at Metz, and Jacques 
Pavent and Louis de Berguin on the Place de Greve 
at Paris. Farel escaped into Switzerland, and there 
occupied himself in printing copies of Lefevre's New 
Testament, thousands of which he caused to be dis- 
seminated throughout France by the hands of pedlars. 

The Sorbonne then proceeded to make war against 
books, and the printers of books. Bibles and New 
Testaments were seized and burnt. But more Bibles 
and Testaments seemed to rise, as if by magic, from 
their ashes. The printers who were convicted of 
printing Bibles were next seized and burnt. The 
Bourgeois de Paris 1 gives a detailed account of the 
human sacrifices offered up to ignorance and intoler- 
ance in that city during the six months ending June 
1534, from which it appears that twenty men and one 
woman were burnt alive. One was a printer of the 
Rue St. Jacques, found guilty of having " printed the 
books of Luther." Another, a bookseller, was burnt 
for " having sold Luther." In the beginning of the 
following year, the Sorbonne obtained from the King 
an ordinance, which was promulgated on the 26th of 
February 1535, for the suppression of printing ! 

It was too late ! The art was now full born, and 
could no more be suppressed than light, or air, or life. 
Books had become a public necessity ; they supplied 
a great public want ; and eve'ry year saw them multi- 
plying more abundantly. 2 

1 MICHELET says the Sour- volumes had been printed, the 

geois de Paris (Paris, 1854) was greater part in folio ; and that 

not the publication of a Protes- between 1500 and 1536 eighteen 

tant, which might be called in more millions of volumes had 

question, but of a " very zealous been printed. After that it is 

Catholic." Histoire de France impossible to number them. In 

au Scizi&me Sibcle, viii.,p. 411. 1533 there had already been 

eighteen editions of the German 

* It has been calculated (by Bible printed at Wittemberg, 

Daunon, Petit, Rudel, Taillandier, thirteen at Augsburg, thirteen at 

and others) that by the end of the Strasburg, twelve at Basle, and 

fifteenth century four millions of BO on. Schceffer, in his Influence 


The same scenes were enacted all over France, 
wherever the Bible had penetrated and found followers. 
In 1545, the massacre of the Vaudois of Provence was 
perpetrated, accompanied by horrors which it is im- 
possible to describe. This terrible persecution, how- 
ever, did not produce its intended effect ; but, on the 
other hand, it was followed by a strong reaction in the 
public mind against the fury of the persecutors. The 
king, Francis I., complained that his orders had been 
exceeded ; but he was sick and almost dying at the 
time, and had not the strength to prosecute the 

There was, however, a lull for a time in the violence 
of the persecutions, during which the new views made 
rapid progress ; and men of rank, of learning, and ot 
arms, ranged themselves on the side of "The Religion." 
Then arose the Huguenots or French Protestants, 1 who 
shortly became so numerous as to constitute a con- 
siderable power in the state, and to exercise, during 
the next hundred years, a most important influence on 
the political history of France. 

The origin of the term Huguenot is extremely 
obscure. It was at first applied to them as a nick- 
name ; and, like the Gueux of Flanders, they assumed 
and bore it with pride. Some suppose the term to 
be derived from Huguon, a word used in Touraine to 
signify persons who walk at nights in the streets, the 
early Protestants, like the early Christians, having 
chosen that time for their religious assemblies. Others 
are of opinion that it was derived from a French and 
faulty pronunciation of the German word Eidgenossen, 

of Luther on Education, says tha^ being based on the reading of the 

Luther's Catechism soon ran to Gospel). Religionaries, or Those 

100,000 copies. Printing was at of the Religion. The name Pro- 

the same time making rapid testant was not applied to them 

strides in France, England, and until the end of the seventeenth 

he Low Countries. century that term originally 

1 The followers of the new characterising the disciples of 

views called themselves at first the Lutheran Befonnation in 

Gospellers (from their religion Germany. 


or confederates the name given to those citizens of 
Geneva who entered into an alliance with the Swiss 
cantons to resist the attempts of Charles III., Duke 
of Savoy, against their liberties. The confederates 
were called Eiynots ; and hence, probably, the deriva- 
tion of the word Huguenots. A third surmise is, that 
the word was derived from one Hugues, the name of a 
Genevese Calvinist. 1 

Further attempts continued to be made by Home to 
check the progress of printing. In 1599, Pope Paul IV. 
issued the first Index Expurgatorius, containing a list 
of the books expressly prohibited by the Church. It 
included all Bibles printed in modern languages of 
which forty-eight editions were enumerated ; while 
sixty-one printers were put under a general ban, and 
all works of every description issuing from their presses 
were forbidden. Notwithstanding, however, these and 
similar measures such as the wholesale burning of 
Bibles wherever found the circulation of the Scriptures 
rapidly increased, and the principles of the Reformation 
prevailed more and more throughout the northern 

N, in his Etyrrwlogteche it was originally used as a nick- 

Untersuchungen avfdem Gebiete name, and derived from the word 

der Romanischen Sprachen, gives Hughues ' the name of some 

no fewer than fifteen supposed heretic or conspirator " and the 

derivations of the word Huguenot, French diminutive ot as Jacot, 

but inclines to the opinion that Margot, Jeannot, etc. 



AT the time when the remarkable movement we have 
rapidly sketched, was sweeping round the frontiers of 
France, from Switzerland to Brabant and men were 
everywhere listening with eagerness to the promulga- 
tion of the new ideas, there was wandering along the 
Rhine a poor artizan, then obscure, but afterwards 
famous, who was seeking to earn a living by the 
practice of his trade. He could glaze windows, mend 
furniture, paint a little on glass, draw portraits rudely, 
gild and colour images of the Virgin, or do any sort of 
work requiring handiness and dexterity. On an emer- 
gency he would even undertake to measure land, and 
was ready to turn his hand to anything that might 
enable him to earn a living, and at the same time add 
to his knowledge and experience. This wandering 
workman was no other than Bernard Palissy, after- 
wards the natural philosopher, the chemist, the geologist, 
and the artist, but more generally known as the great 

Fortunately for our present purpose, Palissy was 
also an author ; and though the works he left behind 
him are written in a quaint and simple style, it is pos- 
sible to obtain from certain passages in them a more 
vivid idea of the times in which he lived, and of the 
trials and sufferings of the Gospellers, of whom he was 
one of the most illustrious, than from any other con- 
temporary record. The life of Palissy, too, is eminently 
illustrative of his epoch ; and provided we can but 
accurately portray the life of any single man in rela- 

CHAf. 11. PALlSSrS " WAXtoERSCtlAFT." 23 

tion to his epoch, then biography becomes history in its 
truest sense ; for history, after all, is but accumulated 

From the writings of Palissy, 1 then, we gather the 
following facts regarding this remarkable man's life 
and career. He was born about the year 1510, at La 
Chapelle Biron, a poor village in Perigord, where his 
father brought him up to his own trade of a glazier. 
The boy was by nature quick and ingenious, with a 
taste for drawing, designing, and decoration, which he 
turned to account in painting glass and decorating 
images for the village churches in his immediate 
neighbourhood. Desirous of improving himself, at 
the same time that he earned his living, he resolved 
to travel into other districts and countries, accord- 
ing to the custom of skilled workmen in those days. 
Accordingly, so soon as his term of apprenticeship had 
expired, he set out upon his " wanderschaft," at about 
the age of twenty-one. He first went into the country 
adjacent to the Pyrenees ; and his journeyings in those 
mountain districts awoke in his mind that love for 
geology and natural history which he afterwards pur- 
sued with so much zeal. After settling for a time at 
Tarbes, in the High Pyrenees, he proceeded northward, 
through Languedoc, Dauphiny, part of Switzerland, 
Alsace, the Duchies of Cleves and Luxemburg, and 
the provinces of the Lower Rhine, to Ardennes and 

It will be observed that Palissy's line of travel lay 
precisely through the provinces in which the people 
had been most deeply moved by the recent revolt of 
Luther from Rome. In 1517 the Reformer had pub- 
licly denounced the open sale of indulgences by " the 
profligate monk Tetzel," and affixed his celebrated 
ninety-five Theses to the outer pillars of the cathedral 

1 (Emrcs Completes de Bernard notes et une Notice Historiqne, 

Palissy, Edition conforme aux Par PAUL-AXTOINE CAP, Paris, 

textes originaux imprime.s da 1844. 
vivant de 1'auteur ; avec des 


of Wittemberg. 1 The propositions were at once printed 
in thousands, read, devoured, and spread abroad in 
every direction. In 1518, Luther appeared, under the 
safe-conduct of the Elector of Saxony, before the Pope's 
legate at Augsburg ; and in 1520 he publicly burnt the 
Pope's bull at Wittemberg, amidst the acclamations 
of the people. Ah 1 Germany was now in a blaze, 
and Luther's books and pamphlets were everywhere 
in demand. It was shortly after this, that Palissy 
travelled through the excited provinces. Wherever he 
went he heard of " Luther," " the Bible," and the New 
Revelation which the latter volume had brought to 
light. The men of his own class, with whom he most 
freely mixed in the course of his travels artists, 
mechanics, and artizans 3 were full of the new ideas 
which were stirring the heart of Germany. These 
were embraced with especial fervour by the young 
and the energetic. Minds formed and grown old in 
the established modes of thought, were unwilling to be 
disturbed, and satisfied to rest as they were. " Too old 
for change " was their maxim. But it was different 
with the young, the ardent, and the inquiring who 
looked before rather than behind, to the future rathei 
than the past. These were, for the most part, vehement 
in support of the doctrines of the Reformation. 

1 A copy of the Indulgence of the ninety-five Theses against 
issued by Pope Leo X. for the Indulgences and other Papal 
rebuilding of St. Peter's, is now practices, posted by Luther on 
to be seen in the King's Library, the doors of the church of Wit- 
British Museum. It is well temberg, on the 31st of October, 
worthy of general perusal. 1517. It is also close to Luther's 
The Indulgence was printed appeal to a General Council, dated 
in the year 1517, under the November, 1518. 
direction of Albert, Archbishop 

of Mentz and Magdeburg; and * An old Roman Catholic his- 
it was sold by John Tetzel and toriansays: "Above all, painters. 
Bernardinus Samson as sub- watchmakers, sculptors, gold- 
commissaries. The manner in smiths, booksellers, printers, and 
which Tetzel carried on the others, who from their callings 
traffic led, everybody knows, to have some nobility of mind, v/ere 
the remonstrance of Luther, and among the first easily surprised." 
the Reformation. It is placed REMOND Histolre de V Here- 
close to the original printed copy tie de cc Siecle, book vii., 931. 


Palissy was then of an age at which the mind is 
most open to receive new impressions. He was, more- 
over, by nature a shrewd observer and an independent 
thinker ; and he could not fail to be influenced by the 
agitation which stirred society to its depths. Among 
the many things which Palissy learned in NV the course 
of his travels, was the art of reading printed books ; 
and one of the books which he learned to read, and 
most prized, was the printed Bible, the greatest marvel 
of his time. It was necessarily read in secret, for the 
ban of the Church was still upon it; but the prohibi- 
tion was disregarded, and probably gave an additional 
zest to the study of the forbidden book. Men recognised 
each other's love for it as by a secret sympathy ; and 
they gathered together in workshops and dwellings to 
read and meditate over it, and exhort one another 
from its pages. Among these was Palissy, who, by the 
time he was thirty years old, had become a follower of 
the Gospel, and a believer in the religion of the Open 
Bible. 1 

Palissy returned to France in 1539, at a time when 
persecution was at the hottest; when printing had been 
suppressed by royal edict ; when the reading of the 
Bible was prohibited on pain of death; and when many 
were being burnt alive for reading and believing it. 
The persecution especially raged in Paris and the neigh- 
bourhood, which may account for Palissy's avoid- 
ance of the city. An artist so skilled as he was, would 
naturally have desired to settle there ; but he passed 
it, and went on to settle at Saintonge, in the south- 

1 We cannot learn from Palissy's esdits, statuts et ordonnances : 

writings what his creed was. He et en regardant quel estoit son 

never once mentions the names vouloir, j'ay trouv6 que, par tes- 

of either Luther or Calvin ; but tament dernier, il a oommande a 

he often refers to the " teachings ses heritiers qu'ils eussent a man- 

of the Bible," and " the statutes ger le pain au labeur de leurs 

and ordinances of God as revealed corps, et qu'ils eussent a multi- 

in His Word." Here, for exam pie, plier les talens qu'ils leur avoit 

is a characteristic passage: laissez par son testament." 

" Je n'ay trouve rien meilleur JRecepte Veritable, 1563. 
que sume le conseil de Dieu, ses 


western corner of France. There he married, and began 
to pursue his manifold callings, more particularly 
glass-painting, portrait-painting, and land-measuring. 
He had a long and hard fight for life. His employment 
was fitful, and he was often reduced to great straits. 
Some years after his settlement at Saintes, while still 
struggling with poverty, chance threw in his way an 
enamelled cup of Italian manufacture, of great beauty, 
which he had no sooner seen, than he desired to imitate 
it ; and from that time, the determination to discover 
the art by which it was enamelled possessed him like a 

The story of Palissy's heroic ardour in prosecuting 
his researches in connection with this subject, is well 
known : how he built furnace after furnace, and made 
experiments with them again and again, only to end in 
failure ; how he was all the while studying the nature 
of earths and clays, and learning chemistry, as he de- 
scribed it, " with his teeth " ; how he reduced himself 
to a state ef the most distressing poverty, which he 
endured amidst the expostulations of his friends, the 
bitter sarcasms of his neighbours, and, what was still 
worse to bear, the reproaches of his wife and children. 
But he was borne up throughout by his indomitable 
determination, his indefatigable industry, and his irre- 
pressible genius. 

On one occasion he sat by his furnace for six suc- 
cessive days and nights without changing his clothes. 
He made experiment after experiment, and still the 
enamel did not melt. At his last and most desperate 
experiment, when the fuel began to run short, he rushed 
into his house, seized and broke up sundry articles 
of furniture, and hurled them into the furnace to keep 
up the heat. No wonder that his wife and children, 
as well as his neighbours, thought the man had gone 
mad. But he himself was in a measure compensated 
by the fact that the last great burst of heat had melted 
the enamel ; for when the common clay jars, which 
had been put in brown, were taken out after the 


furnace had cooled, they were found covered with the 
white glaze of which he had been so loug and so 
furiously in search. By this time, however, he had 
become reduced to a state of the greatest poverty. 
He had stripped his dwelling, he had beggared him- 
self, and his children wanted food. " I was in debt," 
said he, " at many places, and when two children were 
at nurse, I was unable to pay the nurse's wages. No 
one helped me. On the contrary, people mocked me, 
saying, ' He will rather let his children die of hunger 
than mind his own business.' " Others said of him 
that he was " seeking to make false money." These 
jeerings of the townsfolk reached his ears as he passed 
along the streets of Saintes, and cut him to the 

Like Brindley the engineer, Palissy betook himself 
to bed to meditate upon his troubles and study how 
to find a way out of them. " When I had lain for 
some time in bed," says he, "and considered that if 
a man has fallen into a ditch his first duty is to try 
and raise himself out of it, I, being in like case, rose 
and set to work to paint some pictures, and by this 
and other means I endeavoured to earn a little money. 
Then I said to myself that all my losses and risks 
were over, and there was nothing now to hinder me 
from making good pieces of ware; and so I began 
again, as before, to work at my old art." l But he was 
still very far from success, and continued to labour on 
for years amidst misfortune, privation, and poverty. 
" All these failures," he continues, "occasioned me such 
labour and sadness of spirit, that before I could render 
my various enamels fusible at the same degree of heat, 
I was obliged, as it were, to roast myself to death at 
the door of the sepulchre ; moreover, in labouring at 
such work, I found myself, in the space of about ten 
years, so worn out that I was shrunk almost to a 
skeleton ; there was no appearance of muscle on my 

SY DC I' Art dc Terre: (Euyres Completes, p. 318. 


arms or legs, so that my stockings fell about my feet 
when I walked abroad." 

His neighbours would no longer have patience with 
him ; he was despised and mocked by them all. Yet 
he persevered with his art, and proceeded to make 
vessels of divers colours, which he at length began to 
be able to sell, and thus earned a slender maintenance 
for his family. " The hope which inspired me," says 
he, " enabled me to proceed with my work, and when 
people came to see me I sometimes contrived to enter- 
tain them with pleasantry, while I was really sad at 
heart. . . . Worst of all the sufferings I had to endure 
were the mockeries and persecutions of those of my 
household, who were so unreasonable as to expect 
me to execute work without the means of doing so. 
For years my furnaces were without any covering or 
protection ; and while attending to them I have been 
exposed for nights, at the mercy of the wind and the 
rain, without any help or consolation, save it might be 
the meauling of cats on the one side, or the howling 
of dogs on the other. Sometimes the tempest would 
beat so furiously against the furnaces that I was com- 
pelled to leave them, and seek shelter within doors. 
Drenched by rain, and in no better plight than if I 
had been dragged through rnire, I have gone to lie 
down at midnight, or at daybreak, stumbling into the 
house without a light, and reeling from one side to 
another, as if I had been drunken, my heart filled 
with sorrow at the loss of my labour after such long 
toiling. But, alas! my home proved no refuge for 
me ; for, drenched and besmeared as I was, I found in 
my chamber a second persecution worse than the first, 
which makes me even now marvel that I was not 
utterly consumed by my many sorrows." 1 

In the midst of his great distress, religion came to 
Palissy as a consoler. He found comfort in recalling 
to mind such passages of the Bible as he carried in 

1 PALISSY De VArt de Terre: (Eurres Completes, p. 321. 


his memory, and which from time to time gave him 
fresh hope. " You will thus observe," he afterwards 
wrote, " the goodness of God to me : when I was in 
the depth of suffering because of my art, He consoled 
me with His Gospel ; and when I have been exposed 
to trials because of the Gospel, then it has been with 
my art that He has consoled me." When wandering 
abroad in the fields about Saintes, at the time of his 
greatest troubles, Palissy's attention was wont to be 
diverted from his own sorrows by the wonderful 
beauty and infinite variety of nature, of which he was 
a close and accurate observer. What were his petty 
cares and trials in sight of the marvellous works of 
God, which spoke in every leaf, and flower, and plant, 
of His infinite power, and goodness, and wisdom ? 
" When I contemplated these things," says Palissy, " I 
have fallen upon my face, and, adoring God, cried to 
Him in spirit, ' What is man that Thou art mindful of 
him ? Not to us, Lord, not to us, but to Thy name be 
the honour and the glory ! '" l 

There were already many followers of The Religion 
in Saintes and the adjoining districts. It so happened 
that Calvin had, at an early period in his life, visited 
Saintonge, and sowed the seeds of the Gospel there. 
Calvin was a native of Noyon, in Picardy, and had 
from his childhood been destined for the priesthood. 
When only twelv . years old, he was provided with a 
benefice ; but by the time he grew to man's estate, a 
relative presented him with a copy of the Bible, and 
he became a religious reformer. He began, almost 
involuntarily, to exhort others from its pages, and pro- 
ceeded to preach to the people at Bourges, at Paris, 
and in the adjoining districts. From thence he went 
into Poitou and Saintonge on the same errand, holding 
his meetings late at night or early in the morning, in 
retired places in a cellar or a garret in a wood or in 
the opening of a rock in a mountain-side ; a hollow 

1 PAJLISSY Recevte Veritable: (Euvres Completes, pp. 11G-17. 


place of this sort, near Poitiers, in which Calvin and 
his friends secretly celebrated the Lord's Supper, being 
still known as " Calvin's Cave." 

We are not informed by Palissy whether he ever 
met Calvin in the course of his mission in Saintouge, 
which occurred shortly after the latter had settled at 
Saintes ; but certain it is, that he was one of the first 
followers and teachers of the new views in that neigh- 
bourhood. Though too poor himself to possess a copy 
of the Bible, Palissy had often heard it read by others 
as well as read it himself while on his travels; and his 
retentive memory enabled him to carry many of its 
most striking passages in his mind, 1 which he was ac- 
customed to reproduce in his ordinary speech. Hence 
the style of his early writings, which is strongly marked 
by Biblical terms and similitudes. He also contrived 
to obtain many written extracts from the Old and 
New Testament, for the purpose of reading them to 
others ; and these formed the texts from which he ex- 
horted his fellow Gospellers. For Palissy was one of 
the earliest preachers of the Reformed Church in the 
town of Saintes, if he was not indeed its founder. 

The meetings of the little congregation soon became 
popular in Saintes. The people of the town went at 
first out of curiosity to observe their proceedings, and 
they were gradually attracted by the earnestness of the 
worshippers. The members of "The Religion" were 
known throughout the town to be persons of blameless 
lives, peaceable, well-disposed, and industrious, who 
commanded the respect even of their enemies. At 
length the Roman Catholics of Saintes began to say to 

1 The Vaudois peasantry knew was appointed to preserve in his 

the Bible almost by heart. Raids memory a certain number of 

were from time to time made chapters ; and thus, though their 

into their district by the agents Bibles were seized and burnt, too 

of the Romish Church for the pur- Vaudois were still enabled to 

pose of seizing and burning all refer to their Bibles through the 

such copies of the Bible as they memories of the young minds in 

could lay hands on. Knowing which the chapters were pre- 

this, the peasants formed societies served, 
of young persons, each of whom 


their monks and priests "See these ministers of the 
new religion : they make prayers ; they lead a holy 
life : why cannot you do the like ? " The monks and 
priests, not to be outdone by the men of The Religion, 
then began to pray and to preach like the ministers ; 
" so that in those days," to use the words of Palissy, 
" there were prayers daily in this town, both on one 
side and the other." 

So kindly a spirit began to spring up under the 
operation of these influences, that the religious exercises 
of both parties of the old and the new religion 
were for a short time celebrated in several of the 
churches by turns ; one portion of the people attending 
the prayers of the old Church, and another portion the 
preachings of the new ; so that the Catholics, returning 
from celebrating the mass, were accustomed to meet the 
Huguenots on their way to hear the exhortation, as is 
usual in Holland at this day. The effects of this joint 
religious action on the morals of the people, are best 
described in Palissy's own words : 

"The progress made by us was such, that in the course of a 
few years, by the time that our enemies rose up to pillage and 
persecute us, lewd plays, dances, ballads, gormandizings, and 
superfluities of dress and head-gear, had almost entirely ceased. 
Scarcely was any bad language to be heard on any side ; nor 
were there any more crimes and scandals. Lawsuits greatly 
diminished ; for no sooner had any two persons of The Religion 
fallen out, than means were found to bring them to an agree- 
ment ; moreover, very often before beginning any lawsuit, the 
one would not begin it before first exhorting the other. When 
the time for celebrating Easter drew near, many differences, dis- 
sensions, and quarrels, were thus stayed and settled. There 
were then no questions amongst them, but only psalms, prayers, 
and spiritual canticles ; ' nor was there any more desire for lewd 

1 The Reformers early enlisted sents that God has given us. 
music in their service, and it Satan cannot make head against 
exercised a powerful i <ifluence in music." Luther was a poet as 
extending the new movement well as a musician ; his " Ein' 
amongst the people. " Music," feste Burg ist unser Gott " (one of 
said Luther. " is the art of the the themes of Meyerbeer's Hit- 
prophets. It is ono of the most gucnots), which rang through all 
magnificent and delightful pre- Germany, was the " Marseilfaise " 


and dissolute songs. Indeed, The Religion made such progress, 
that even the magistrates began to prohibit things that had 
grown up under their authority. Thus, they forbade innkeepers 
to permit gambling or dissipation to be carried on within their 
premises, to the enticement of men away from their own homes 
and families. 

" In those days might be seen, on Sundays, bands of work- 
people walking abroad in the meadows, the groves, and the 
fields, singing psalms and spiritual songs, or reading to and 
instructing one another. There might also be seen girls and 
maidens seated in groups in the gardens and pleasant places, 
singing songs on sacred themes ; or boys accompanied by their 
teachers, the effects of whose instruction had already been so 
salutary, that those young persons not only exhibited a manly 
bearing, but a manful steadfastness of conduct. Indeed, these 
various influences, working one with another, had already 
effected so much good, that not only had the habits and modes 
of life of the people been reformed, but their very countenances 
themselves seemed to be changed and improved." 

But this happy state of affairs did not last long. 
While the ministers of the new religion and the priests 
of the old (with a few exceptions) were thus working 
harmoniously together at Saintes, events were rapidly 
drawing to a crisis in other parts of France. The 
heads of the Roman Catholic Church saw with alarm 

of the Reformation. Luther had ' The Religion " as they marched 

improvised both the words and along. But when the persecution 

the music two days before his revived, the singing of psalms 

appearance at the Diet of Worms. was one of the things most strictly 

As he was journeying towards interdicted, even on pain of 

that city, he caught sight of its death. 

bell-towers in the distance, on Calvin also, at Geneva, took 
which he rose up in his chariot great care to have the psalms set 
and sang the noble song. to good music. He employed, 
The French Reformers also en- with that object, the best corn- 
listed music in their service at an posers, and distributed printed 
early period. The psalms were copies of the music throughout all 
translated by Clement Marot and the churches. Thus psalmody, in 
Theodore de Beza, setto attractive which the whole people could join, 
music, and sung in harmony in everywhere became an essential 
family worship, in the streets and part of the service of the Re- 
the fields, and in congregational formed Church ; the chaunts of 
meetings. During a lull in the the Roman Catholics having, un- 
persecution at Paris in 1558, til then, been sung only by the 
thousands of persons assembled priests or by hired performers, 
at the Pre"-aux-Clercs to listen to ' PALISST CEuvres Completes: 
ihe psalms sung by the men of JReccpte Veritable, p. 108; 


the rapid strides which the new religion was making, 
and that a large proportion of the population were 
day by day escaping from their control. Pope Pius 
IV., through his agents, urged the decisive interference 
ot the secular authority to stay the progress of heresy ; 
and Philip II. of Spain supported him with all his 

The Huguenots had now, by virtue of their increas- 
ing numbers, become a political power. Many of the 
leading politicians of France embraced the Reformed 
cause, not so much because they were impressed by the 
truth of the new views, as because they were capable 
of being used as an instrument for party warfare. 
Ambitious men, opposed to the court party, arrayed 
themselves on the side of the Huguenots, caring per- 
haps little for their principles, but mainly actuated by 
the desire of promoting their own personal ends. Thus 
political and religious dissension combined together to 
fan the fury of the contending parties into a flame. 
The councils of state became divided and distracted. 
There was no controlling mediating power. The ex- 
treme partizans were alike uncompromising; and a 
social outbreak, long imminent, at length took place. 

The head of the Church in France alarmed the King 
with fears for his throne and his life. " If the secular 
arm," said the Cardinal de Lorraine to Henry II., 
"fails in its duty, all the malcontents will throw 
themselves into this detestable sect. They will first 
destroy the ecclesiastical power, after which it will be 
the turn of the royal power." The secular arm was 
not slow to strike. In 1559, a royal edict was pub- 
lished declaring the crime of heresy punishable by 
death, and forbidding the judges to remit or mitigate 
the penalty. The fires of persecution, which had long 
been smouldering, again burst forth all over France. 
The provincial Parliaments instituted Chambres ar- 
dentes, so called because they condemned to the fire 
all who were accused and convicted of the crime of 
heresy. Palissy himself has vividly narrated the 



effect of these relentless measures in his own district 
of Saintes : 

" The very thought of the evil deeds of those days," says he, 
"when wjcked men were let loose upon us to scatter, over- 
whelm, ruin, and destroy the followers of the Reformed faith, 
fills my mind with horror. That I might be out of the way of 
their frightful and execrable tyrannies, and in order not to be a 
witness of the cruelties, robberies, and murders perpetrated in 
this rural neighbourhood, I concealed myself at home, remain- 
ing there for the space of two months. It seemed to me as if 
during that time hell itself had broken loose, and that raging 
devils had entered into and taken possession of the town of 
Saintes. For in the place where I had shortly before heard only 
psalms and spiritual songs, and exhortations to pure and honest 
living, I now heard nothing but blasphemies, assaults, threaten- 
ings, tumults, abominable language, dissoluteness, and lewd c.nd 
disgusting songs, of such sort that it seemed to me as if all 
purity and godliness had become completely stifled and ex- 
tinguished. Among other horrors of the time, there issued forth 
from the Castle of Taillebourg a band of wicked imps who 
worked more mischief even than any of the devils of the old 
school. On their entering the town, accompanied by certain 
priests, with drawn swords in their hands, they shouted 
' Where are they ? let us cut their throats instantly ! ' though 
they knew well enough that there was no resistance to them, 
those of the Reformed Church having all taken to flight. To 
make matters worse, they met an innocent Parisian in the 
street, reported to have money about him, and him they set 
upon and killed without resistance, first stripping him to his 
shirt before putting him to death. Afterwards they went from 
house to house, stealing, plundering, robbing, gormandising, 
mocking, swearing, and uttering foul blasphemies both against 
God and man." 1 

During the two months that Palissy remained 
secluded at home, he occupied himself busily in per- 
fecting the secret of the enamel, which he had so 
long been in search of. Notwithstanding his devo- 
tion to the exercises of his religion, he continued to 
devote himself with no less zeal to the practice of 
his art; and his fame as a potter . already extended 
far beyond the bounds of his district. He had in- 
deed been so fortunate as by this time to have 

1 PALISSY CEuvres Completes : Recejate Writable, p. 111. 


attracted the notice of a powerful noble, the Duke 
of Montmorency, Constable of France, then engaged 
in building the magnificent chateau of Ecouen, at St. 
Denis, near Paris. Specimens of Palissy's enamelled 
tiles had been brought under the duke's notice, who 
admired them so much, that he at once gave Palissy 
an order to execute the pavement for his new resi- 
dence. He even advanced a sum of money to the 
potter, to enable him to enlarge his works, so as to 
Complete the order with despatch. 

Palissy's opinions were of course well known in his 
district, where he had been the founder, and was in a 
measure the leader, of the Reformed sect. The duke 
was doubtless informed of the danger which his potter 
ran, at the outbreak of the persecution ; and he accord- 
ingly used his influence to obtain a safeguard for him 
from the Duke of Montpensier, who then commanded 
the royal army in Saintonge. But even this protection 
was insufficient ; for, as the persecution waxed hotter, 
and the search for heretics became keener, Palissy 
found his workshop no longer safe. At length he 
was seized, dragged from his home, and hurried off 
by night to Bordeaux, to be put upon his trial for the 
crime of heresy. And this first great potter of France 
this true man of genius, religion, and virtue would 
certainly have been tried and burnt, as hundreds more 
were, but for the accidental circumstance that the 
Duke of Montmorency was in urgent want of ena- 
melled tiles for his castle-floor, and that Palissy was 
the only man in France capable of executing them. 

It is not improbable that the sending of Palissy to 
Bordeaux, to be tried there instead of at Saintes, was 
a ruse on the part of the Duke of Montpensier, to 
gain time until the Constable could be informed of 
the danger which threatened the life of his potter ; 
for Palissy says, " It is a certain truth, that had I 
been tried by the judges of Saintes, they would have 
caused me to die before I could have obtained from 
you any help." 


But no sooner did Montmorency hear of the peril 
into which his potter had fallen, and find that unless 
he bestirred himself, Palissy would be burnt and his 
tiles for Ecouen remain unfinished, than he at once 
used his influence with Catharine de Medicis, the 
Queen-mother, with whom he was then all-powerful, 
and had him forthwith appointed " Inventor of Rustic 
Figulines to the King." This appointment had the 
effect of withdrawing Palissy from the jurisdiction 
of the Parliament of Bordeaux, and transferring him 
to that of the Grand Council of Paris, which was 
tantamount to an indefinite adjournment of his case. 
The now royal potter was accordingly released from 
prison, and returned to Saintes to find his workshop 
roofless and devastated. He at once made arrange- 
ments for leaving the place; and, shaking the dust 
of Saintes from his feet, he shortly after removed to 
the Tuileries x at Paris, where he long continued to 
carry on the manufacture of his famous pottery. 

It is not necessary to pursue the career of Palissy 
further than to add, that the circumstance of his 
being employed by Catherine de Medicis had not the 
slightest effect in inducing him to change his religion. 
He remained a Huguenot, and stoutly maintained his 
opinions to the last so stoutly, indeed, that towards 
the close of his life, when an old man of seventy- 
eight, he was again arrested as a heretic and imprisoned 
in the Bastile. He was threatened with death unless 
he recanted. But though he was feeble, and trem- 
bling on the verge of the grave, his spirit was as brave 
as ever. He was as obstinate now in holding to his 

1 Tuileries so called from the neither more nor less than one 

tile-works originally established of the ovens in which Palissy 

there by Francis I. in 1518. A baked his chefs-ifusuvre. Several 

remarkable and unexpected dis- moulds of faces, plants, animals, 

covery was recently made in the etc., were dug up in an excellent 

Place du Carrousel, while dig- state of preservation, and also 

ging out the foundations for part some fragments of plates, etc., 

of the new buildings of the bearing the potter's well-knowa 

Lonvre recently completed stamp. 


religion, as he had been more than thirty years before 
in hunting out the secret of the enamel. Mathieu de 
Launay, minister of state, one of the sixteen members 
of council, insisted that Palissy should be publicly 
burnt ; but the Due de Mayenne, who protected him, 
contrived to protract the proceedings and delay the 

The French historian D'Aubigne' describes Henry 
III. as visiting Palissy in prison with the object of 
inducing him to abjure his faith. " My good man," 
said the King, " you have now served my mother and 
myself for forty-five years. We have put up with 
your adhering to your religion amid fires and mas- 
sacres. But now I am so pressed by the Guise party, 
as well as by my own people, that I am constrained to 
leave you in the hands of your enemies ; and to-morrow 
you will be burnt, unless you become converted." 
"Sire," answered the unconquerable old man, "I am 
ready to give my life for the glory of God. You 
have said many times that you have pity on me : 
now I have pity on you, who have pronounced the 
words 'I am constrained.' It is not spoken like a 
king, sire; it is what you, and those who constrain 
you, the Guisards and all your people, can never 
effect upon me, for I know how to die." 

Palissy was not burnt, but died in the Bastile, after 
about a year's imprisonment, courageously persevering 
to the end, and glorying in being able to lay down his 
life for his faith. Thus died a man of truly great and 
noble character, of irrepressible genius, indefatigable 
industry, heroic endurance, and inflexible rectitude 
one of France's greatest and noblest sons. 



PALISSY was not the only man of genius in France 
who embraced the Reformed faith. The tendency of 
books and the Bible was to stimulate inquiry on the 
part of all who studied them ; to extend the reign of 
thought, and emancipate the mind from the dominion 
of human authority. Hence we find among the men 
of " The Religion," Peter Ramus and Joseph Justus 
Scaliger, the philosophers; Charles Dumoulin, the 
jurist ; Ambrose Pard, the surgeon ; Henry Stephens 
(or Estienne), the printer and scholar ; * Jean Cousin, 
founder of the French school of painting ; Barthe'lemy 
Prieur and Jean Goujon, sculptors; Jean Bullant, 
Debrosses, and Du Cerceau, architects; Charles Gou- 
dimel, the musical composer ; and Oliver de Serre, the 
agriculturist. These were among the first men of their 
time in France. 

Persecution did not check the spread of the new 
views : on the contrary, it extended them. The spec- 
tacle of men and women publicly suffering death for 
their faith, expiring under the most cruel tortures 
rather than deny their convictions, arrested the at- 
tention even of the most incredulous. Their curiosity 
was roused ; they desired to learn what there was in 

1 The Stephenses or Estiennes, ing Paris for Genera, where they 

being threatened with persecu- settled, and a long succession of 

tion by the Sorbonne, because illustrious scholars and printers 

of the editions of the Bible and handed down the reputation of 

New Testament printed by them, the family, 
were under the necessity of leav- 


the forbidden Bible to inspire such constancy and en- 
durance; and they too read the book, and in many 
cases became followers of The Religion. 

Thus the new views spread rapidly all over France. 
They not only became established in all the large 
towns, but penetrated the rural districts, more espe- 
cially in the south and south-east of France. The 
social misery which pervaded these districts doubtless 
helped the spread of the new doctrines among the 
lower classes; for "there was even more discontent 
abroad," said Brantome, "than Huguenotism." But 
they also extended amongst the learned and the 
wealthy. The heads of the house of Bourbon, An- 
toine duke of Vendome and Louis prince of Conde', 
declared themselves in favour of the new views. The 
former became the husband of the celebrated Jeanne 
D'Albret, Queen of Navarre, daughter of the Protes- 
tant Margaret of Valois; and the last became the 
recognised leader of the Huguenots. The head of the 
Coligny family took the same side. The Montmoren- 
cies were divided : the Constable halting between the 
two opinions, waiting to see which should prove the 
stronger; while others of the family openly sided with 
the Reformed. Indeed, it seemed at one time as if 
France were on the brink of becoming Protestant. 
In 1561 the alarmed Cardinal de Sainte-Croix wrote 
to the Pope, " The kingdom is already half Hugue- 

Unhappily for France, the country fell into the 
hands of the Queen and the Guises. Henry II. had 
married an Italian wife, Catherine de Medicis, niece of 
the Pope. Great magnificence was displayed at the 
Queen's coronation. Voluptuousness arid cruelty are 
usually combined. The pomp of the tournaments was 
combined with the burning of four Lutherans. Perse- 
cution prevailed; and many persons of influence left 
the country. The King confiscated to himself the pro- 
perty of those who took refuge abroad. Pope Paul 
IV., the Cardinal de Lorraine, the Sorbonne, and the 


priests demanded that the Inquisition should be estab- 
lished in France. A bull to this effect was issued, and 
the King confirmed it by an edict; but Parliament 
would not enforce it, and France was spared the 

The Doctors of the Sorbonne did their utmost to 
inflame the minds of the people against the heretics. 
They influenced the power of the State, which went on 
persecuting and burning. Henry II. concluded a peace 
with Spain, and entered into a treaty to exterminate 
heresy ; and, in pledge of this treaty, his daughter 
Elizabeth was to espouse Philip II. The Cardinal de 
Lorraine proposed, as the most agreeable exhibition to 
the Spanish ambassadors, who had arrived in Paris 
to take away the betrothed princess, to bum before 
them half a dozen Lutheran counsellors. " We must," 
to use his own expression, "give this junket to these 
grandees of Spain." 

The King died by the splinter of a lance received in 
a tournament; and Francis II. reigned in his stead. 
He was only sixteen years old, and was feeble in 
body and mind ; so that his mother, Catherine de 
Medicis, became the real governor of France. She was 
surrounded by the Guises, Chatillons, Saint Andre's, the 
Constable de Montmorency, and others, who worked 
for their own advantage the fictitious royalty of 
Francis II. Catherine de Medicis was artful and vin- 
dictive, ambitious of power, devoid of moral feelings, 
though of considerable intellectual capacity. De Felice 
says that " no wife and mother of our kings has done so 
much injury to France as this Italian woman." He adds : 
" We are speaking of the Italians of the sixteenth cen- 
tury nobles and priests who, eternally witnessing 
at Rome, Florence, Naples, scenes of assassination, 
poisoning, and the utmost turpitude, had sunk into 
the very lowest state of depravity. It is they his- 
tory attests it who planned, devised, and finally 
executed in France the most monstrous crimes of the 


The Guises were the true leaders of the Roman 
Catholic party. They formed a younger branch of the 
family of the Dukes of Lorraine. Although foreigners 
(for Lorraine formed then no part of France), they 
soon acquired a considerable influence. Claude de Lor- 
raine had by Antoinette de Bourbon six sons and four 
daughters, all of whom rose to offices of distinction. 
One of his daughters, Mary of Lorraine, married James 
V. of Scotland, whose sole surviving issue was Mary, 
afterwards Queen of Scots. At six years old Mary 
was sent to France, where she was educated with 
the King's daughters. At the age of sixteen she was 
married to the Dauphin. When the Dauphin became 
king, the Guises became all-powerful. Francis II. en- 
trusted the government of France to Francis duke of 
Guise and to his brother the Cardinal of Lorraine, both 
uncles of Mary Stuart. The Duke obtained command 
of the army ; the Cardinal became Archbishop of 
Rheims, and the possessor of the enormous income of 
three hundred thousand crowns annually. 

These two foreigners, together with the Italian 
Queen-mother, having virtually taken possession of 
France, excited the envy of the French aristocracy. 
The persecutions and burnings with which the Guises 
treated the Huguenots, could not fail to excite their 
hostility. Anthony of Bourbon, King of Navarre, and 
Louis his brother, Prince of Conde, with the other 
princes of the blood, and the great officers of State, 
being indignant at seeing the supreme powers of France 
in such hands, entered into a conspiracy against the 
Guises, proposing to expel the Lorraines and place the 
government of France in the hands of French princes. 

Louis de Conde' was the invisible chief of the con- 
spiracy, and he induced many of his Huguenot followers 
to join it. But Coligny and many other Huguenot 
chiefs knew nothing about it, and many of those of 
The Religion were strongly opposed to it. La Re- 
naudie represented the political malcontents, and was 
the visible chief of the conspiracy. 


The advocate, Des Avenelles, informed the Guises 
of the plot, and they immediately took steps to pre- 
vent its success. The Court was then at Blois, in 
olden times the residence of the kings and princes 
of France. The chateau is seated on the side of a 
picturesque hill, overlooking the Loire. Being in- 
capable of defence, the Guises removed the Court to 
the magnificent castle of Amboise, situated a little 
lower down the Loire, on the left bank of that beau- 
tiful river. 

Before the conspiracy had come to a head, the 
Guises arrested those who had proposed to take part 
in it. Twelve hundred prisoners were then brought 
to Amboise to be executed. 

To please the royal personages at the castle, they 
were brought out to a balcony, that still exists, in order 
to witness the butchery. There were then present, in 
Court costumes, Francis II., King of France, and Mary 
Stuart his wife, afterwards Queen of Scots ; Catherine 
de Medicis; Charles and Henry, afterwards Charles IX. 
and Henry III., Kings of France. The Cardinal of Lor- 
raine was also present, as well as the Ladies in waiting. 

La Renaudie, the chief of the conspiracy, was first 
hung on a gibbet in the centre of the bridge over the 
Loire. The remainder of the twelve hundred were 
hung and beheaded within sight of the ladies. No 
inquiry, no trial, was permitted. They were merely 
executed and strung up as fast as possible. The 
castle walls were decorated with their hanging 
bodies. The wearied headsman below resigned his 
axe, and consigned the remainder to other execu- 
tioners, who, tying their feet and hands together, 
threw them into the Loire, where they were drowned. 
The butchery did not end so pleasantly after all. The 
stench arising from the dead bodies was such, that the 
Court was driven from the castle in the course of a 
few days. 

Francis II. and Queen Mary did not enjoy their 
honours long. The King died in his seventeenth year, 


after a reign of seventeen months. As he had shown 
some symptoms of rebelling against the constraints 
to which he was subject, it was supposed that he had 
died from poison. At all events, his funeral was dis- 
regarded. He was borne to his grave by an old blind 
bishop and two servitors. His queen, Mary, returned 
to Scotland, to attempt to exercise upon a rougher, 
but more sturdy people, the methods of government 
which she had learnt from Catherine de Medicis and 
her uncles the Guises. 

When Francis II. was laid in his grave, Charles IX., 
eleven years old, was proclaimed king, Catherine de 
Medicis regent, and Anthony de Bourbon lieutenant- 
governor of the kingdom. 

The Prince of Conde', who had been imprisoned, 
was set free. The Constable, Anne de Montmorency, 
resumed his office of Grand Master near the new 
King. The Guises suffered a fall; but they bided 
their time, and before long, they were once more to the 
front again. 

When Charles IX. succeeded to the throne, it was 
found that the finances of the kingdom were in a 
deplorable state. Society was distracted by the feuds 
of the nobles over whom, as in Scotland about the 
same period, the monarch exercised no effective con- 

France had, however, her Parliament or States- 
General, which in a measure placed the King's govern- 
ment en rapport with the nation. On its assembling 
in December 1560, the Chancellor de L'Hopital ex- 
horted men of all parties to rally round the young 
King ; and, while condemning the odious punishments 
which had recently been inflicted upon persons of the 
Reformed faith, he announced the intended holding of 
a national council, and expressed the desire that 
thenceforward France should recognise neither Hugue- 
nots nor Papists, but only Frenchmen. 

A Roman Catholic himself, he advised his co- 
religionists to adorn themselves with virtues and a 


good life, and to attack their adversaries with the 
arms of charity, of prayer, and of persuasion. " The 
knife," he said, " avails but little against the mind. 
Gentleness will do more than severity. Give up 
those fiendish names, Lutherans, Huguenots, Papists; 
change them to the name of Christian." 

This was the first utterance of the voice of con- 
ciliation. The Protestants heard it with joy, their 
enemies with rage. Jean Quintin, the representative 
of the clergy, demanded that measures should be taken 
to deliver France from heresy, and that Charles IX. 
should vindicate his claim to the title of " Most Chris- 
tian King." Lange, the spokesman of the Tiers Etat, 
on the other hand, declared against " the three principal 
vices of the ecclesiastics pride, avarice, and igno- 
rance " ; and urged that they should return to the 
simplicity of the primitive Church. The nobles, di- 
vided amongst themselves, demanded, some that the 
preaching of the Gospel should be forbidden, and others 
that there should be general freedom of worship; 
but all who spoke were unanimous in acknowledging 
the necessity for a reform in the discipline of the 

While the state of religion thus occupied the Depu- 
ties, an equally grave question occupied the Court. 
There was no money in the exchequer ; the rate of 
interest was twelve per cent.; and forty-three millions 
of francs were required to be raised from an im- 
poverished nation. The Deputies were alarmed at the 
appalling figure which the chancellor specified ; and, 
declaring that they had not the requisite power to 
vote the required sum, they broke up amidst agitation, 
leaving De 1'Hopital at variance with the Parliament, 
which refused to register the edict of amnesty to the 
Protestants which the King had proclaimed. 

The King's minister, being most anxious to bring all 
parties to an agreement if possible, and to allay the 
civil discord which seemed to be fast precipitating 
France into civil war, arranged, with the sanction of 


the Queen-mother, for a conference between the heads 
of the religious parties; and it took place at Vassy 
in the presence of the King and his court, in August 

1561. Pope Pius IV. was greatly exasperated when 
informed of the intended conference, and declared 
himself to have been betrayed by Catherine de 
Medicis. It appeared to him that the granting of 
such a conference was a recognition of the growing 
power of Heresy in France, the same heresy which 
had already deprived Rome of her spiritual dominion 
over England and Germany. The Pope's fears were, 
doubtless, not without foundation ; and had France 
at that juncture possessed a Knox or a Luther 
a Regent Murray or a Lord Burleigh the results 
would have been widely different. But as it was, 
the Reformed party had no better leader than the 
scholarly and pious Theodore de Beza ; and the con- 
ference had no other result than to drive the contend- 
ing parties more widely asunder than before. 

Although a royal edict was published in January 

1562, guaranteeing to the Protestants liberty of wor- 
ship, the concession was set at defiance by the Papal 
party, whose leaders urged on the people in many 
districts to molest and attack the followers of the new 
faith. The Papists denounced the heretics, and called 
upon the Government to extirpate them ; the Hugue- 
nots, on their part, denounced the corruptions of the 
Church, and demanded their reform. There was no 
dominant or controlling power in the State, which 
drifted steadily in the direction of civil war. Both 
parties began to arm ; and in such a state of things a 
spark may kindle a conflagration. 

The Queen-mother, being a profound dissimulator, 
appeared still disposed to bargain with the Reformed, 
She sounded Coligny as to the number of followers 
that he could, in event of need, place at the service of 
the King. His answer was, " We have two thousand 
and fifty churches, and four hundred thousand men 
able to bear arms, without taking into account our 


secret adherents." 1 Such was the critical state of 
affairs when matters were precipitated to an issue by 
the action of the Duke of Guise, the leader of the 
Catholic party. 

On Christmas Day 1562, the Protestants of Vassy, 
in Champagne, met to the number of about three 
thousand, to listen to the preaching of the Word, and 
to celebrate the Sacrament according to the practice 
of their Church. Vassy was one of the possessions of 
the Guises, the mother of whom, Antoinette de Bour- 
bon, an ardent Roman Catholic, could not brook the 
idea of the vassals of the family daring to profess a 
faith different from that of their feudal superior. 
Complaint had been made to her Grace, by the Bishop 
of Chalons, of the offence done to religion by the pro- 
ceedings of the people of Vassy ; and she threatened 
them, if they persisted in their proceedings, with the 
the vengeance of her son the Duke of Guise. 

Undismayed by this threat, the Protestants of 
Vassy continued to meet publicly, and listen to their 
preachers, believing themselves to be under the pro- 
tection of the law, according to the terms of the royal 
edict. On the 1st of March 1563, they held one of 
their meetings, at which about twelve hundred per- 
sons were present, in a large barn which served for a 
church. The day before, the Duke of Guise, accom- 
panied by the duchess his wife, the Cardinal of Lor- 
raine, and about two hundred men armed with arque- 
busses and poniards, set out for Vassy. They rested 
during the night at Dampmarten, and next morning 
marched direct upon the congregation assembled in 
the barn. The minister, Morel, had only begun his 
opening prayer, when two shots were fired at the per- 
sons on the platform. The congregation tried in vain 
to shut the doors ; the followers of the Duke of Guise 
burst in, and precipitated themselves on the unarmed 

1 Nknoire de Condi, ii. 687. 


men, women, and children. For an hour they fired, 
hacked, and stabbed amongst them, the duke coolly 
watching the carnage. Sixty persons of both sexes 
were left dead on the spot; more than two hundred 
were severely wounded ; the rest contrived to escape. 
After the massacre, the duke sent for the local judge, 
and severely reprimanded him for having permitted 
the Huguenots of Vassy thus to meet. The judge 
intrenched himself behind the edict of the King. The 
duke's eyes flashed with rage, and striking the hilt of 
his sword with his hand, he said, " The sharp edge of 
this will soon cut your edict to pieces." l 

The massacre of Vassy was the match applied to 
the charge which was now ready to explode. It was 
the signal to Catholic France to rise in mass against 
the Huguenots. The clergy glorified the deed from 
the pulpit, and compared the duke to Moses, when he 
ordered the extermination of all who had bowed the 
knee to the golden calf. A fortnight later, the duke 
entered Paris in triumph, followed by about twelve 
hundred noblemen and gentlemen, mounted on horses 
richly caparisoned. The provost of merchants went 
out to meet and welcome him at the Porte Saint- 
Denis; and the people received him with immense 
acclamations as the defender of the faith and the 
saviour of the country. 

Theodore de Beza, overwhelmed with grief, waited 
on his Majesty, to complain of the gross violation of 
the terms of the royal edict, of which the Guise party 
had been guilty. But the King and the Queen-mother 
were powerless amidst the whirlwind of excitement 
which prevailed throughout Paris. They felt that 
their own lives were not safe ; and they at once se- 
cretly departed for Fontainebleau. The Duke of Guise 
followed them, accompanied by a strong escort. Ar- 
rived there, and admitted to an interview, the duke 

Hiitoire des Ouerres Civiles de France* liv. ii. p. 379. 


represented to Catherine that, in order to prevent the 
Huguenots obtaining possession of the King's person, 
it was necessary that he should accompany them to 
Melun; but the Queen-mother might remain if she 
chose. She determined to accompany her son. After 
a brief stay, the Court was again installed in the 
Louvre on the 6th of April. The Queen-mother was 
thus for a time vanquished by the Guises. 

The court waverers and the waiters on fortune at 
once arrayed themselves on the side of the strong. 
The old Constable de Montmorency, who had been 
halting between two opinions, signalised his re-ad- 
herence to the Church of Rome by a characteristic act. 
Placing himself at the head of the mob, whose idol he 
was desirous of being, he led them to the storming of 
the Protestant church outside the Porte Saint-Jacques, 
called the "Temple of Jerusalem." Bursting in the 
doors of the empty place, they tore up the seats, and 
placing them and the Bibles in a pile upon the floor, 
they set the whole on fire, amidst great acclamations. 
After this exploit, the Constable made a sort of trium- 
phal entry into Paris, as if he had won some great 
battle. Not content, he set out on the same day to 
gather more laurels at the village of Popincourt, where 
he had the Protestant church there set on fire ; but the 
conflagration extending to the adjoining houses, many 
of them were also burnt down. For these two great 
exploits the Constable received the nickname of " Cap- 
tain Burnbenches ! " 

More appalling, however, than the burning of 
churches, were the massacres which followed that of 
Yassy all over France at Paris, at Senlis, at Amiens, 
at Meaux, at Chalons, at Troyes, at Bar-sur-Seine, at 
Epernay, at Nevers, at Mans, at Angers, at Blois, and 
many other places. At Tours the number of the slain 
was so great, that the banks of the Loire were almost 
covered with the corpses of men, women, and children. 
The persecution especially raged in Provence, where 
the Protestants were put to death after being sub- 


jected to a variety of tortures. 1 Any detail of these 
events would present only a hideous monotony of mas- 
sacre. We therefore pass them by. 

Measures were also taken by the Guise party to put 
down the pestilent nuisance of printing ; and printers 
were forbidden to print or publish anything with- 
out permission, on pain of death. The decree to this 
effect, relating to Lyons, bearing the signature of 
Charles IX., and dated the 10th September 1563, is 
still preserved at the Bibliotheque Impe'riale, Paris, 
and runs as follows : " It is forbidden to publish or 
print any work or writing, in rhyme or in prose, with- 
out the previous authorisation of our lord the King, 
under pain of being hanged or strangled." Another 
clause says : " Three times every year a visit shall be 
made in the shops and printing-houses of the printers 
and booksellers of Lyons by two trustworthy persons 
belonging to the Church, one representing the Arch- 
bishop and the other the Chapter of the said city, and 
they shall be accompanied by the seneschal of Lyons." 

When the Roman Catholics fell upon the Huguenots 
with such fury, the latter gave way in all directions. 
The Prince of Conde, however, having raised the stand- 
ard of resistance, numbers of followers gathered round 
his banner. Admiral Coligny at first refused to join 
him, but, yielding to the entreaties of his wife, he at 
length placed himself by the side of Condd A period 
of fierce civil war ensued, in which the worst passions 
were evoked on both sides, and frightful cruelties were 
perpetrated, to the shame of religion, in whose name 
these things were done. The whole of France became 
a battle-field. The Huguenots revenged themselves 
on the assassins of their co-religionists, by defacing 
and destroying the churches and monasteries. In their 

1 PUAUX, ii. p. 152. This writer tholomew was not that of 1572, 
says that, although the massacre but of 1562 which year contained 
of Saint Bartholomew is usually by far the most dolorous chapter 
cited as the culminating horror in the history of French Protes- 
of the time, the real Saint Bar- tantism. 



iconoclastic rage they hewed and broke the images, the 
carvings, and the richly-decorated work of the cathe- 
drals at Bourges, at Lyons, at Orleans, at Rouen, at 
Caen, at Tours, and many other places. They tore 
down the crucifixes, and dragged them through the 
streets ; they violated the tombs of saints and sove- 
reigns, and profaned the sacred shrines of the Roman 
Catholics. " It was," says Henri Martin, " as if a blast 
of the infernal trumpet had everywhere awakened the 
spirit of destruction, and the delirious fury grew and 
became drunk with its own excess." All this rage, 
however, was but the inevitable reaction against the 
hideous cruelties of which the Huguenots had so long 
been the passive victims. They decapitated beautiful 
statues of stone, it is true ; but the Guises had decapi- 
tated the living men. 

The year after the massacre of Vassy, the Duke of 
Guise, during the siege of Orleans, was assassinated by 
a Calvinist named Poltrot de Mend. Several of Pol- 
trot's relations had been murdered by Roman Catholics. 
Coligny was accused of complicity in the assassination, 
but he himself denied all knowledge of it. Every 
party was alike enraged. Many pacifications were 
arrived at, but they brought no peace. 

It is not necessary, in our rapid sketch, to follow 
the course of the civil war. The Huguenots were 
everywhere outnumbered. They fought bravely, but 
they fought as rebels, the King and the Queen-mother 
being now at the head of the Guise party. In nearly 
all the great battles fought by them, they were de- 
feated, at Dreux, 1 at Saint Denis, at Jarnac, and at 

1 This was nearly a drawn luc, one of the Guise generals, 

battle ; and that it was decided says in his Commentaries : " If 

in favour of the Guise party, was this battle had been lost, what 

almost entirely due to the Swiss would have become of Prance ? 

infantry, who alone resisted the Its government would have been 

shock of Conde's cavalry. When changed as well as its religion ; 

Conde and Coligny withdrew for with a young king parties 

their forces in good order, 8,000 can do what they mil." 
men lay dead on the field. Mont- 

CHAP. ill. PEACE OF ST. GERtiAINS. .<>t 

Montcontour. But they rallied again, sometimes in 
greater numbers than before; and at length Coligny 
was enabled to collect such reinforcements as seriously 
to threaten Paris. 

France had now been devastated throughout by the 
contending armies, and many of the provinces were 
reduced almost to a state of desert. The combatants 
on both sides were exhausted, though their rancour 
remained unabated. Peace, however, had at last be- 
come a necessity ; and a treaty was signed at Saint 
Germains, in 1570, by which the Protestants were 
guaranteed liberty of worship, equality before the law, 
and admission to the universities : while the four 
principal towns of La Rochelle, Montauban, Cognac, 
and La Charitd, were committed to them as pledges 
of safety. 

Under the terms of this treaty, France enjoyed a 
state of peace for about two years ; but it was only 
the quiet that preceded the outbreak of another storm. 



WHILE these events were proceeding in France, a 
furious civil war was raging in Flanders, which then 
formed part of the extensive dominions of Spain. 
This war arose out of the same desire on the part 
of the Roman Church to crush the Reform move- 
ment, which had been making considerable progress 
in the Low Countries. 

The Provinces of the Netherlands had reached the 
summit of commercial and manufacturing prosperity. 
They were inhabited by a hard-working, intelligent, 
and enterprising people great as artists and mer- 
chants, painters and printers, architects and iron- 
workers, as the decayed glories of Antwerp, Bruges, 
and Ghent, testify to this day. Although the two 
latter cities never completely recovered from the in- 
juries inflicted on them by the tyranny of the trades' 
unions, there were numerous other towns, where in- 
dustry had been left comparatively free, in which the 
arts of peace were cultivated in security. Under the 
mild sway of the Burgundian dukes, Antwerp became 
the centre of the commerce of northern Europe ; and 
more business is said to have been done there in a 
mcnth, than at Venice in two years when at the 
summit of its grandeur. About the year 1550, it was 
no uncommon sight to see as many as 2500 ships in 
the Scheldt, laden with merchandise for all parts of 
the world. 

Such was the prosperity of Flanders, when Philip II. 


of Spain succeeded to the rich inheritance of Bur- 
gundy, on the resignation of Charles V. in the year 
1566. Philip inherited from his father two passions 
hatred of the Reformed Church, and hatred of 
France. To destroy the one and humiliate the other 
constituted the ambition of his life; and to accom- 
plish both objects, he spared neither the gold which 
Pizarro and his followers had brought from the New 
World, nor the blood of his own subjects. 

Had his subjects been of the same mind with him- 
self in religious matters, Philip might have escaped 
the infamy which attaches to his name. But a large 
proportion of the most skilled and industrious people 
of the Netherlands, had imbibed the new ideas as to 
reform in religion, which had swept over northern 
Europe. They had read the newly- translated Bible 
with avidity. They had formed themselves into re- 
ligious communities, and appointed preachers and 
teachers of their own. In a word, they were Pro- 
testants ; and the King determined that they should 
forthwith be reconverted to Roman Catholicism. 

Shortly before this time, there had risen up in the 
bosom of the Roman Catholic Chuich a man in all 
respects as remarkable as Luther, who exercised as 
extraordinary an influence, though in precisely the 
opposite direction, upon the religious history of Europe. 
This was Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, 
who infused into his followers a degree of zeal, energy, 
devotion, and it must be added, unscrupulousness 
never stopping to consider the means, provided only 
the ends could be accomplished which told most 
powerfully in the struggle of Protestantism for life or 
death throughout northern Europe. 

Loyola was born in 1491. He was wounded at the 
siege of Painpeluna in 1520. After a period of medi- 
tation and mortification, he devoted himself, in 1522, to 
the service of the Church ; and in 1540, the Order of 
the Jesuits was recognised at Rome and established 
by papal bull. The Society early took root in France, 


where it was introduced by the Cardinal de Lorraine ; 
and it shortly after acquired almost supreme influence 
in the State. Under the Jesuits, the Romish Church, 
reorganised and redisciplined, became one of the most 
complete of spiritual machines. The Jesuits enjoined 
implicit submission and obedience. Against liberty 
they set up authority. To them the Individual was 
nothing, the Order everything. They were vigilant 
sentinels, watching night and day over the interests 
of Rome. One of the first works to which they 
applied themselves, was the extirpation of the here- 
tics who had strayed from the fold. The principal 
instrument which they employed with this object, 
was the Inquisition ; and wherever they succeeded in 
establishing themselves, that institution was set up 
or was armed with fresh powers. They tolerated no 
half-measures. They were unsparing and unpitying; 
and wherever a heretic was brought before them, and 
they had the power to deal with him, he must either 
recant or die. 

Accordingly, Philip had no sooner succeeded to the 
Spanish throne, than he ordered a branch of the In- 
quisition to be set up in Flanders, with the Cardinal 
Granvelle as Inquisitor-General. The institution ex- 
cited great opposition amongst all classes, Catholic 
as well as Protestant. It very soon evoked much 
hostility and resistance, which eventually culmi- 
nated in civil war. Sir Thomas Gresham, writing 
to Cecil from Antwerp in 1566, said, " There are 
above 40,000 Protestants in this toune, which will 
die rather than the word of God should be put to 

The struggle which now began was alike fierce and 
determined on both sides. It extended over many 
years. The powerful armies which the King directed 
against his revolted subjects, were led by able generals 
by the Duke of Alva, and Alexander Farnese, Prince 
of Parma. In course of time, they succeeded in ex- 
terminating or banishing the greater number of Pro- 


testants south of the Scheldt ; at the same time that 
they ruined the industry of Flanders, destroyed its 
trade, and reduced the Catholics themselves to beggary. 
Bruges and Ghent became crowded with thieves and 
paupers. The busy quays of Antwerp were deserted, 
and its industrious artizans, tradesmen, and merchants 
lied from the place, leaving their property behind them, 
a prey to the spoiler. 1 

The Duchess of Parma, writing to Philip in 1567, 
said that " in a few days 100,000 men had already 
left the country with their money and goods, and 
that more were following every day." Clough, writ- 
ing to Gresham from Antwerp in the same year, 
Brad "It is marveylus to see how the pepell packe 
away from hense; some for one place, and some for 
another ; as well the Papysts as the Protestants ; for 
it is thought that howsomever it goeth, it cannot go 
well here; for that presently all the welthy and rich 
men of both sydes, who should be the stay of matters, 
make themselves away." 2 

The Duke of Alva carried on this frightful war of 
extermination and persecution for six years, during 
which he boasted that he had sent 18,000 persons to 
the stake and the scaffold, besides the immense num- 
bers destroyed in battles and sieges, and in the un- 
recorded acts of cruelty perpetrated on the peasantry 
by the Spanish soldiery. The sullen bigot, Philip II., 
heard of the depopulation and ruin of his provinces 
without regret; and though Alva was recalled, the 
war was carried on with increased fury by the generals 
who succeeded him. What mainly comforted Philip 
was, that the people who remained were at length 
terrified into orthodoxy. The ecclesiastics assured 
the Duke of Parma, the governor, that, notwith- 
standing the depopulation of the provinces, more 

1 It is said that for some years royal treasury of Philip twenty 

the plunder of the murdered and millions of dollars annually, 

proscribed Protestants of the 2 Flanders Correspondence - 

Low Countries brought into the State- Paper Office. 


people were coming to them for confession and ab- 
solution at the last Easter, than had ever come since 
the beginning of the revolt. Parma immediately 
communicated the consoling intelligence to Philip, 
who replied, " You cannot imagine my satisfaction 
at the news you give me concerning last Easter." 

The flight of the Protestants from the Low Countries 
continued for many years. All who were strong enough 
to fly, fled; only the weak, the helpless, and the hope- 
less, remained. The fugitives turned their backs on 
Flanders, and their faces towards Holland, Germany, 
and England. They fled thither with their wives and 
children, and the goods that they could carry with 
them, to seek new homes. Several hundred thousands 
of her best artizans clothiers, dyers, weavers, tanners, 
cutlers, and iron-workers of all kinds left Flanders, 
carrying with them into the countries of their adop- 
tion, their skill, their intelligence, and their spirit of 
liberty. The greater number of them went directly 
into Holland, then gallantly struggling with Spain 
for independent existence. There they founded new 
branches of industry, which eventually proved a source 
of wealth and strength to the United Provinces. Many 
others passed over into England, hailing it as " Asylum 
Christi," and formed the settlements of which an ac- 
count will be given in succeeding chapters. 

Having thus led the reader up to the period at 
which the Exodus of Protestants from the Low Coun- 
tries took place, we return to France, where Catherine 
de Medicis was stealthily maturing her plans for the 
extirpation of heresy in the dominions of her son. 
The treaty of 1570 was still observed. The Huguenots 
were allowed to worship God after their own forms ; 
and France was slowly recovering from the fratricidal 
wounds which she had received during the recent 
civil wars. We must, however, revert to an interview 
which took place at Bayonne between Catherine de 
Medicis and her daughter the Queen of Spain, who was 
accompanied by the Duke of Alva, in the month of 


June 15G4. The Queen-mother had travelled south 
to the Spanish frontier, to hold this interview, of 
sinister augury for the Huguenots. 

The Queen-mother had by this time gone entirely 
round to the Guise party, and carried her son, Charles 
IX., with her. She was equally desirous, with the 
Duke of Alva, to extirpate heresy. But while the 
duke urged their immediate extermination, in accom- 
plishing which he offered the help of a Spanish army, 
Catherine, on the contrary, was in favour of tem- 
porising with them. It might be easy for Philip to 
extirpate heresy by force in Spain or Italy, where 
the Protestants were few in number ; but the case was 
different in France, where the Huguenots had shown 
themselves able to bring large armies into the field, led 
by veteran generals ; and where they actually held in 
their possession many of the strongest places in France. 

Alva urged that the Queen-mother should strike at 
the leaders of the party, and cut them off at once. 
He would rather catch the large fish and let the small 
fry alone. " One salmon," said he, " is worth a thou- 
sand frogs." 1 

The Queen-mother assured the duke of her ardent 
desire to extirpate the Reformed religion; her only 
difficulty consisted in the means by which it was to 
be accomplished. She had been brought up in the 
school of Machiavelli, and could bide her time. 

In the meanwhile, she determined to retain the 
governing power as much as possible in her own 
hands. One method by which she effected this, was> 
by the corruption of her son. " Will there be no pity/' 
asked M. de Chateaubriand, 7 "for this monarch of 
twenty-three years of age, born with good talents, 
with a taste for literature and the arts, a character 
naturally generous, whom a detestable mother had 

' Davila, the Italian historian, expression. Mathieu does the 
a confidant of Catherine de same. 
Medicis, mentions this famous a Etudes Histori^nes. 


delighted to deprave by all the abuses of debauchery 
and power ? " 

The means which she employed are horrible to con- 
template. She surrounded him with the worst speci- 
mens of both sexes ; and the young king was brought 
up amidst gambling, drunkenness, and debauchery of 
the worst description. The Queen never lost sight of 
the promise she had made to the Duke of Alva. The 
Protestants were to be extirpated, and murder was to 
be the instrument employed. 

The young chief of the Huguenots, Henry of 
Navarre, afterwards Henry IV., was invited, with 
the other nobles and princes of the Reformers, to 
attend Court at the nuptials of the King with Eliza- 
beth of Austria, in 1570. But the rejoicings at Paris 
had no temptations for the cautious chiefs. They 
preferred to remain in security at their strong fortress 
of Rochelle. 

Another plan remained to be adopted. Catherine 
de Medicis arranged a match between her daughter 
Margaret and Henry of Navarre ; and she desired 
the King to offer his sister's hand in marriage to the 
chief of the Huguenots. The King wrote to Admiral 
Coligny in terms of praise and admiration, and offered 
to send an army into Flanders under his command, 
to co-operate with the Prince of Orange against the 
King of Spain. 

Henry of Navarre accepted the proposal of marriage 
with the King's sister. Admiral Coligny himself was 
won over by the King's offered terms of reconciliation. 
Jeanne D'Albret, Henry's mother, concurred in the 
union; and the Huguenot chiefs generally believed that 
the marriage might put an end to the feuds and civil 
wars that had so long prevailed between the rival re- 
ligious communities of France. 

Pope Pius V., however, refused to grant the neces- 
sary dispensation to enable the marriage to be cele- 
brated according to the rites of the Roman Catholic 
Church ; but the Queen-mother got over this little 


difficulty by causing a dispensation to be forged in 
the Pope's name. 1 

As Catherine de Medicis had anticipated, the heads 
of the Keformed party, regarding the marriage as 
an important step towards national reconciliation, 
resorted to Paris in large numbers, to celebrate the 
event and grace the royal nuptials. Amongst those 
present were Admiral Coligny and his family. Some 
of the Huguenot chiefs were not without apprehen- 
sions for their personal safety, and even urged the 
admiral to quit Paris. But he believed in the pre- 
tended friendship of the Queen-mother and her son, 
and insisted on staying until the ceremony was over. 
The marriage was celebrated with great splendour in 
the cathedral church of Notre Dame on the 18th of 
August 1572, the principal members of the nobility, 
Protestant as well as Roman Catholic, being present 
on the occasion. It was followed by a succession of 
feasts and gaieties, in which the leaders of both par- 
ties participated ; and the fears of the Huguenots were 
thus completely disarmed. 

On the day after the marriage, a secret council was 
held in Catherine de Medicis' private chamber, at which 
it was determined to proclaim a general massacre of 
the Huguenots. 

There were present at this meeting, Catherine, her 
son Henry duke of Anjou, Henry of Guise, an Italian 
bishop, and other favourites. There is no doubt about 
the premeditation of the massacre. The French 
Roman Catholic historians admit it, De Thou, 
Mdzeray, Pe're'fixe, and Mainbourg. The Italian his- 
torians go further : Davila, Capilupi, Adrian!, and 
Catena, admire the premeditation, and see in the 
massacre the wonderful effect of the blessings of 
Heaven ! 

The rejoicings on the occasion of the marriage lasted 
for four days. On the fourth day, the 22nd of August, 

1 VACVILUEBS Hustoire de Jeanne d'Albrct, 


Coligny attended a council at the Louvre, and went 
afterwards with the King to the tennis court, where 
Charles and the Duke of Guise played a game against 
two Huguenot gentlemen. In the meantime, Maure- 
vel, the king's assassin (le tueur du roi) had been 
sent for, and invited to murder the Huguenot leader. 
The assassin lay in wait for the Admiral in a house 
situated near the church of Saint Germain TAuxerrois, 
between the Louvre and the Rue Be'thisy. As Coligny 
was walking home from his interview with the King, 
and reading a paper, Maurevel fired at him, and 
wounded him in the hand and arm. 1 Coligny suc- 
ceeded in reaching his hotel, where he was attended 
by Ambrose Pare', who performed upon him a painful 
operation. The King visited the wounded man at his 
hotel, professed the greatest horror at the dastardly 
act which had been attempted, and vowed vengeance 
against the assassin. 

The conspirators met again on the following day, 
the 23rd of August, at the Louvre. After dinner, the 
Queen-mother entered the King's chamber; and, shortly 
after, his brother, the Duke of Anjou, and several lords 
of the Roman Catholic party. Charles was then in- 
formed that the admiral (who was l}*ing helplessly 
wounded) and his friends, were at that moment plot- 
ting his destruction, and that if he did not anticipate 
them, he and his family would be sacrificed. Mad- 
dened by the malicious representations of his mother, 
he cried out, " Kill all ! Kill all ! Let not one escape 
to reproach me with the deed ! " 

The plan of the massacre had already been ar- 
ranged. Its execution was entrusted to the Dukes 
of Guise, Anjou, Aumale, Montpensier, and Marshal 
Favannes. Midnight approached, and the day of St. 
Bartholomew arrived. It wanted two hours of the 
appointed time. All was still at the Louvre. The 

Maurevel, though his shot ceived from the King 2,000 crowns 
failed, was rewarded, lie re- and the Collar of the Order. 


Queen-mother, and her two sons, Charles IX. and the 
Duke of Anjou, went to an open balcony and awaited 
the result in breathless silence. Two o'clock struck. 
The die was cast. The great bell of the church of St. 
Auxerrois rang to early prayer. It was the arranged 
signal for the massacre to begin. Almost immediately 
after, the first pistol-shot was heard. Three hundred 
of the royal guard, who had been held in readiness 
during the night, rushed out into the streets, shouting 
" For God and the King ! " To distinguish themselves 
in the darkness, they wore a white sash on the left 
arm, and a white cross in their hats. 

Before leaving the palace, a party of the guard 
murdered the retinue of the young King of Navarre, 
then the guests of Charles IX. in the Louvre. On the 
evening of St. Bartholomew, and after he had given 
his orders for the massacre, Charles redoubled his 
kindness to the King of Navarre, and desired him 
to introduce some of his best officers into the Louvre, 
that they might be at hand in case of any disturb- 
ances from the Guises. One by one these officers were 
called by name from their rooms, and marched down 
unarmed into the quadrangle, where they were hewed 
down before the very eyes of their royal host. A 
more perfidious butchery is probably not recorded in 

At the same time, mischief was afoot throughout 
Paris. Le Charron, provost of the merchants, and 
Marcel, his ancient colleague, had mustered a large 
number of desperadoes, to whom respective quarters 
had been previously assigned, and they now hastened 
to enter upon their frightful morning's work. 

The Duke of Guise determined to anticipate all 
others in the murder of Coligny. Hastening to his 
hotel, the Duke's party burst in the outer door. The 
admiral was roused from his slumber by the shots fired 
at his followers in the courtyard below. He rose from 
his couch, and, though scarcely able to stand, he fled 
to an upper chamber. Thither he was tracked by his 


assassins, who stabbed him to death as he stood lean- 
ing against the wall. His body was flung out of the 
window into the courtyard. 

The Duke of Guise, who had been waiting impa- 
tiently below, hurried up to the corpse, and wiping 
the blood from the admiral's face, said, " I know him 
it is he ! " then, kicking the body with his foot, he 
called out to his followers " Courage, comrades, we 
have begun well. Now for the rest ! The King 
commands it." They then rushed out into the street. 

The fury of the Court was seconded by the long- 
pent-up hatred of the Parisians. The massacre of St. 
Bartholomew was infinitely more ferocious than the 
butcheries of the Revolutionists of 1792, or of the Com- 
munists of 1871. The Huguenots were slaughtered in 
their beds, or while endeavouring to escape unarmed, 
without any regard to age or sex or condition. The 
Court leaders galloped through the streets, cheering the 
armed citizens to the slaughter. " Death to the Hu- 
guenots ! " " Kill kill : bleeding is as wholesome in 
Augustas in May! " shouted the Marshal Favannes; 
" Kill all ! Kill all ! God will know His own ! " Nor 
were the populace slow to imitate the bloodthirsti- 
ness of their superiors. The slaughter, however, was 
not wholly confined to the Huguenots. Secret re- 
venge and personal hatred embraced this glorious 
opportunity; and many Roman Catholics fell by the 
hands of these Roman Catholic assassins. 

Firing was heard in every quarter throughout Paria 
The houses of the Huguenots, which had been 
marked, were broken into ; and men, women, and 
children, were sabred or shot down. It was of no 
use trying to fly. The fugitives were slaughtered in 
the streets. The King himself seized his arquebus, 
and securely fired upon his subjects from a window in 
the Louvre. 

Corpses blocked the doorways ; mutilated bodies lay 
in every lane and passage ; and thousands were cast 
into the Seine, then swollen by a flood. 


Jean Goujon, the famous sculptor, sometimes 
styled the French Phidias, was shot from below, whilst 
employed on a scaffold in executing the decorative 
work of the old Louvre. Goudimal, the musical com- 
poser, and Ramus, the philosopher, were slain during 
the massacre. Before this time, Ramus's house had 
been pillaged and his library destroyed. Dumoulin, 
the great jurisconsult, had previously escaped by 
death. "The execrable day of St. Bartholomew," 
said the Catholic Chateaubriand, "only made martyrs : 
it gave to philosophical ideas an advantage over 
religious ideas which has never since been lost." 

At the same time, there were many who escaped the 
swords of the assassins. Some of the Huguenots on 
the southern side of the Seine had time to compre- 
hend their position, and escaped. But what of Henry 
of Navarre and Henry of Condd ? The King sent for 
them during the massacre, and said to them in a 
ferocious tone, " The mass, death, or the Bastille ! " 
After some resistance, the princes consented to make 
profession of the Romish faith. 

Palissy, of whom we have already spoken, was 
now an old man, and he owed his escape to the cir- 
cumstance that he was then in the employment of 
Catherine de Medicis. Ambrose Pare*, the surgeon, 
also escaped. He had won the confidence of the 
King, by saving him from the effects of a wound in- 
flicted on him by a clumsy surgeon, when performing 
the operation of venesection. Pard, though a Hugue- 
not, held the important office of Surgeon-in-ordinary 
to the King, and was constantly about his person. To 
this circumstance he owed his escape from the 
massacre, the King having concealed him during the 
first night in a private room adjoining his own 

The massacre lasted for three days. At length, on 
the fourth day, when the fury of the assassins had 
become satiated, and the Huguenots had for the 
most part been slain, a dead silence fell upon the 


streets of Paris. Perhaps the people began to reflect 
that it was their own countrymen whom they had slain. 

These dreadful deeds at the capital were almost im- 
mediately followed by similar massacres all over France. 
From fifteen to eighteen hundred persons were killed 
at Lyons ; and the dwellers on the Rhone, below that 
city, were horrified by the sight of the dead bodies 
floating down the river. Six hundred were killed at 
Rouen ; and many more at Dieppe and Havre. The 
massacre in the provinces lasted more than six weeks ! 
The numbers killed throughout France have been 
variously estimated. Sully says 70,000 were slain ; 
the Roman Catholic Bishop Perefixe has said that 
100,000 were destroyed. 

While the streets of Paris were still besmeared with 
blood, the clergy celebrated an extraordinary jubilee. 
They appeared in a general procession. They deter- 
mined to consecrate an annual feast to a triumph so 
glorious. A medal was struck in commemoration of the 
event, bearing the legend," Piety has awakened justice " ! 

Catherine de Medicis wrote in triumph to the Duke 
of Alva, to Philip II., and to the Pope, describing the 
results of the three days' dreadful work in Paris. 
When Philip heard of the massacre, he is said to have 
laughed for the first and only time in his life. Rome 
was thrown into a delirium of joy at the news. The 
cannon were fired at St. Angelo ; Gregory XIII. and 
his cardinals went in procession from sanctuary to 
sanctuary to give God thanks for the massacre. The 
subject was ordered to be painted, and a medal was 
struck to celebrate the event, with the Pope's head 
on one side, and on the other an angel, with a cross 
in one hand and a sword in the other, pursuing and 
slaying a band of flying heretics strange work for an 
angel ! The legend it bears UGONOTTORUM STRAGES, 
1572 (Massacre of the Huguenots, 1572) briefly epi- 
tomises the horrible story. 1 

1 An authentic copy of this medal is to be seen at the British 


The Cardinal of Lorraine, the head of the Guises, 
was at Rome at the time of the massacre, and he cele- 
brated the affair by a procession to the French church 
of St. Louis. He had an inscription written upon the 
gates in letters of gold, saying that " the Lord had 
granted the prayers which he had offered to Him for 
twelve years." 

Cardinal Orsini was despatched on a special mission 
to Paris to congratulate the King ; and on his passage 
through Lyons, the assassins of the Huguenots, with the 
blood on their hands scarcely dry, knelt before the holy 
man in the cathedral, and received his blessing. 

As for the wretched young King of France, the 
terrible crime, to which he had been a party, weighed 
upon his mind to the last moment of his life. He 
survived the massacre for about two years ; but the 
recollection of the scenes of which he had been a 
witness, constantly haunted him. He became restless, 
haggard, and miserable. He saw his murdered guests 
sitting by his side, at bed and at board. "Ambrose," 
said he to his confidential physician, " I know not 
what has happened to me these two or three days 
past, but I feel my mind and body as much at enmity 
with each other as if I was seized with a fever. Sleep- 
ing or waking, the murdered Huguenots seem ever 
present to my eyes, with ghastly faces, and weltering 
in blood. I wish the innocent and helpless had been 
spared." He died in tortures of mind impossible to be 
described, attended in his last moments, strange to 
say, by a Huguenot physician and a Huguenot nurse : 
one of the worst horrors that haunted him being that 
his own mother was causing his death by slow poison- 
ing, an art in which he knew that great bad woman 
to be fearfully accomplished. 

To return to the surviving Huguenots, and the 
measures adopted by them for self-preservation. 
Though they were at first stunned by the massacre, 
they were not slow to associate themselves together, 
in those districts in which they wert> sufficiently strong, 



for purposes of self-defence. Along the western sea- 
board, at points where they felt themselves unable to 
make head against their persecutors, they put to sea in 
ships and boats, and made for England, where they 
landed in great numbers at Rye, at Hastings, at 
Southampton, and the numerous other ports on the 
south coast. This was particularly the case with the 
artizans and skilled labour class, whose means of 
living are always imperilled by civil war. These fled 
into England, to endeavour, if possible, to pursue 
their respective callings in peace, and to worship God 
according to conscience. 

But the Huguenot nobles and gentry would not 
and could not abandon their followers to destruction. 
They gathered together in their strong places, and 
prepared to defend themselves, by force against force. 
In the Cevennes, Dauphiny, and other quarters, they 
betook themselves to the mountains for refuge. In 
the plains of the south, fifty towns closed their gates 
against the royal troops. Wherever resistance was 
possible, it showed itself. The little town of Sancerre 
held out successfully for ten months, during which the 
inhabitants, without arms, heroically defended them- 
selves with slings called " the arquebusses of San- 
cerre " ; enduring meanwhile the most horrible priva- 
tions, and reduced to eat moles, snails, bread made of 
straw mixed with scraps of horse-harness, and even 
the parchment of old title-deeds. 

A violent attack was made upon the Huguenot 
fortress of La Rochelle by the Duke of Anjou,the King's 
brother, one of the principal authors of the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew. While the assassins were at work 
throughout the country, the Huguenots resorted to 
their towns of refuge. La Rochelle was one of these. 
Fugitives fled thither from all quarters. Sixteen hun- 
dred citizens and 1500 strangers occupied the place. 

The King despatched General Biron with a strong 
force to garrison the town. It was too late : the citi- 
zens refused to sdmit him. Hence it was determined 


to attack La Rochelle, and reduce it to submission. 
Towards the end of 1572, the place was accordingly 
invested by the royal army, which continued to receive 
reinforcements during the winter; and in spring the 
Duke of Anjou arrived and assumed the chief com- 
mand. He was accompanied by the Duke of Alen<jon, 
the Guises, and other royalist chiefs, as well as by 
Henry of Navarre and Henry Prince of Conde ; and 
the Duke of Anjou now desired to show them, how 
speedily and thoroughly he could root out this nest of 
piracy and sedition. 

La Rochelle was well provisioned and garrisoned. 
The citizens had made good use of the winter months 
to strengthen the ramparts, and improve the de- 
fences of the place. The besiegers erected forts on 
either side of the entrance to the port, and stationed a 
large vessel, heavily armed with artillery, in the centre 
of the bay, thus entirely cutting off all communication 
with the place by sea. 

La Noue, the commander of the garrison, was dis- 
posed to negotiate, but the people would not hear of 
capitulation on any terms. They knew that their ad- 
miral, Jean Sore, and the Count of Montgomery, were 
organizing in England an army of refugee Huguenots, 
and they daily expected to see the sails of their 
squadron in the offing. After five weeks' battering 
of the walls, attended with many skirmishes, the 
besiegers determined upon a general assault. The first 
proved a total failure. Three other furious assaults 
followed, which were repulsed with great loss. Four 
times the Huguenot hymn, 

" Que Dieu se montre settlement!"* 

sounded as a chant of triumph from the towers of La 
Rochelle ; and the besiegers were driven back again 
and again. The fourth and most desperate assault was 
made on the Bastion de 1'Evangile, now occupied as a 
cemetery, at the north-west corner of the town. The 

1 Psalm Ixviii. The Huguenot war-song. 


Duke of Anjou had just been elected King of Poland, 
and he determined to celebrate the event by the cap- 
ture of the place. After a, feu dejoie from all the guns, 
which were heavily shotted and pointed at the bastion, 
a breach was made, and the troops rushed forward to 
the assault. The defenders crowded the breach, despe- 
rately contesting every inch of ground. The towns- 
people and the women cheered them on. The women 
even mounted the bastions and poured boiling tar 
down on the assailants, as well as stink-pots, hot iron, 
and showers of stones. The loss of life in the assault 
was dreadful. The Bastion de 1'Evangile proved the 
cemetery of the royal army. The Duke of Nevers, the 
Marquis of Mayenne, Count Retz, Du Guast (the Duke 
of Anjou's favourite), and many other distinguished 
officers, were more or less severely wounded. Cosseins, 
the captain of the guard who superintended the assas- 
sination of Admiral Coligny, was one of the numer- 
ous heap of dead that filled the breach. 

By the month of June, 20,000 royalist troops had 
perished, and the place was not yet taken. The pro- 
visions of the besieged began to run short, but not 
their courage. An unusual supply of shell-fish in the 
bay and the harbour, seemed to them a supply of food 
from heaven. Their admiral, Jean Sore, appeared 
with a small squadron off the bay, but he could not 
force the entrance to the harbour. The royal army, 
however, did not renew the attack. The Duke of 
Anjou, desirous of entering into possession of his king- 
dom, negotiated for peace ; and a peace was arranged 
on the 24th of June, 1573, by which the Protestants of 
La Rochelle, Nismes, and Montauban were guaranteed 
the free exercise of their religion. The siege was 
raised three days later, after having lasted six months 
and a half. 

The Duke of Anjou then proceeded to Poland to 
assume the rule of his kingdom. That country was 
then in a wretched state. The people were discontented; 
the aristocracy were venal : all were corrupt. Their 


new king very soon detested the country as well as 
the people. At length, when Charles IX., tortured 
in mind and body, died in May 1574, less than two 
years after the massacre of Saint Bartholomew, the 
Duke of Anjou suddenly returned to Paris to assume 
the title of king, under the name of Henry III. 

This was the third son of Catherine de Medicis' 
who ruled France; but his reign was not more 
successful than those of his elder brothers. He was 
more bigoted than either of them; and though he 
flogged himself in the public street, and went in 
procession from shrine to shrine, yet he jeered at the 
saints he pretended to reverence. He turned religion 
into ridicule. He was surrounded by minions and 
favourites, male and female, and made his court a 
scene of debauchery. 

The feeling of loyalty was rudely shaken, amongst 
Roman Catholics as well as Huguenots. Disgust 
took possession of the hearts of all honourable and 
religious men. They saw knighthood covered with 
disgrace, and religion degraded into ridicule. Henry of 
Navarre, who had been detained at court, virtually a 
prisoner, since the events of St. Bartholomew's Day, 
made his escape, accompanied by the Prince of Conde. 
They abjured the Roman Catholic religion, which had 
been imposed upon them by Charles IX. under fear of 
assassination. They set up the old standard of freedom 
of religion, and levies flocked to their support. The 
Queen-mother granted another peace. The worship 
of the Huguenots was permitted in all parts of France, 
except in Paris ; the massacre of Saint Bartholomew 
was disavowed ; and several additional towns were 
surrendered to the Protestants as pledges for their 

All this, however, was most galling to the Roman 
Catholics. They were still determined to put down 
the Reformed religion. Accordingly, in 1576, a Holy 
League was formed, the object of which was to extir- 
pate heresy, and to spare neither friend nor foe until 


the pestilence was banished. The leader of this 
League was Henry of Guise, son of that old Francis 
of Guise who had led the Royal assassins at the 
massacre of Saint Bartholomew. Henry's whole heart 
was devoted to Rome. He was the most popular 
man in Paris. The Parisians even hailed him as 
the future king of France. "No Protestant king of 
Navarre," they cried : " we will have Catholic Henry 
of Guise ! " 

The States-General met at Blois, when the members, 
being bribed or bullied by the Guises, passed an edict 
interdicting the Huguenot faith, and withdrawing all 
the guarantee towns from their hands. This amounted 
to a declaration of war. The King himself joined the 
League, and instead of being the King of the nation, 
degraded himself into being the King of a party. 
But the policy of the Medicis and the Guises was of 
a piece throughout. 

The Holy League was followed by a dreary and 
wasteful succession of civil wars. The country was 
overrun by lawless troops, who robbed, burned, and 
murdered everywhere. There were seven civil wars in 
all. One was called the " War of the Lovers," having 
originated in an intrigue of the court. Another was 
called the "War of the three Henrys," the King having 
separated himself from Henry of Guise, but refused to 
unite with Henry of Navarre. Another was called the 
" War of the Barricades," the troops of Henry of Guise 
having attacked the Royal troops (chiefly Swiss) in 
the streets of Paris. Henry III. then fled to Chartres, 
leaving Paris in the possession of Henry of Guise. 

The States were summoned to meet at Blois in 
December 1588. Henry of Guise went, at the earnest 
invitation of the King, to meet him and the Queen- 
mother. As he crossed the hall that led to the great 
staircase, the King's attendants locked and barred 
the gates. Guise entered the council-chamber, and 
was warming himself at the fire, when he was sent for 
by the King. Turning aside the tapestry hung over 


the door, he was set upon by forty-five gentlemen-in- 
waiting armed with daggers, and fell pierced with 
more than forty wounds. The royal murderer, issuing 
from the oratory of Catherine de Medicis, came to 
look at the corpse of the once mighty Henry of Guise, 
kicked it in the face (as Henry's father had before 
kicked the face of Admiral Coligny), and saying, " Je 
ne le croyais pas aussi grand," he ordered the corpse 
to be burnt and the ashes thrown into the Loire. 

On the following day, the Cardinal de Lorraine, 
brother of the Duke, was murdered in another part 
of the castle. Catherine de Medicis had now finished 
the atrocities of her life. She died twelve days after 
the murder of Henry of Guise ; and eight months 
later, her son Henry III. was assassinated by Jacques 
Clement, the Dominican monk, in the camp before 
Paris, in August 1589. 1 

Such was the end of the Guises, and such was the 
end of Catherine de Medicis and her sons. They all 
carried on their foreheads the ineffaceable brand of 
the massacre of Saint Bartholomew. 

Henry III. was the last of the House of Valois. At 
his death, Henry of Navarre, by virtue of his right as 
next heir to the crown, succeeded to the throne of 
France, as Henry the Fourth. 

1 The murder of the Duke of us ! " Pope Sixtus V. declared, 

Guise roused the hostility of the in full consistory, that the action 

Papal party. Henry III. had of the martyr Jacques Clement 

joined Henry of Navarre in en- might be compared, as regarded 

deavouring to restore peace to the safety of the world, to the 

France. The compromise proved incarnation and resurrection of 

fatal to him. The regicide, Jesus Christ. " It was the policy 

Jacques Clement, was canon- of this Pope," says Chateau- 

ized from all the pulpits as briand, the Catholic historian, 

" the most blessed child of " to encourage fanatics who were 

Dominique, the Holy Martyr of ready to kill kings in the name 

Jesus Christ." His portrait was of the Papal power." (Etudet 

placed on the altars with these Historiyues, iv. 371.) 
words : " Saint Jacques, pray for 



WHILE the rulers of France and Spain were making 
these determined efforts to crush the principles of the 
Reformation in their dominions, the Protestants of 
England regarded their proceedings with no small 
degree of apprehension and alarm. They had them- 
selves suffered from sanguinary persecutions, during 
the reign of Queen Mary, commonly known as " the 
bloody." Mary had married Philip, Prince of Spain, 
afterwards Philip II., one of the cruelest and most 
bigoted of kings. Protestant writers affirm that 
about two hundred and eighty victims perished at 
the stake, from the 4th of February 1555, when 
John Rogers was burnt at Smithfield, to the 10th 
of November 1558, when three men and two women 
were burnt at Colchester. Dr. Lingard, after making 
every allowance, admits that "in the space of four 
years almost two hundred persons perished in the 
flames for religious opinion." 1 

The bond which, for a time, united England to Spain, 
had enabled Mary to engage in a war with France, 
during which the English and Spanish troops fought 
together. The only result, so far as England was 
concerned, was that the town and territory of Calais, 
which up to that time had been possessed by England, 
were taken by the French under the Duke of Guise in 

1 Among the most distin- St. David's, Latimer of "Worces- 
guished sufferers were Hooper, ter, Ridley of London, and Gran- 
bishop of Gloucester, Ferrar of mer, archbishop of Canterbury. 


1558, after a siege of a few days. This event, which 
was regarded as a national disgrace, excited the bitterest 
feelings of dissatisfaction throughout the country. But 
towards the end of the year Mary died ; and the burnings 
of heretics and the defeats of English soldiers came to 
an end. She was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth, 
who completely reversed the policy which Mary and 
her husband had adopted in England. 

Though the Reformed faith had made considerable 
progress in the English towns at the period of Eliza- 
beth's accession to the throne in 1558, it was still in a 
considerable minority throughout the country. 1 The 
great body of the nobility, the landed gentry, and the 
rural population, adhered to the old religion ; while 
there was a considerable middle class of Gallios, who 
were content to wait the issue of events before de- 
claring themselves for either side. 

During the reigns which had preceded that of 
Elizabeth, the country had been ill-governed and the 
public interests neglected. The nation was in debt 
and unarmed, with war raging abroad. But Elizabeth's 
greatest difficulty consisted in the fact of her being a 
Protestant, and the successor of a Roman Catholic 
queen who had reigned with undisputed power during 
the five years which preceded her accession to the 

Soames, in Ms Elizabethan the mouth of the Severn) formed 

g History, says that at the boundary of their respective 

the accession of Elizabeth two- dominions. The Catholics of the 

thirds of the people were Catho- north were headed by the great 

lies. Butler, in his Memoirs of families (of the Percys and 

the Catholics, holds the same Nevilles), and had on their side 

view. On the other hand, Mr. all those advantages which the 

Hallam, in his ConstitutioTial prescription of ages alone can 

History, estimates that in 1559 give. To the south were the Pro- 

the Protestants were two-thirds testants, who, though they could 

of the population. Mr. Buckle in- boast of none of those great his- 

clines to the view that the Protes- torical names which reflected a 

tants were still in the minority. lustre on their opponents, were 

" Of the two great parties," he supported by the authority of 

says, " one occupied the north the government, and felt that en- 

and the other the south, and a thusiastic confidence which only 

line, drawn from the Hurnber (to belongs to a young religion." 


throne. No sooner bad she become queen than the 
embarrassment of her position was at once felt. The 
Pope denied her legitimacy, and refused to recognise 
her authority. The bishops refused to crown her. 
The two universities united with Convocation in 
presenting to the House of Lords a declaration in 
favour of the papal supremacy. The King of France 
openly supported the claim of Mary Queen of Scots to 
the English throne, and a large and influential body of 
the nobility and gentry were her secret if not her 
avowed partisans. 

From the day of her ascending the throne, Eliza- 
beth was the almost constant object of plots formed to 
destroy her, and thus to pave the way for the re-estab- 
lishment of the old religion. Elizabeth might possibly 
have escaped from her difficulties by accepting the hand 
of Philip II. of Spain, which was offered her. She 
refused, and determined to trust to her people. But 
her enemies were numerous, powerful, and active, in 
conspiring against her authority. They had their 
emissaries at the French and Spanish courts, and at 
the camp of Alva in the Netherlands, urging the inva- 
sion of England and the overthrow of the English 

One of the circumstances which gave the most 
grievous offence to the French and Spanish monarchs, 
was the free asylum which Elizabeth offered in Eng- 
land to the Protestants flying from persecution abroad. 
Though these rulers would not permit their subjects to 
worship according to conscience in their own country, 
neither would they tolerate their leaving it to worship 
in freedom elsewhere. Conformity, not depopulation, 
was their object : conformity by force, if not by suasion. 
All attempts made by the persecuted to leave France 
or Flanders were accordingly interdicted. They were 
threatened with confiscation of their property and 
goods if they fled, and with death if they remained. 
The hearts of the kings were hardened: they "would 
not let the people go !" But the ocean was a broad 


and free road that could not be closed ; and the perse- 
cuted escaped by sea. Tidings reached the kings of 
the escape of their subjects, whom they had failed 
either to convert or to kill. They could only gnash 
their teeth and utter threats against the queen and 
the nation that had given their persecuted people 

The French king formally demanded that Elizabeth 
should banish his fugitive subjects from her realm as 
rebels and heretics ; but he was unable to enforce his 
demands, and the fugitives remained. The Spanish 
monarch called upon the Pope to interfere ; and he in 
his turn tried to close the ports of England against 
foreign heretics. In a communication addressed by 
him to Elizabeth, the Pope proclaimed the fugitives to 
be "drunkards and sectaries" ebriosi et sectarii, 
and declared " that all such as were the worst of the 
people resorted to England, and were by the Queen 
received into safe protection" ad quam velut ad 
asylum omnium impestissimi perfugium invenerunt. 

The Pope's denunciations of the refugees were 
answered by Bishop Jewell, who vindicated their cha- 
racter, and held them up as examples of industry and 
orderly living. " Is it not lawful," he asked, " for the 
Queen to receive strangers without the Pope's war- 
rant ? " Quoting the above-cited Latin passages, he 
proceeded: "Thus he speaketh of the poor exiles of 
Flanders, France, and other countries, who either lost or 
left behind them all that they had goods, lands, and 
houses not for adultery, or theft, or treason, but for 
the profession of the Gospel. It pleased God here to 
cast them on land ; the Queen, of her gracious pity 
hath granted them harbour. Is it so heinous a thing 
to show mercy?" The bishop proceeded to retort 
upon the Pope for harbouring 6000 usurers and 20,000 
courtezans in his own city of Rome ; and he desired 
to know whether, if the Pope was to be allowed to 
entertain such " servants of the devil," the Queen of 
England was to be denied the liberty of receiving " a 


few servants of God " ? " They are," he continued, 
" our brethren : they live not idly. If they have houses 
of us, they pay rent for them. They hold not our 
grounds but by making due recompense. They beg 
not in our streets, nor crave anything at our hands, 
but to breathe our air and to see our sun. They 
labour truefully, they live sparingly. They are good 
examples of virtue, travail, faith, and patience. The 
towns in which they abide are happy ; for God doth 
follow them with His blessings." 1 

When the French and Spanish monarchs found that 
Elizabeth continued to give an asylum to their Protes- 
tant subjects, they proceeded to compass her death. 

Assassination was in those days regarded as the 
readiest method of getting rid of an adversary ; and in 
the case of an excommunicated person, it was regarded 
almost in the light of a religious duty. When the 
Regent Murray (of Scotland) was assassinated by Both- 
wellhaugh, in 1570, Mary Queen of Scotland gave the 
assassin a pension. Attempts were made about the 
same time on the life of William of Orange, surnamed 
"The Silent." One made at Mechlin, in 1572, proved 
a failure ; but William was eventually assassinated at 
Delft, in 1585, by Balthazar Gerard, an avowed agent 
of Philip II. and the Jesuits ; and Philip afterwards 
ennobled the family of the assassin. 

In the meantime Maiy, Queen of Scotland, after her 
return from France, had assumed the government of 
her northern subjects. Mary never forgot the school 
of the Guises, in which she had been trained. She 
desired to enforce Popery upon Scotland as the Guises 
had enforced it upon France. But under the spiritual 
direction of Knox, the principles of the Reformation 
had already taken strong hold of the minds of her 
Scotch subjects. Her reign was a reign of bitterness 
and defeat. Her marriage with Both well, the murderer 
of her second husband, was the consummation of her 

1 Bishop Jenell's \VorJa (Parker Society), pp. 1148-9. 


government of Scotland. After the rout of her troops 
at Longside, she fled across the Border and took 
refuge in England. 

Mary gave herself up a prisoner into the hands of 
the English government. She was confined in various 
castles. When the French and Spanish ambassadors, 
who were then at the English court, were privily en- 
gaged in stirring up discontent against Elizabeth, and 
organizing plots against her, they found a ready in- 
strument in the Queen of Scots, then confined in Tut- 
bury Castle. Mary was not held so strict a prisoner 
as to be precluded from carrying on an active corres- 
pondence with her partizans in England and Scotland, 
with the Duke of Guise and others in France, and with 
the Duke of Alva and Philip II. in Flanders and Spain. 
Guilty though the Queen of Scots had been of the 
death of her husband, the Roman Catholics of England 
regarded her as their rightful head, and were ready to 
rise in arms in her cause. 

Mary was an inveterate intriguer. We find her en- 
treating the Courts of France and Spain to send her 
soldiers, artillerymen, and arms; and pressing the king 
of Spain to set on foot the invasion of England, with 
the object of dethroning Elizabeth and restoring the 
Roman Catholic faith. Her importunities, as well as 
the fascinations of her person, were not. without their 
effect upon those under her immediate influence ; and 
she succeeded in inducing the Duke of Norfolk, who 
cherished the hope of becoming her fourth husband, 
to undertake a scheme for her liberation. A con- 
spiracy of the leading nobles was formed, at the head 
of which were the Earls of Northumberland and West- 
moreland ; and in the autumn of 1568 they raised the 
standard of revolt in the northern counties, where the 
power of the Roman Catholic party was the strongest. 1 

1 " After having written to Pope that a port should be seized on 

Pius V., the Spanish ambassador, the eastern coast of England, 

and the Duke of Alva, to request where it would be easy to 

their assistance, and to advise disembark troops, .... they 


But the rising was speedily suppressed ; some of its 
leaders fled into Scotland, and others into foreign 
countries ; the Duke of Norfolk was sent to the Tower ; 
and the Queen's authority was for the time upheld. 

The Pope next launched against Elizabeth the most 
formidable missile of the Church a bull of excommu- 
nication in. which he declared her to be cut off, as the 
minister of iniquity, from the community of the faithful, 
and forbade her subjects to recognise her as their 
sovereign. This document was found nailed up on the 
Bishop of London's door on the morning of the loth 
of May, 1570. The French and Spanish Courts now 
considered themselves at liberty to compass the life of 
Elizabeth by assassination. The Cardinal de Lorraine, 
head of the Church in France, and the confidential 
adviser of the Queen-mother, hired a party of assassins 
in the course of the same year, for the purpose of de- 
stroying Elizabeth, because of the encouragement she 
had given to Coligny and the French Huguenots. 
Again, the Duke of Alva, in his correspondence with 
Mary Queen of Scots and the leaders of the Roman 
Catholic party in England, insisted throughout that 
the first condition of sending a Spanish army to their 
assistance, was the death of Elizabeth. 

Such was the state of affairs when the Bishop of 
Ross, one of Mary's most zealous partizans, set on foot 
a conspiracy for the destruction of the Queen. The 
principal agent employed in communicating with 
foreign powers on the subject was one Ridolfi, a rich 
Florentine banker in London, director of the company 

left Brancepath on the 14th of gates and joined the rebels. Thus 

November, at the head of 500 made masters of the town, the in- 

horsemen, and marched towards surgents proceeded to the cathe- 

Durham. The insurrection was dral, burned the Bible, destroyed 

entirely Catholic. They had the Book of Common Prayer, 

painted Jesus Christ on the cross, broke in pieces the Protestant 

with His five bleeding wounds, communion-table, and restored 

upon a banner borne by old the old form of worship." 

Norton, who was inspired by the MIGNET History of Mary Queer, 

most religious enthusiasm. The of Scot:, 

people of Durham opened their t 


of Italian merchants, and an ardent Papist. Minute 
instructions were drawn up and intrusted to Ridolfi, 
to be laid by him before Pope Pius V. and Philip II. 
of Spain. On his way to Rome through the Low 
Countries, he waited on the Duke of Alva, and pre- 
sented to him a letter from Mary Queen of Scots, 
beseeching him to furnish her with prompt assistance, 
with the object of " laying all this island " under 
perpetual obligations to his master the King of Spain 
as well as to herself, as the faithful executor of his 
commands. 1 

At Rome Ridolfi was welcomed by the Pope, who 
eagerly adopted his plans, and furnished him with a 
letter to Philip II., conjuring that monarch by his 
fervent 'piety towards God to furnish all the means 
he might judge most suitable for carrying them into 
effect. Ridolfi next proceeded to Madrid to hold an 
interview with the Spanish Court, and arrange for the 
murder of the English Queen. He was received to a 
Conference with the Council of State, at which were 
present the Pope's nuncio, the Cardinal Archbishop 
of Seville (Inquisitor-General) ; the Grand Prior of 
Castille, the Duke of Feria, the Prince of Eboli, and 
other high ministers of Spain. 

Ridolfi proceeded to lay his plan for assassinating 
Elizabeth before the Council. 2 He said "the blow 
would not be struck in London, because that city was 
the stronghold of heresy ; but while she was travelling." 
On the Council proceeding to discuss the expediency of 
the proposed murder, the Pope's nuncio at once under- 
took to answer all objections. The one sufficient pre- 
text, he said, was the bull of excommunication. The 
vicar of God had deprived Elizabeth of her throne, and 
the soldiers of the Church were the instruments of his 
decree to execute the sentence of Heaven against the 

Prince Labanoff's Collection, fully written out by Zayas, Secre- 
iii. 216-20. tary of State, and are preserved 
* The minutes of this remark- in the archives of Simancas (In- 
able meeting of Council were . glaterra, fol. 823). 


heretical tyrant. On this, one Chapin Vitelli, who 
had come from Flanders to attend the Council, offered 
himself as the assassin. He said, if the matter was 
intrusted to him, he would take or kill the Queen. The 
councillors of state present then severally stated their 
views, which were placed on record, and are still to be 
seen in the archives at Simancas. 

Philip II. concurred in the plot, and professed 
himself ready to undertake the conquest of England by 
force if it failed ; but he suggested that the Pope should 
supply the necessary money. Philip, however, was a 
man of hesitating purpose ; and, foreseeing the dangers 
of the enterprise, he delayed embarking in it, and 
eventually resolved to leave the matter to the decision 
of the Duke of Alva. 

While these measures against the life of Elizabeth 
were being devised abroad, Mary Queen of Scots was 
diligently occupied at Chatsworth in encouraging a 
like plot at home with the same object. Lord Burleigh, 
however, succeeded in gaining a clue to the conspiracy, 
on which the principal agents in England were appre- 
hended, and the Queen was put upon her guard. The 
Spanish ambassador, Don Gerau, being found in secret 
correspondence with Mary, was warned to depart the 
realm; his last characteristic act being to hire two 
bravoes to assassinate Burleigh. He lingered on the 
road to Dover, hoping to hear that the deed had been 
done. But the assassins were detected in time, and 
instead of taking Burleigh 's life, they only lost their 

The Protestant party were from time to time thrown 
into agonies of alarm by the rumour of these plots 
against the life of their Queen, and by the reported 
apprehension of agents of foreign powers arriving in 
England for the purpose of stirring up rebellion and 
preparing the way for the landing of the Duke of 
Alva and his army. The intelligence brought by the 
poor hunted Flemings, who had by this time landed in 
England in large numbers, and settled in London and 


the principal towns of the south, and the accounts 
which they spread abroad of the terrors of Philip's 
rule in the Low Countries, told plainly enough what 
the English Protestants had to expect if the threatened 
Spanish invasion succeeded. 

The effect of these proceedings was to rouse a 
general feeling of indignation against the foreign 
plotters and persecutors, and to evoke an active and 
energetic public opinion in support of the Queen and 
her government. Though a large proportion of the 
English people were in a great measure undecided 
as to their faith, their feeling of nationality was 
intense. The conduct of Elizabeth herself was doubt- 
less influenced quite as much by political as religious 
considerations ; and in the midst of the difficulties by 
which she was surrounded, her policy often seemed 
tortuous and inconsistent. The nation was, indeed, 
in one of the greatest crises of its fate. The Queen, 
her ministers, and the nation at large, every day more 
clearly recognised in the great questions at stake, not 
merely the cause of Protestantism against Popery, but 
of English nationality against foreign ascendency, and 
of resistance to the threatened yoke of Rome, France, 
and Spain. 

The massacre of Saint Bartholomew, which shortly 
followed, exercised a powerful influence in determining 
the sympathies of the English people. The news of 
its occurrence called forth a general shout of execra- 
tion. The Huguenot fugitives, who crowded for refuge 
into the southern ports, brought with them accounts of 
the barbarities practised on their fellow-countrymen, 
which rilled the national mind with horror. The 
people would have willingly rushed into a war, to 
punish the perfidy and cruelty of the French Romau 
Catholics, but Elizabeth forbade her subjects to tako 
up arms except on their own account as private volun- 

What the Queen's private feelings were, may be in- 
ferred from the reception which she gave to La Motho 


Fenelon, the French ambassador, on his first appear- 
ance at Court after the massacre. For several days she 
refused to see him, but at length she admitted him to 
an audience. The lords and ladies in waiting received 
him in profound silence. They were dressed in deep 
mourning, and grief seemed to sit on every counte- 
nance. They did not deign to salute, or even to look 
at the ambassador, as he advanced towards the Queen, 
who received him with a severe and mournful coun- 
tenance ; and, stammering out his odious apology, 
he hastened from her presence. Rarely, if ever, had 
a French ambassador appeared at a foreign court, 
ashamed of the country he represented ; but on this 
occasion, La Mothe Fenelon declared, in the bitterness 
of his heart, that he blushed to bear the name of 

The perfidious butchery of the Huguenots excited 
the profoundest indignation throughout Scotland. 
John Knox denounced it from the pulpit of St. Giles's. 
" The sentence is gone forth," he said, " against this 
murderer, the King of France; and the vengeance 
of God will not be withdrawn from his house. His 
name shall be held in execration by posterity ; and no 
one who shall spring from his loins shall possess the 
kingdom in peace, unless repentance come to prevent 
the judgment of God." 

The massacre of Saint Bartholomew most probably 
sealed the fate of Mary Stuart. She herself rejoiced 
in it as a bold stroke for the Faith, and, it might be, 
as the signal for a like enterprise on her own behalf. 
Accordingly, she went on plotting as before; and in 
1581 she was found engaged in a conspiracy with the 
Duke of Lennox for the re-establishment of Popery 
in Scotland, under the auspices of the Jesuits. These 
intrigues of the Queen of Scots at length became 
intolerable. Her repeated and urgent solicitations 
to the King of Spain to invade England with a view 
to the re-establishment of the old religion the con- 
spiracies against the life of Elizabeth in which she was 


from time to time detected 1 excited the vehement 
indignation of the English nation, and eventually led 
to her trial and execution ; for it was felt that so long 
as Mary Stuart lived, the life of the English Queen, as 
well as the liberties of the English people, were in 
constant jeopardy. 

It is doubtless easy to condemn the policy of Eliza- 
beth in this matter, now that we are living in the light 
of the nineteenth century, and peacefully enjoying the 
freedom won for us through the sufferings and agony of 
our forefathers. But, in judging of the transactions of 
those times, it is right that allowance should be made 
for the different moral sense which then prevailed, 
as well as for the circumstances amidst which the 
nation carried on its life-and-death struggle for inde- 
pendent existence. Right is still right, it is true ; 
but the times have become completely changed, and 
public opinion has changed with them. 

In the meanwhile, religious persecutions continued 
to rage abroad with as much fury as before ; and 

1 One of such conspiracies he said, " with ten gentlemen and 
against the life of Elizabeth was a hundred others of our corn- 
that conducted by John Ballard, pany and suite, will undertake 
a Roman Catholic priest, in 1686. the deliverance of your royal 
The principal instrument in the person from the hands of your 
affair was one Anthony Babing- enemies. As regards getting 
ton, who had been for two years rid of the usurper, from subjec- 
the intermediary correspondent tion to whom we are absolved 
between Mary Stuart, the Arch- by the act of excommunication 
bishop of Glasgow, and Paget issued against her, there are six 
and Morgan, his co-conspirators. gentlemen of quality, all of them 
Ballard, Babington, and the rest my intimate friends, who, for the 
of the gang, were detected, love they bear to- the Catholic 
watched, and eventually cap- cause and to your Majesty's 
tnred and condemned, through service, will undertake the tragic 
the vigilance of Elizabeth's ever- execution." In the same letter 
watchful minister Walsingham. Babington requested Mary Stuart 
Mary had been kept fully advised to appoint persons to act as her 
of all their proceedings. Bab- lieutenants, and to raise the popu- 
ington wrote to her in June 1587, lace in Wales, and in the counties 
explaining the intention of the of Lancashire, Derby, and Staf- 
oonspirators, and enumerating ford. This letter, with others to 
all the means for getting rid of a like effect, duly came into the 
Elizabeth. " Myself in person," possession of Walsinpham. 


fugitives from Flanders and France continued to take 
refuge in England, where they received protection and 
asylum. Few of the refugees brought any property 
with them : the greater number were entirely destitute. 
But many brought with them that kind of wealth 
which money cannot buy intelligence, skill, virtue, 
and the spirit of independence, those very qualities, 
which made them hateful to their persecutors, render- 
ing them all the more valuable to the countries of 
their adoption. 

A large part of Flanders, before so rich and so pros- 
perous, had by this time become reduced almost to a 
state of desert. The country was eaten bare by the 
Spanish armies. Wild beasts infested the abandoned 
dwellings of the peasantry, and wolves littered their 
young in the deserted farmhouses. Bruges and Ghent 
became the resort of thieves and paupers. The sack 
of Antwerp in 1585 gave the last blow to the stagger- 
ing industry of that great city ; and though many of 
its best citizens had already fled from it into Holland 
and England, one-third of the remaining merchants 
and workers in silks, damasks, and other stuffs, shook 
the dust of the Low Countries from their feet, and left 
the country for ever. 

Philip of Spain at length determined to take 
summary vengeance upon England. He was master 
of the most powerful army and navy in the world, and 
he believed that he could effect by force what he had 
been unable to compass by intrigue. The most stern 
and bigoted of kings, the great colossus of the Papacy, 
the duly-appointed Defender of the Faith, he resolved, 
at the same time that he pursued and punished his 
recreant subjects who had taken refuge in England, to 
degrade and expel the sacrilegious occupant of the 
English throne. Accordingly, in 1588, he prepared 
and launched his Sacred Armada, one of the most 
powerful armaments that ever put to sea. It con- 
sisted of 130 ships, besides transports, carrying 2650 
great guns and 33,000 soldiers and sailors, besides 180 


priests and monks under a Vicar-General of the Holy 
Inquisition. It was also furnished with chains and 
instruments of torture, and with smiths and mechanics 
to set them to work, destined for the punishment of 
the audacious and pestilent heretics who had so long 
defied the triumphant power of Spain. 

This armament was to be joined in its progress by 
another equally powerful fleet off the coast of Flanders, 
consisting of an immense number of flat-bottomed 
boats, carrying an army of 100,000 men, equipped 
with the best weapons and materials of war, who 
were to be conveyed to the mouth of the Thames 
under the escort of the great Spanish fleet. 

The expedition was ably planned. The Pope blessed 
it, and promised to co-operate with his money ; pledg- 
ing himself to advance a million of ducats so soon as 
the expedition reached the British shores. At the 
same time, the bull issued by Pope Pius V., excom- 
municating Elizabeth and dispossessing her of her 
throne, was confirmed by Sextus V., and re-issued 
with additional anathemas. Setting forth under such 
auspices, it is not surprising to find that Catholic 
Europe entertained the conviction that the expedition 
must necessarily prove successful, and that Elizabeth 
and Protestantism in England were doomed to inevit- 
able destruction. 

No measure could, however, have been better cal- 
culated than this to weld the English people of all 
ranks and classes, Catholics as well as Protestants, 
into one united nation. The threatened invasion of 
England by a foreign power above all by a power 
so hated as Spain roused the patriotic feeling of a 1 .! 
classes. There was a general rising and arming, by 
land and by sea. Along the south coast the whole 
maritime population arrayed themselves in arms ; 
and every available ship, sloop, and wherry, was 
manned and sent forth to meet and fight the 

The result is matter of history. The Sacred and 


Invincible Armada was shattered by the ships of 
Drake, Hawkins, and Howard, and finally scattered 
by the tempests of the Almighty. The free asylum 
of England was maintained. The hunted exiles were 
thenceforward free to worship and to labour in peace ; 
and the beneficent effects of the addition of so many 
skilled, industrious, and free-minded men to our popu- 
lation, are felt in England to this day. 

Philip II. of Spain died in 1598, the same year in 
which Henry IV. of France promulgated the Edict of 
Nantes. At his accession to the Spanish throne in 
1556, Philip was the most powerful monarch in 
Europe, served by the ablest generals and admirals, 
with an immense army and navy at his command. 
At his death, Spain was distracted and defeated, with 
a bankrupt exchequer ; Holland was free, and Flanders 
in ruins. The intellect and energies of Spain were 
prostrate ; but the priests were paramount. The only 
institution that flourished throughout the dominions 
of Philip, at his death, was the Inquisition. 

Elizabeth of England, on the other hand, succeeded, 
in 1558, to an impoverished kingdom, an empty ex- 
chequer, and the government of a distracted people, 
one-half of whom denied, and were even ready to 
resist, her authority. England was then without any 
weight in the affairs of Europe. She had no army, 
and her navy was contemptible. After a reign of 
forty-five years, the aspect of affairs had become com- 
pletely changed. The nation was found firmly united, 
content, free, and prosperous. An immense impulse 
had been given to industry. The intellect of the 
people had become awakened, and a literature sprang 
up which is the wonder even of modern times. The 
power of England abroad was everywhere recognised. 
The sceptre of the seas was wrested from. Spain, and 
England thenceforward commanded the high-road to 
America and the Indies. 

The Queen was supported by able ministers, though 
not more able than those who surrounded the King 




of Spain. But the spirit that moved them was wholly 
different the English monarch encouraging freedom, 
the Spanish repressing -it. As the one was the 
founder of modern England, so the other was of 
modern Spain. 

It is true, Elizabeth did not rise to the high idea 
of complete religious liberty. But no one then did 
not even the most advanced thinker. Still, the foun- 
dations of such liberty were laid, while industry was 
fostered and protected. It was accomplishing a great 
deal, to have accomplished this much. The rest was the 
work of time and experience, and the action of free 
and energetic men living in an atmosphere of freedom. 


In Commemoration of tJic Massacre of St. 



IN early times, the English were for the most part a 
pastoral and agricultural, and not a manufacturing 
people. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
most articles of clothing, excepting such as were pro- 
duced by ordinary domestic industry, were imported 
from Flanders, France, and Germany. 1 The great 
staple of England was Wool, which was sent abroad 
in large quantities. " The ribs of all people through- 
out the world," wrote Matthew Paris, " are kept warm 
by the fleeces of English wool." 

The wool and its growers were on one side of the 
English Channel, and the skilled workmen who dyed 
and wove it into cloth were on the other. When war 
broke out, and communication between the two shores 

1 Besides the cloth of Flanders, Cordova, and milanery from Mi- 
England was also supplied with Ian. The Milaners of London 
most of its finer fabrics from were a special class of general 
abroad the names of the articles dealers. They sold not only 
to this day indicating the places French and Flemish cloths, but 
where they were manufactured. Spanish gloves and girdles, Mi- 
Thus, there was the mechlin lace Ian caps and cutlery, silk, lace, 
of Mechlin, the duffle of Duffel, needles, pins for ladies' dresses 
the diaper of Ypres (d'Ypres), (before which skewers were used), 
the cambric of Cambray, the ar- swords, knives, daggers, brooches, 
ras of Arras, the tulle of Tulle, glass, porcelain, and various arti- 
the damask of Damascus, and cles of foreign manufacture. The 
the dimity of Damietta. Besides name of " milliner " (from Mi- 
these, we imported delph ware laner) is now applied only to 
from Delft, Venetian glass from dealers in ladies' caps and bon- 
Venice, cordovan leather from nets. 


was interrupted, great distress was occasioned in 
Flanders by the stoppage of the supply of English 
wool. On one occasion, when the export of wool 
from England was prohibited, the effect was to reduce 
the manufacturing population throughout the Low- 
Countries to destitution and despair. " Then might be 
seen throughout Flanders," says the local historian, 
"weavers, fullers, and others living by the woollen 
manufacture, either begging, or, driven by debt, tilling 
the soil." 1 

At the same time, the English wool-growers lost the 
usual market for their produce. It naturally occurred 
to the English kings that it would be of great advan- 
tage to this country to have the wool made into cloth 
by the hands of their own people, instead of sending 
it abroad for the purpose. They accordingly held out 
invitations to the distressed Flemish artizans to come 
over and settle in England, where they would find 
abundant employment at remunerative wages ; and as 
early as the reign of Edward III. a large number of 
Flemings came over and settled in London, Kent, 
Norfolk, Devon, Somerset, Yorkshire, Lancashire, and 

The same policy was pursued by successive Eng- 
lish kings, down to the reign of Henry VIII., who 
encouraged skilled artizans of all kinds to settle in 
England as armourers, cutlers, miners, brewers, and 
shipbuilders ; the principal craftsmen employed by the 
court being Flemings and Germans. 

The immigration of foreign Protestants began in 
the reign of his successor Edward VI. 

The disturbed state of the Continent at that time 
had the effect of seriously interfering with the pur- 
suits of industry; and in many of the German and 
Low Country towns, the working-classes were begin- 
ning to suffer from want of employment. 

The unemployed sought to remove to some foreign 

1 MEYER Annalcs Flandria, p. 137* 


country less disturbed by party strife, in which they 
might find remunerative employment for their in- 
dustry ; while the men of The Religion longed for 
some secure asylum in which they might worship 
God according to conscience. John Bradford, the 
Englishman, writing to his friend Erkenwalde Raw- 
lins, the Fleming, in 1554, advised him thus : " Go to, 
therefore, dispose your goods, prepare yourselves to 
trial, that either you may stand to it like God's cham- 
pions, or else, if you feel such infirmity in yourselves 
that you are not able, give place to violence, and go 
where you may with free and safe conscience serve 
the Lord." 

There were indeed many who felt themselves want- 
ing in the requisite strength to bear persecution, and 
who, accordingly, prepared to depart. Besides, the 
world was wide, and England was near at hand, ready 
to give them asylum. At first, the emigration was 
comparatively small ; for it was a sore trial to many 
to break up old connections, to leave home, country, 
and relatives behind, and begin the world anew in a 
foreign land. Nevertheless, small bodies of emigrating 
Protestants at length began to move, dropping down 
the Rhine in boats, and passing over from the Dutch 
and Flemish ports into England. Others came from 
Flanders itself; though at first the immigration from 
that quarter, as well as from France, was of a very 
limited character. 

The foreigners were welcomed on their arrival in 
England, being generally regarded as a valuable ad- 
dition to the skilled working classes of the country. 
Thus Latimer, when preaching before Edward VT., 
shrewdly observed of the foreigners persecuted for 
conscience' sake : " I wish that we could collect to- 
gether such valuable persons in this kingdom, as it 
would be the means of insuring its prosperity." Very 
few years passed before Latimer's wish was fully 
realised ; and there was scarcely a town of any im- 
portance in England in which foreign artizans were 


not found settled and diligently pursuing their re- 
spective callings. 

The immigration of the Protestant Flemings in 
Edward VI. 's reign was already so considerable, that 
the King gave them the church in Austin Friars, Broad 
Street, " to have their service in, and for avoiding all 
sects of anabaptists and the like." The influx con- 
tinued at such a rate as to interfere with the employ- 
ment of the native population, who occasionally showed 
a disposition to riot, and even to expel the foreigners 
by violence. In a letter written by Francis Peyto to 
the Earl of Warwick, then at Rome, the following 
passage occurs: "Five or six hundred men waited 
upon the mayor and aldermen, complaining of the late 
influx of strangers, and that, by reason of the great 
dearth, they cannot live for these strangers, whom 
they were determined to kill up through the realm if 
they found no remedy. To pacify them, the mayor 
and aldermen caused an esteame to be made of all 
strangers in London, which showed an amount of 
forty thousand, besides women and children, for the 
most part heretics fled out of other countries." l Al- 
though this estimate was probably a gross exaggera- 
tion, there can be no doubt that by this time a large 
number of the exiles had arrived and settled in London 
and other English towns. 

The influx of the persecuted Protestants, however, 
did not fully set in until about ten years later, about 
the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth. The fugitives, 
in the extremities to which/ they were reduced, naturally 
made for that part of the English coast which lay the 
nearest to Flanders and France. In 1561, a consider- 
able body of Flemings landed near Deal, and subse- 
quently settled at the then decayed town of Sandwich. 
The Queen was no sooner informed of their landing, 
than she wrote to the mayor, jurats, and commonalty 
of the burgh, enjoining them to give liberty to the 

1 Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, 1547-53. 


foreigners to settle there and carry on their respective 
trades. She recommended the measure as calculated 
to greatly benefit the town by " plantynge in the same 
men of knowledge in sundry handycrafts," in which 
they " were very skilful"; and her Majesty more par- 
ticularly enjoined that the trades the foreign artizans 
were to carry on were " the makinge of say s, bays, and 
other cloth, which hath not been used to be made in 
this our realme of Englonde." 

Other landings of Flemings took place about the 
same time, at Harwich, at Yarmouth, at Dover, and 
other towns on the south-east coast. Some settled at 
the places where they had landed, and began to pursue 
their several branches of industry ; whilst others pro- 
ceeded to London, Norwich, Maidstone, Canterbury, 
and other inland towns, where the local authorities 
gave them protection and succour. 

The year after the arrival of the Flemings at Sand- 
wich, the inhabitants of the little seaport of Rye, on 
the coast of Sussex, were thrown into a state of com- 
motion by the sudden arrival of a number of destitute 
French people from the opposite coast. Some came 
in open boats, others in sailing-vessels. They were of 
all classes and conditions, and amongst them were 
many women and children. They had fled from 
their own country in great haste, and were nearly 
all alike destitute. Some crossed the Channel in 
midwinter, braving the stormiest weather; and 
when they reached the English shore they would 
often fall upon their knees and thank God for their 

In May 1562, we find John Young, mayor of Rye, 
writing to Sir William Cecil, the Queen's chief secre- 
tary, as follows : " May it please your honour, there is 
daily great resort of Frenchmen here, insomuch as 
already there is esteemed to be 500 persons ; and we 
be in great want of corn for their and our sustentation, 
by reason the country adjoining is barren. . . . Also 
may it please your honour, after night and this day is 


come two shippis of Dieppe into this haven, full of 
many people." l 

It will be remembered that Rye is situated at the 
south-western extremity of the great Romney Marsh ; 
and as no corn is grown in that neighbourhood, the 
wheat consumed in the place was all brought thither 
by sea, or from a distance inland, over the then almost 
impassable roads of Sussex. The townspeople of Rye 
nevertheless bestirred themselves in aid of the poor 
refugees. They took them into their houses, fed them, 
and supplied their wants as well as they could ; but 
the fugitives continued to arrive in such numbers that 
the provisions of the place soon began to run short. 

These landings continued during the summer of 
1562 ; and even as late as November the mayor again 
wrote to Cecil: "May it please your honour to be 
advertised that the third day of the present month, at 
twelve of the clocke, there arrived a bote from Dieppe, 
with Frenchmen, women, and children, to the number 
of a hundred and fiftye, there being a great number 
also which were here before." And as late as the 10th 
of December, the French people still flying for refuge, 
though winter had already set in severely, the mayor 
again wrote that another boat had arrived with " many 
poor people, as well men and women as children, which 
were of Rouen and Dieppe." 

Six years passed, and again, in 1568, we find another 
boat-load of fugitives from France landing at Rye: 
" Monsieur Gamayes, with his wife and children and 
ten strangers ; and Captain Sowes, with his wife and 
two servants, who had all come out of France, as they 
said, for the safeguard of their lives." Four years later, 
in 1572, tfcere was a further influx of refugees at Rye, 
the mayor again writing to Lord Bnrleigh, informing 
him that between the 27th of August and the 4th of 
November no fewer than 641 had landed. The records 
have been preserved of the names and callings of most 

1 Dcincstlc State Papers Elizabeth, 1562. No. 35. 


of the immigrants ; from which it appears that they 
were of all ranks and conditions, including gentlemen, 
merchants, doctors of physic, ministers of religion, 
students, schoolmasters, tradesmen, mechanics, artizans, 
shipwrights, mariners, and labourers. Among the 
fugitives were also several widows, who had fled with 
their children across the sixty miles of sea which there 
divide France from England, sometimes by night in open 
boats, braving the fury of the winds and waves in 
their eagerness to escape. 1 

The mayor of Rye made appeals to the Queen for 
help, and especially for provisions, which from time 
to time ran short; and the help was at once given. 
Collections were made for the relief of the destitute 
refugees in many of the churches in England, as well 
as in Scotland; 2 and, among others, we find the 
refugee Flemings at Sandwich giving out of their 
slender means " a benefaction to the poor Frenchmen 
who have left their country for conscience' sake." 3 

The landings continued for many years. The people 
came flying from various parts of France and Flanders 
cloth-makers from Antwerp and Bruges, lace-makers 
from Valenciennes, cambric-makers from Cambray, 
glass-makers from Paris, stuff-weavers from Meaux, 
merchants and tradesmen from Rouen, and shipwrights 
and mariners from Dieppe and Havre. As the fugi- 
tives continued to land, they were sent inland as 
speedily as possible, to make room for new-comers, the 
household accommodation of the little towns along the 
English coast being but limited. From Rye, many 
proceeded to London to join their countrymen who 
had settled there ; others went forward to Canterbury, 
to Southampton, to Norwich, and the other towns 

1 W. DTTRRANT COOPER raised in Scotland for French 
Sussex Archalogical Collections, Protestants in indigent circum- 
Tol. xiii. p. 179: " The Protestant stances, in 1575 ; and Calderwood 
Refugees in Sussex." has a similar notice in 1622. 

2 James Melville, in his diary, Borough Records of Sand- 
mentions that subscriptions were wich, 1572. 


where Walloon congregations had already been estab- 
lished. A body of them settled at Winchelsea, an 
ancient town, formerly of much importance on the 
south coast, though now left high and dry inland. 1 

Many fugitives also landed at Dover, which was a 
convenient point for both France and Flanders. Some 
of the immigrants passed through to Canterbury and 
London, while others settled permanently in the place. 
Early in the seventeenth century, a census was taken 
of the foreigners residing in Dover, when it was found 
that there were seventy-eight persons " which of late 
came out of France by reason of the troubles there." 
The description of them is interesting, as showing 
the classes to which the exiles principally belonged. 
There were two " preachers of God's Word " ; three 
physicians and surgeons; two advocates; two esquires; 
three merchants ; two schoolmasters ; thirteen drapers, 
grocers, brewers, butchers, and other trades ; twelve 
mariners; eight weavers and wool-combers; twenty- 
five widows, " makers of bone-lace and spinners " ; 
two maidens ; one woman, designated as the wife of a 
shepherd; one button-maker; one gardener; and one 
undescribed male. 2 There were at the same time 
settled in Dover thirteen Walloon exiles, of whom five 
were merchants, three mariners, and the others of 
different trades. 

In the meantime, the body of Flemings who had 
first settled at Sandwich began to show signs of con- 
siderable prosperity. The local authorities had readily 
responded to the wishes of Queen Elizabeth, and did 
what she required. They appointed two markets to 
be held weekly for the sale of their cloths, in the making 

1 Winchelsea, now a village al- with their broadsides to the 

most in ruins, was once a flourish- shore. The place is now some 

ing seaport. The remains of the miles from the sea, and sheep 

vaults and warehouses where the and cattle graze over a wide 

merchants' goods were stored are extent of marsh-land, over which 

still pointed out, and the wharves the tide formerly flowed, 

may still be seen where ships 2 Dam. Col. James I., 1622. 
discharged their cargoes, lying 


of which we very shortly find them busily occupied. 
"When Archbishop Parker visited Sandwich, in 1563, 
he took notice of " the French and Dutch e, or both," 
who had settled in the town, and wrote to a friend at 
court that the refugees were as godly on the Sabbath- 
days as they were industrious on week-days ; obser- 
ving that such " profitable and gentle strangers ought 
to be welcome, and not to be grudged at." l 

Before the arrival of the Flemings, Sandwich had 
been a poor and decayed place. It was originally a 
town of considerable importance, and one of the Cinque 
Ports. But when the river Stour became choked with 
silt, the navigation, on which it had before depended, 
was so seriously impeded, that its trade soon fell into 
decay, and the inhabitants were reduced to great 
poverty. No sooner, however, had the first colony of 
Flemings, above four hundred in number, settled there 
under the Queen's protection, than the empty houses 
were occupied, the town became instinct with new life, 
and was more than restored to its foi'mer importance. 
The artizans set up their looms, and began to work at 
the manufacture of sayes, bayes, and other kinds of 
cloth, which met with a ready sale; the London 
merchants resorting to the bi-weekly markets, and 
buying up the goods at remunerative prices. 

The native population also shared in the general 
prosperity learning from the strangers the art of 
cloth-making, and becoming competitors with them for 
the trade. Indeed, before many years had passed, the 
townspeople, forgetful of the benefits they owed to the 
foreign artizans, became jealous, and sought to impose 
upon them special local taxes. On this the Flemings 
memorialised the Queen, 2 who again stood their friend ; 

1 Strype's Parker, p. 1 39. foreign settlers) is suche, that by 

* The memorial, which is still means of their chardges they 

preserved amongst the town re- should finally be secluded and 

cords, concludes with the follow- syndered from the liability of 

ing prayer : " Which condition those manifolde and necessary 

(viz. the local imposition on the contributions which yet in this 


and, on her intercession, the corporation were at length 
induced to relieve them of the unjust burden. At that 
time they constituted about one-third of the entire 
population of the town ; and when Elizabeth visited 
Sandwich in 1573, it is recorded that "against the 
school-house, upon the new turfed wall, and upon a 
scaffold made upon the wall of the school-house yard, 
were divers children, to the number of a hundred or 
six score, all spinning of fine bag yarn, a thing well 
liked both of Her Majesty and of the Nobility and 
Ladies." l 

The Protestant exiles at Sandwich did not, how- 
ever, confine themselves to cloth-making, 2 but engaged 
in various other branches of industry. Some of them 
were millers, who erected the first windmills near the 
town, in which they plied their trade. Two potters 
from Delft began the pottery manufacture. Others 
were smiths, brewers, hat-makers, carpenters, or ship- 
wrights. Thus trade and population increased; new 
buildings arose on all sides, until Sandwich became 
almost transformed into a Flemish town ; and to this 
day, though fallen again into comparative decay, the 
quaint, foreign-looking aspect of the place never fails to 
strike the visitor with surprise. 

Among other branches of industry introduced by the 
Flemings at Sandwich, that of gardening is worthy 

our exile are practised amongst favour and consolation to the 

us, as well towards the mainten- poore afflicted straungers. " 

ance of the ministry of God's BOYS' History of Sandwich, p. 

word as lykewise in the sustenta- 744. 

tion of our poore, besydes the l Antiquarian Repertory, iv. 

chardges first above rehearsed: 65. 

pcrformyng therefore our fore- * The principal trades which 

sayde humble petition, we shall they followed were connected 

be the more moved to directe our with the manufacture of cloths 

warmest prayers to our mercyfull of different kinds. Thus, of 351 

God, that of his heavenly grace Flemish householders resident in 

he will beatify your common Sandwich in 1582, 86 were bay- 

weall more and more, grauntynge makers, 74 bay-weavers, 17 fullers, 

to ytt his spiritual and temporal 24 linsey-wolsey weavers, and 24 

blessyngs, which he gracefully wool-combers, 
powreth uppon them that showe 


of notice. The people of Flanders had long been 
famous for their horticulture ; and one of the first 
things which the foreign settlers did, on arriving in 
the place, was to turn to account the excellent qualities 
of the soil in the neighbourhood. Though long before 
practised by the monks, Gardening had become almost 
a lost art in England. It is said that Katherine, 
Queen of Henry VIII., unable to obtain a salad for 
her dinner in England, had her table supplied from 
the Low Countries. 1 The first Flemish gardens proved 
highly successful. The cabbage, carrots, and celery 
produced by the foreigners met with so ready a sale, 
and were so much in demand in London itself, that a 
body of gardeners shortly after removed from Sandwich 
and settled at Wandsworth, Battersea, and Bermondsey, 
where many of the rich garden-grounds first planted 
by the Flemings, still continue to be the most produc- 
tive in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. 

It is also supposed, though it cannot be exactly as- 
certained, that the Protestant Walloons introduced the 
cultivation of the hop in Kent, bringing slips of the 
plant with them from Artois. The old distich 

" Hops, Eeformation, Bays, and Beer, 
Came into England all in one year " 

marks the period (about 1524) when the first English 
hops were planted. There is a plot of land at Bourne, 
near Canterbury, where there is known to have been 

1 Vegetables were formerly so by the purveyor for the Clifford 

scarce that they were salted family (WHITAKER History of 

down. Even in the sixteenth Craven, 321). Hartlib, writing 

century, a cabbage from Holland in 1 650, says that an old man 

was deemed an acceptable pre- then living remembered " the 

sent (Fox's Life of James II., first gardener who came into 

205). Hull then carried on a Surrey to plant cabbages. and 

thriving import-trade in cab- cauliflowers, and to sow turnips, 

bages and onions. The rarity of carrots, and parsnips, and to sow 

vegetables in the country may be early pease all of which at that 

inferred from the fact, that in time were great wonders, we 

1595 a sum equal to twenty having few or none in England 

shillings was paid at that port for but what came from Holland 

eix cabbages and a few carrots or Flanders." 


a hop-plantation in the reign of Elizabeth. 1 Another 
kind of crop introduced by the Flemings at Sandwich 
was canary-grass, which still continues to be grown on 
the neighbouring farms, and is indeed almost peculiar 
to the district. 

As might naturally be expected, by far the largest 
proportion of the Protestant exiles Flemish and 
French settled in London : London, the world's 
asylum the refuge of the persecuted of all lands, 
whether for race, or politics, or religion a city of 
Celts, Danes, and Saxons of Jews, Germans, French, 
and Flemings, as well as of English an aggregate of 
men of all European countries, and probably one of 
the most composite populations to be found in the 
Avorld. Large numbers of French, Germans, and 
Flemings, of the industrious classes, had already 
taken refuge in London from the political troubles 
which had prevailed abroad. About the beginning of 
the reign of Henry VIII. so many foreigners had 
settled in the western parts of the metropolis, that 
" Tottenham is turned French" passed into a proverb; 
and now the religious persecutions which raged abroad, 
compelled foreigners of various nations to take refuge 
in London, in still greater numbers than they had done 
at any former period. 

Fortunately for London, as for England, the men 
who fled thither for refuge were not idle, dissolute, 
and ignorant; but peaceable, gentle, and laborious. 
Though they were poor, they were not pauperised, 
but thrifty and self-helping, and above all things 
eager in their desire to earn an honest living. They 
were among the most skilled and intelligent inhabit- 
ants of the countries which had driven them forth. 
Had they been weak men, they would have gone with 

1 Reginald Scot, the author of "ostes at Peppering" as "a 

The Pcrfite Platforme of a profytable patterne and a neccs- 

Ihtppe Garden, speaks of " the sarie instruction for as maiiie as 

trade of the Flemminge " (i.e. shall hare to doc therein." 
his method of culture), and his 


the stream as others did, and conformed ; but they 
were men with convictions, earnest for the truth, 
and ready to sacrifice their worldly goods and every- 
thing else to follow it. 

Of the Flemings and French who settled in London, 
the greater number congregated in special districts, for 
the convenience of carrying on their trades together. 
Thus a large number of the Flemings settled in South- 
warkandBermondsey, 1 where they began many branches 
of industry which continue to this day Southwark 
being still the principal manufacturing district of 
London. There was a quarter in Bermondsey, known 
as " The Borgeney," or " Petty Burgundy," because 
of the foreigners who inhabited it. Joiners' Street, 
which still exists in name, lay in the district, and was 
so called because of its being almost wholly occupied 
by Flemish joiners, who were skilled in all kinds of 
carpentry. Another branch of trade begun by the 
Flemings in Bermondsey, was the manufacture of felts 
or hats. Tanneries and breweries were also started 
by them, and carried on with great success. Henry 
Leek, originally Hoek or Hook, 2 from Wesel, was one 
of the principal brewers of his time, to whose philan- 
thropic bequest Southwark owes the foundation of the 
excellent free school of St. Olave's one of the best of 
its class. 

Another important settlement of the Flemings was 
at Bow, where they established dye-works on a 
large scale. Before their time, white cloth of English 
manufacture was usually sent abroad to be dyed, after 

1 The Flemish burying-ground, them amidst the population in 
appropriated to the foreigners as which they have become merged. 
a place of sepulture, was situated Thus, in the parish church of 
near the south end of London Allhallows, Barking, we find the 
Bridge. It is now covered by monument of a distinguished 
the approaches to the London Fleming, one Roger Haestrecht, 
Bridge Railway Station. who changed his name to James. 

2 Many of the foreigners adop- He was the founder of the family 
ted names of English sound, so of James, of Ightham Court, in 
that it is now difficult to trace Kent. 


which it was reimported and sold as Flemish cloth. 
The best known among the early dyers, were Peter de 
Croix and Dr. Kepler, the latter of whom established 
the first dye-work in England ; and cloth of " Bow 
dye " soon became famous. 

Another body of the refugees settled at Wands- 
worth, and began several branches of industry such 
as the manufacture of felts, and the making of brass 
plates for culinary utensils which, Aubrey says, they 
" kept a mystery." One Fromantel introduced the 
manufacture of pendulum or Dutch clocks, which 
shortly came into use. At Mortlake, the French 
exiles began the manufacture of arras, and at Fulham 
of tapestry. The art of printing paperhangings was 
introduced by some artizans from Rouen, where it had 
been originally practised ; and many other skilled 
workers in metal settled in different parts of the 
metropolis such as cutlers, jewellers, and makers of 
mathematical instruments, in which the French and 
Flemish workmen then greatly excelled. 1 

The employment given to the foreign artizans seems 
to have excited considerable discontent amongst the 
London tradesmen, who, from time to time, beseeched 
the interference of the corporations and of Parliament. 
Thus, in 1576, we find the London shoemakers peti- 
tioning for a commission of inquiry as to the alien 
shoemakers who were carrying on their trade in the 
metropolis. Tn 1586, the London apprentices raised 
a riot in the city against the foreigners ; and several 
youths of the Plaisterers' Company were apprehended 
and committed to Newgate by order of the Queen and 
council. A few years later, in 1592, the London free- 
men and shopkeepers complained to Parliament that 

1 A French refugee, named after his time, in the reign of 

Briot, was the first to introduce Charles II., another Frenchman, 

the coining-press, which was a named Blondeau, was selected to 

French invention, into England. superintend the stamping of our 

He was appointed chief engraver English money. 
to the Mint : and forty years 


the strangers were spoiling their trades; and a bill 
was brought in for the purpose of restraining them. 
The bill was strongly supported by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
who complained bitterly of the strangers ; but it was 
opposed by Cecil and the Queen's ministers; and 
though it passed the Commons, it failed through the 
dissolution of Parliament so that the refugees were 
left to the enjoyment of their former protection and 

Many of the foreigners established themselves as 
merchants in the city, and soon became known as 
leading men in commercial affairs. Several of them 
had already been distinguished as merchants in their 
own country ; and they brought with them a spirit 
and enterprise which infused quite a new life into 
London business. Among the leading foreign mer- 
chants of Elizabeth's time we recognise the names 
of Houblon, Palavicino, De Malines, Corsellis, Van 
Peine, Tryan, Buskell, Corsirii, De Best, and Cotett. 
That they prospered by the exercise of their respec- 
tive callings, may be inferred from the fact that when, 
in 1588, Queen Elizabeth proceeded to raise a loan in 
the city by voluntary subscriptions, thirty-eight of the 
foreign merchants subscribed 5000, in sums of 100 
and upwards. 

The accounts given of the numbers of the exiles 
from Flanders and France who settled in London, are 
very imperfect ; yet they enable us to form some idea 
of the extensive character of the immigration. Thus, 
a return of the population, made in 1571, the year 
before the massacre of St. Bartholomew, shows that 
in the city of London alone (exclusive of the large 
number of strangers settled in South wark, at Bow, and 
outside the liberties) there were, of foreigners belong- 
ing to the English church, 889 ; to the Dutch, French, 
and Italian churches, 1763 ; certified by their elders, 
but not presented by the wards, 1828; not yet joined 
to any particular church, 2663 ; " strangers that do 
confesse themselves that their comyng hether was 


onlie to seek worck for their lyvinge," 2561 ; or a 
total of 9704 persons. 1 From another return of 
about the same date, in which the numbers are dif- 
ferently given, we obtain some idea of the respective 
nationalities of the refugees. Out of the 4594 
strangers then returned as resident in the city of 
London, 3643 are described as Dutch (i.e. Flemings) ; 
657 French ; 233 Italians ; and 53 Spaniards and 
Portuguese. 2 

That the foreign artizans continued to resort to Eng- 
land in increasing numbers is apparent from a further 
census taken in 1621, from which it appears that there 
were then 10,000 strangers in the city of London alon'e 
(besides still larger numbers in the suburbs), carry- 
ing on 121 different trades. Of 1343 persons whose 
occupations are specified, there were found to be 11 
preachers, 16 schoolmasters, 349 weavers, 183 mer- 
chants, 148 tailors, 64 sleeve-makers, 43 shoemakers, 
39 dyers, 37 brewers, 35 jewellers, 25 diamond-cutters, 
22 cutlers, 20 goldsmiths, 20 joiners, 15 clockmakers, 
12 silk-throwsters, 10 glass-makers, besides hemp- 
dressers, thread-makers, button- makers, coopers, en- 
gravers, gunmakers, painters, smiths, watchmakers, 
and other skilled craftsmen. 3 

Numerous other settlements of the refugees took 
place throughout England, more particularly in the 
southern counties. " The foreign manufacturers," says 
Hasted, " chose their situations with great judgment, 
distributing themselves with the Queen's licence 
throughout England, so as not to interfere too much 

1 State Papers, Dom. Eliza- Spaniards, 10 Venetians, 2 Blacka- 
beth, vol. 84, anno 1571. It moors, and two Greeks, 
appears from the Bishop of Lon- 2 State Papers, Dom. Eliza- 
don's certificate of 1567 (four beth. vol. 82, anno 1571. 
years before), that the number " List* of Foreign Protestants 
of persons of foreign birth then and Aliens resident in England 
settled in London was 4581, and 1618-88. Edited by William 
612 French. There were at the Durrant Cooper, F.S.A. Camden 
same time in London 36 Scots, Society's Papers, 1862. 
J28 Italians. 23 Portuguese, 54 


with each other." x One of the most important of such 
settlements was that formed at Norwich, where the 
Refugees founded and carried on many important 
branches of trade. 

Although Norwich had been originally indebted 
mainly to foreign artizans for its commercial and 
manufacturing importance, the natives of the city 
were among the first to turn apon their benefactors. 
The local guilds, in their usual narrow spirit, passed 
stringent regulations directed against the foreign 
artizans who had originally taught them their trade. 
The jealousy of the native workmen was also roused, 
and riots were stirred up against the Flemings, many 
of whom left Norwich for Leeds and Wakefield in 
Yorkshire, where they prosecuted the woollen manu- 
facture free from the restrictions of the trades-unions, 
whilst others left the country for Holland, to cany on 
their trades in the free towns of that country. 2 

The consequence was that Norwich, left to its native 
enterprise and industry, gradually fell into a state of 
stagnation and decay. Its population rapidly dimin- 
ished ; a large proportion of the houses stood empty ; 
riots among the distressed workpeople were of frequent 
occurrence; and it was even mooted in Parliament 
whether the place should not be razed. Under such 
circumstances, the corporation determined to call to 
their aid the skill and industry of the exiled Protes- 
tant artizans now flocking into the country; In the 
year 1564, a deputation of the citizens, headed by the 
mayor, waited on the Duke of Norfolk at his palace in 
the city, and asked his assistance in obtaining a settle- 

1 HASTED History of Kent, an act having been passed en- 

x. p. 160. joining that hats were only to 

* In the reign of Henry VII. an be manufactured in some city, 

attempt was made by a body of borongh, or market-town, the 

Flemings to establish the manu- Flemings were thereby brought 

facture of felt hats at Norwich. under the bondage of the guilds. 

To evade the fiscal regulations The making of hats by them was 

of the guilds, they settled outside suppressed ; and the Flemish hat- 

the boundaries- of the city. But makers left the neighbourhood. 


menfc in the place of a body of Flemish workmen. 
The Duke used his influence with this object, and 
he shortly succeeded in inducing some 300 Dutch and 
Walloon families to settle in Norwich at his charge, 
and to carry on their trades under a licence granted 
by the Queen. 

The exiles were very shortly enabled, not only to 
maintain themselves by their industry, but to restore 
the city to more than its former prosperity. The 
houses which had been standing empty were again 
tenanted, the native population again became fully 
employed, and the adjoining districts shared in the 
general prosperity. In the course of a few years, 3000 
foreign workmen were found settled in the city, 
and many entirely new branches of trade were intro- 
duced and successfully carried on by them. Besides 
the manufacture of sayes, bayes, serges, arras, mou- 
chade, and bombazines, they introduced the striping 
and flowering of silks and damasks, which shortly 
became one of the principal branches of trade in the 

The manufacture of beaver and felt hats, before im- 
ported from abroad, was also successfully established 
in Norwich. One Anthony Solen introduced the art 
of printing, for which he was awarded the freedom of 
the city. Two potters from Antwerp, Jasper Andries 
and Jacob Janson, started a pottery, though in a very 
humble way. 1 Other Flemings introduced the art of 

1 Stowe makes the following petition to Queen Elizabeth, that 
reference to these men in his they were the first that brought 
Survey of London : " About the in and exercised the said science 
year 1567 Jasper Andries and in this realm, and were at great 
Jacob Janson, potters, came away charges before they could find 
from Antwerp to avoid the per- the materials in this realm. They 
secution there, and settled them- beseeched her, in recompense of 
selves in Norwich, where they their great cost and charges, that 
followed their trade, making gal- she would grant them house- 
ley paving-tiles and apothecaries' room in or without the liberties 
vessels, and others, very arti- of London by the water-side." 
ficially. Anno 1 570 they removed The brothers Elers afterwards, in 
to London. They set forth, in a 1688, began the manufacture of a 


gardening in the neighbourhood, and culinary stuffs 
became more plentiful in Norwich than in any other 
town or city in England. The general result was 
abundant employment, remunerative trade, cheap food, 
and great prosperity; Bishop Parkhurst declaring his 
persuasion that "these blessings from God have hap- 
pened by reason of the godly exiles who were so kindly 
harboured there." 

But not so very kindly after all. As before, the 
sour native heart grew jealous ; and notwithstanding 
the admitted prosperity of the place, the local popula- 
tion began to mutter discontent against the- foreigners, 
who had been mainly its cause. Like Jeshurun, the 
natives waxed fat and kicked. It is true, the numbers 
of Dutch, French, and Walloons in Norwich had be- 
come very considerable, by reason of the continuance 
of the persecutions abroad, which drove them across 
the Channel in increasing numbers. But who so likely 
to give them succour and shelter as their own country- 
men, maintaining themselves by the exercise of their 
skill and industry in the towns of England ? 

The hostile movement against the foreign artizans 
is even said to have been encouraged by some of the 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood, who in 1570 set on 
foot a conspiracy, with the object of expelling them by 
force from the city and realm. But the conspiracy 
was discovered in time. Its leader and instigator, 
John Throgmorton, was seized and executed, with two 
others; and the strangers were thenceforward permitted 
to pursue their respective callings in peace. 

Whatever may have been the shortcomings of 
Elizabeth in other respects, she certainly proved her- 
self the steadfast friend and protector of the Protestant 
exiles. Her conduct with reference to the Norwich 
conspiracy clearly shows the spirit which influenced 

better sort of pottery in Staf- they removed from Staffordshire, 
fordshire. They were natives of and settled in Lambeth or Che 1 - 
Nuremberg in Germany. In 1710 sea. 


her. In a letter written by her from the palace at 
Greenwich, dated the 19th March 1570, she strongly 
expostulated with the citizens of Norwich respecting 
the jealousy entertained by them against the authors of 
their prosperity. She reminded them of the advan- 
tages they had derived from the settlement amongst 
them of so many skilled artizans, who inhabited the 
houses which had before stood desolate, and were 
furnishing employment to large numbers of persons 
who must otherwise have remained unemployed. She 
therefore entreated and enjoined them to continue 
their favours " to the poor men of the Dutch nation, 
who, seeing the persecution lately begun in their 
country for the trewe religion, hath fledd into this 
realm for succour, and be now placed in the city of 
Norwich, and hath hitherto been favourablye and 
jintely ordered, which the Queen's Majestie, as a 
mercifull and religious Prince, doth take in very good* 
part, praeing you to continue your favour unto them 
so long as they shall lyve emongste you quyetlye and 
obedyently to God's trewe religion, and to Her Majesty's 
lawes, for so one chrystian man (in charitie) is bound 
to help another, especially them who do sutfre afflixion 
for the gospelle's sake." l 

1 The following is a copy of a alsoe a grete nomber of people 

document in the State Paper nere xx* 1 myles aboute the cittie. 

Office (Dom. Eliz. 1561), giving to the grete relief of the [poorer] 

an account of " the benefite re- sorte there, 
ceyved by the strangers in Nor- " Item, By their means o r cittie 

wich for the space of tenne [is well inhabited, o r ] decayed 

yeres." Several passages of the houses re-edified & repaired that 

paper have been obliterated by [were in rewyn and more wolde 

age: be]. And now good rents [arej 

" In primis, They brought a paide for the same, 
grete comoditie thether viz. the " Item, The niarchants by their 

making of bayes, moucades, gro- com oditi[es have] and maye have 

graynes, all sorts of tufts, etc. grete trade as well w* h in the 

w<* were not made there be- realme as w th oute the [realme], 

fore, whereby they do not onely being in good estimacon in all 

set on worke their owne people, places. 

but [do also] set on worke o r " Item. It cannot be, but where- 

owne people w th in the cittie. as as a noiuber of people be but the 


A census was shortly after taken of the foreigners 
settled in Norwich, when it was ascertained that they 
amounted to about 4000, including women and chil- 
dren ; and that they were effectually protected in the 
exercise of their respective callings, and continued to 
prosper, may be inferred from the circumstance that, 
when the numbers were again taken, about ten years 
later, it was found that the foreign community had 
increased to 4679 persons. 

It would occupy too much space to enter into a de- 
tailed account of the settlement of the industrious 
strangers throughout the country, and to describe the 
various branches of manufacture which they intro- 
duced, in addition to those already described. " The 
persecution for religion in Brabant and Flanders," says 
Hasted, " communicated to all the Protestant parts of 
Europe the paper, woollen, and other valuable manufac- 
tures of Flanders and France, almost peculiar at that 
time to these countries, and till then in vain practised 
elsewhere." l 

Although the manufacture of cloth had already made 
some progress in England, only the coarser sorts were 
produced, the best being imported from abroad ; and 

one receyve comodite of the other sustenance for the [pore], both 

as well of the cittie as men of the for themselves as for all others of 

countrie. cittie and countrie. 

' ' Item, They be contributors to " Item, They live holy of them- 

all paym**, as subsidies, taskes, selves w^ut [o r chardge], and 

watches, contribnsions,mynisters' do begge of no man, & do sus- 

wagis, etc. tayne [all their owne] poore 

" Item, O r owne people do people. 

practice & make suche comodities " And to conclude, they for the 

as the strangers do make, where- [moste p 1 * feare] God & diligently 

by the yonthe is set onworke and & laboriously attende upon their 

kept from idlenes. several occupations, they obay all 

"Item, They digge & delve a maiestratis & all good lawes & 

nomber of acres of grounde, & do ordynances, they live peaceblie 

sowe flaxe & do make it out in amonge themselves & towards all 

lynnen cloth, w** set many on men, & we thinke o r cittie happy 

worke. to enioye them." 

" Item, They digge and delve a * HASTED History of Kent, 

grete quantitie of grounde for x. p. 160. 
rootes, [w ch ] is a grete succour & 


it was not until the settlement among us of the Flemish 
weavers that this branch of industry became one of 
national importance. They spread themselves through 
the towns and villages in the west of England, as well 
as throughout the north, and wherever the woollen 
weavers set up their looms they carried on a prosperous 
trade. 1 Among other places in the west they settled 
at Worcester, Evesham, Droitwich, Kidderminster, 
Stroud, and Glastonbury. 2 In the east they settled 
at Colchester, Hertford, Stamford, and other places. 
Colchester became exceedingly prosperous in conse- 
quence of the settlement of the Flemish artizans there. 
In 1609 it contained as many as 1300 Walloons and 
other persons of foreign parentage ; and every house 
was occupied. In the north we find them establish- 
ing themselves at Manchester, Bolton, and Halifax, 
where they made " coatings " ; 3 and at Keudal, where 

1 Fuller specifies the following 
textile manufactures as having 
been established by the immi- 
grants : In Norwich, cloths, fus- 
tians, etc.; Sudbury, baizes ; Col- 
chester, sayes and serges; Kent, 
Kentish broad-cloths ; Devon- 
shire,kerseys; Gloucestershire and 
Worcestershire, cloths ; Wales, 
Welsh friezes ; Westmoreland, 
Kendal cloth ; Lancashire, coat- 
ings or cottons ; Yorkshire, Hali- 
fax cloths ; Somerset, Taunton 
serges ; Hants, Berks, and Sussex, 

2 A settlement of Flemish 
woollen-weavers took place at 
Glastonbnry as early as 1549, 
through the influence of the Duke 
of Somerset, who advanced them 
money to buy wool, at the same 
tune providing them with houses 
and small allotments of land from 
the domain of the Abbey, which 
the king had granted him. After 
the fall of the Duke, the weavers 
were protected by the Privy 
Council, and many documents 

relating to them are to be found 
in the State Paper Office. (Edwd. 
VL, Dom. xiii. 71-77, and xiv. 
2-14 and 55). 

' The " coatings" or "cottons " 
of Lancashire were in the first 
instance but imitations in woollen 
of the goods known on the Con- 
tinent by that name ; the im- 
portation of cotton wool from the 
Levant having only begun, and 
that in small quantities, about the 
middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. " There is one fact," says 
the editor of the Shuttlenorth 
Papcrt, " which seems to show 
that the Flemings, after their 
immigration, had much to do with 
the fulling-mill at Manchester; 
for its ordinary name was the 
' walken-milne ' nalcJie being 
the Flemish name for a fulling- 
mill. So persistent do we find 
this name, that a plot of land 
occupied by a mill on the banks 
of the Irk still retains its oM 
name of the Walker's Croft (i.e. 
the fuller's fidi or ground), and 


they made cloth caps and woollen stockings. The 
native population gradually learned to practise the 
same branches of manufacture; new sources of em- 
ployment were opened up to them ; and in the course 
of a few years, England, instead of depending upon 
foreigners for its supply of cloth, was not only able to 
produce sufficient for its own use, but to export the 
article in considerable quantities abroad. 

Other Flemings introduced the art of thread and 
lace making. A body of them who settled at Maid- 
stone, in 1567, carried on the thread manufacture 
flax spun for the threadman, being still known there 
as "Dutch work." Some lace-makers from Alen9on 
and Valenciennes settled at Cranfield, in Bedfordshire, 
in 1568 ; after which others settled at Buckingham, 
Stoney-Stratford, and Newport-Pagnel, from whence 
the manufacture gradually extended over the shires 
of Oxford, Northampton, and Cambridge. About the 
same time the manufacture of bone-lace, with thread 
obtained from Antwerp, was introduced into Devon- 
shire by the Flemish exiles, who settled in considerable 
numbers at Honiton, Colyton, and other places, where 
the trade continued to be carried on by their descend- 
ants almost to our own time the Flemish and French 
names of Stocker, Murch, Spiller, Genest, Maynard, 
Gerard, Raymunds, Rochett, Kettel, etc., being still 
common in the lace-towns of the west. 

Besides these various branches of textile manufac- 
ture, the immigrants applied themselves to mining, 
working in metals, salt-making, fish-curing, and other 
arts, in which they were much better skilled than the 
English then were. Thus, we find a body of them 

in the earlier Manchester direc- shire, Lancashire, and the cloth- 

tories, the fullers were styled ing districts of the west of 

'walkers.' " House and Home England, doubtless originated in 

Accounts of the Shuttlercorth this callfrig, which was followed 

Family (Chetham Society Papers, by so considerable a proportion 

185G-8), pp. 637-8. The name of the population. 
of Walker, so common in York- 


from tlie neighbourhood of Liege establishing them- 
selves at Shotley Bridge, in the neighbourhood of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, where they introduced the making 
of steel, and became celebrated for the swords and 
edge-tools which they manufactured. The names of 
the settlers, some of which have been preserved Ole, 
Mohl, Vooz, etc. indicate their origin; and some of 
their descendants are still to be found residing in the 
village, under the names of Oley, Mole, and such 
like. 1 

Another body of Flemings established a glasswork 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, where the manufacture still 
continues to flourish. Two Flemings, Anthony Been 
and John Care, erected premises for making window- 
glass in London in 1567, and the manufacture was 
continued by their two fellow-countrymen, Brut and 
Appell. At that tin e, glass was so precious that when 
the Duke of Northumberland left Alnwick Castle, the 
steward was accustomed to take out the glazed win- 
dows, and stow them away until his Grace's return ; 
and even in the middle of the following century glass 
had not been generally introduced, the royal palaces 

1 Mr. Spencer read a paper on manufacture to the district were 

the " Manufacture of Steel " at probably good Lutherans, who 

the meeting of the British Asso- had suffered persecution for con- 

ciation at Newcastle in 18G3, in science' sake : " The blessing of 

which he thus referred to these the Lord makes rich without care, 

early iron- workers : "In the wall so long as you are industrious in 

of an old two-storey dwelling- your vocation, and do what is 

house, the original materials of ordered you." There is, how- 

which are hidden under a coat of ever, a much earlier reference to 

rough-cast, there still exists a the immigrants in the parish 

stone above the doorway with an register of Ebchester Church, 

inscription in bad German, to which contains the entry of a 

the following effect : DES. HEE- baptism in 1628 of the daughter 

BEX. BECEN. MACHET. EEICH. of one Mathias "Wrightson Ole 

OHN. ALLF. SOBC. WAN. DVZV- or Oley the name indicating a 

GLEICH. IN. DEiNEil. STAND. probable marriage of the grand- 

TBEVW. VND-LLEISIC. BIST. VXD. father of the child into a native 

DVEST. WAS. DIE. BELOHLEN. family of the name of Wrightson, 

1ST. 1691, of which the following and thereby marking the third 

is a free translation, showing that generation in the neighbourhood, 
the original importers of the stee' 


of Scotland being glazed only in their upper windows, 
the lower ones being provided with wooden shutters. 

Manufactories for the better kinds of glass were in 
like manner established in London by Venetians, as- 
sisted by Flemish and French refugee workmen. Otie 
of them was carried on at Greenwich, and another at 
Pinner's Hall in Austin Friars. The Flemings espe- 
cially excelled in glass-painting, one of them, Bernard 
van Linge,who was established in London in 1614, being 
the first to practise the art in England. It was this 
artist who supplied the windows for Wadham College, 
the fine window of Lincoln's Inn Chapel, and several 
subjects for Lincoln College Chapel. 

Flemish workers in iron and steel settled at Shef- 
field under the protection of the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
on condition that they should take English appren- 
tices and instruct them in their trade. What the 
skill of the Low Country iron- workers then was, may 
be understood by any one who has seen the beautiful 
specimens of ancient iron-work to be met with in 
Belgium as, for instance, the exquisite iron canopy 
over the draw-well in front of the cathedral at Ant- 
werp, or the still more elaborate iron gates enclosing 
the little chapels behind the high altar of the cathe- 
dral of St. Bavon, at Ghent. Only the Nurembergers, 
in all Germany, could vie with the Flemings in such 
kind of work. The effects of the instruction given by 
the Flemish artizans to their Sheffield apprentices were 
soon felt in the impulse which the improvement of 
their manufactures gave to the trade of the town ; and 
Sheffield acquired a reputation for its productions in 
steel and iron which it retains to this day. 

A body of refugees of the seafaring class established 
themselves, with the Queen's licence, at Yarmouth 
in 1568, and there carried on the business of fishing 
with great success. Before then, the fish along the 
English coasts were mostly caught by the Dutch, who 
cured them in Holland, and brought them back for 
sale in the English markets. But shortly after the 


establishment of the fishery at Yarmouth by the 
Flemings, the home demand was almost entirely sup- 
plied by their industry. They also introduced the arts 
of salt-making and herring-curing, originally a Flemish 
invention ; and the trade gradually extended to other 
places, and furnished employment to a large number 
of persons. 

By the enterprise chiefly of the Flemish merchants 
settled in London, a scheme was set on foot for the 
reclamation of the drowned lands in Hatfield Chase 
and the great level of the Fens ; : when a large number 
of labourers assembled under Cornelius Vermuyden to 
execute the necessary works. They were, however, a 
very different class of men from the modern "navvies"; 
for, wherever they went, they formed themselves into 
congregations, erected churches, and appointed minis- 
ters to conduct their worship. Upwards of two hun- 
dred Flemish families settled on the land reclaimed by 
them in the Isle of Axholrn ; the ships which brought 
the immigrants up the Humber to their new homes 
being facetiously hailed as " the navy of Tarshish." 
The reclaimers afterwards prosecuted their labours, 
under Vermuyden, in the great level of the Fens, 
where they were instrumental in recovering a large 
extent of drowned land, before then a mere watery 
waste, but now among the richest and most fertile 
soil in England. 

A few of the exiles found an asylum in Scotland ; 
though that country was then too poor to hold out 
much encouragement to the banished artizans. Of 
those who arrived in Edinburgh, due care was taken 
for their maintenance and support. Collections were 
made in the churches, and a place was provided for 
their worship. It appears from the City records that, 
in May 1586, the magistrates granted the use of the 
University Hall for that purpose ; and that at the 

1 Live* *f the Engineers, i. 15 65. 


same time they agreed to pay a stipend to Pierre du 
Moulin, the pastor of the refugees. 

Several years later, an attempt was made to intro- 
duce into Scotland the manufacture of cloth. In 
1601, seven Flemings were engaged to settle in the 
country, and set the work a-going, six of them for 
serges, and one for broadcloth. But disputes arose 
amongst the boroughs as to the towns in which the 
settlers were to be located, during which the strangers 
were " entertained in meat and drink." l At length, 
in 1609, a body of Flemings became settled in the 
Canongate of Edinburgh, under one Joan Van Hedan, 
where they were engaged in " making, dressing, and 
litting of stuffis, giving great licht and knowledge of 
their calling to the country people." 2 

An attempt was also made to introduce the manu- 
facture of paper into Scotland about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, when French workmen were intro- 
duced for the instruction of the natives. The first 
mill was erected at Dairy, on the Water of Leith ; but 
though the manufacturers succeeded in making grey 
and blue paper, the speculation does not seem to have 
answered, as we find Alexander Daes, one of the prin- 
cipal proprietors, shortly after occupied in showing an 
elephant about the country ! the first animal of the 
kind that had been seen north of the Tweed. 3 

Besides the settlements of the foreigners in England, 
others passed into Ireland, and settled in Dublin, 
Waterford, Limerick, Belfast, and other towns. Sir 

1 CHAMBERS Domestic An- it was proposed to license a 
nals of Scotland, i. p. 351. second printer, the widow of 

2 Ibid. i. p. 421. Andrew Anderson, who held the 
* I b id. ii. pp. 390-410. The only licence, endeavoured to keep 

art of paper-making was not the new printer (one David 

successfully established in Scot- Lindsay) out of the trade, al- 

land until the middle of the leging that she had been pre- 

following century. Literature viously invested with the sole 

must then have been at a low privilege, and that "one press 

ebb north of the Tweed. In is sufficiently able to supply all 

1683 there was only one print- Scotland"! 
ing-press in Scotland ; and when 


Henry Sidney, in the " Memoir of his Government 
in Ireland," written in 1590, thus speaks of the little 
colony of refugees settled at Swords, near Dublin : 
"I caused to plant and inhabit there about fourtie 
families of the Reformed Churches of the Low Coun- 
tries, flying thence for religion's sake, in one ruinous 
town called Swords; and truly, sir, it would have 
done any man good to have seen how diligently they 
wrought, how they re-edified the quite spoiled ould 
castell of the same town, and repay red almost all the 
same, and how godlie and cleanly they, their wifes, 
and children lived. They made diaper and tickes for 
beddes, and other good stuffes for man's use ; and as 
excellent leather of deer skynnes, goat and sheep fells, 
as is made in Southwarke." 

In short, wherever the refugees took up their abode, 
they acted as so many missionaries of skilled work, 
exhibiting the best practical examples of diligence, 
industry, and thrift, and teaching the people amongst 
whom they settled, in the most effective manner, the 
begnnings of those various industrial arts by which 
they have since acquired so much distinction and 

" I am persuaded," said the Rev. Elnathan Parr, in 
his Expositions on the Epistle to the Romans, pub- 
lished in 1632, "that England fares the better for 
kindness showed, in dangerous times, to French and 
Dutch strangers. Long may England be a sanctuary, 
and refuge, and harbour for the persecuted saints I 
For ' he that receiveth a righteous man in the name 
of a righteous man, shall have a righteous man's 
reward.' " 



THE chief object which the foreign Protestants had in 
view in flying for refuge into England, was not, how- 
ever, so much to follow industry as to be free to wor- 
ship God according to conscience. For that they had 
sacrificed all, possessions, home, and country. Accord- 
ingly, no sooner did they settle in any place, than they 
formed themselves into congregations for the purpose 
of worshipping together. While their numbers were 
small, they were content to meet in each other's houses, 
or in workshops or other roomy places ; but, as the 
influx of refugees increased with the increase of persecu- 
tion abroad, and as many pastors of eminence came 
with them, the strangers besought the government 
to grant them places for holding their worship in 
public. This was willingly conceded; and as early 
as the reign of Edward VI. churches were set apart 
for their use in London, Norwich, Southampton, and 

The first Walloon and French churches in London 
owed their origin to the young King Edward VI., and 
to the protection of the Duke of Somerset and Arch- 
bishop Cranmer. On the 24th of July 1550, the King 
issued royal letters patent, appointing John A'Lasco, 
a learned Polish gentleman, 1 superintendent of the 

1 In 1544, John A'Lasco gave which his uncle was archbishop, 
up the office of provost of the to go and found, a Protestant 
church of Gnezne, in Posen, of church at Embden, in East Fries- 


refugee Protestant churches in England ; and at the 
same time he assigned to such of the strangers as had 
settled in London the church in Austin Friars called 
the Temple of Jesus, wherein to hold their assemblies 
and celebrate their worship according to the custom 
of their country. Of this church Walter Deloen and 
Martin Flanders, Frangois de la Riviere, and Richard 
Fran9ois, were appointed the first ministers ; the two 
former, of the Dutch or Flemish part of the congrega- 
tion, and the two latter, of the French. The King fur- 
ther constituted the superintendent and the ministers 
into a body politic, and placed them under the safe- 
guard of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities of the 

But the number of refugees settled in London shortly 
became so great, that one church was found insufficient 
for their accommodation, although the Dutch and French 
met at alternate times during the day. In the course 
of a few months, therefore, a second place of worship 
was granted to the French-speaking section of the 
refugees ; and the church of St. Anthony's Hospital, in 
Threadneedle Street, was set apart for their use. 1 

land. An order of Charles V. fled for his life, and took refuge 
obliged him to leave that town in Switzerland, where he died, 
four years later ; when he came The foreign churches in Austin 
over to England, in the year Friars and Threadneedle Street 
1548, and placed himself in com- were reopened on the accession 
munication with Cecil, who re- of Elizabeth, 
commended him to the Duke of ' Both these churches were 
Somerset and Archbishop Cran- subsequently destroyed by fire, 
mer. During his residence in The church in Austin Friars was 
England, A'Lasco was actively burnt down quite recently, and 
engaged in propagating the new has since been restored. The 
views. He established the first chuinh in Threadneedle Street 
French printing-house in London was burnt down during the great 
for the publication of religious fire of London, and was after- 
books, of which he produced wards rebuilt ; but it has since 
many ; and he also published been demolished to make way 
others, written in French by for the approaches to the new 
Edward VI. himself. During Eoyal Exchange, when it was 
the reign of Mary, when Protes- removed to the new French 
tantism in all its forms was church in St. Martin's-le-Grand. 
temporarily suppressed, A'Lasco There were other foreign Pro- 


Walloon and French congregations were also formed 
in various country places. The first of the Walloon 
churches out of London was that of Glastonbury, where 
a body of Flemish Protestants settled as early as the 
year 1550, under the protection of Archbishop Cranmer, 
the Duke of Somerset, and Sir William Cecil. They 
brought with them a well-known preacher, Yalaren 
Pullen, and at once constituted themselves as a church. 
The Duke of Somerset advanced them money to buy 
wool, at the same time granting them small allotments 
of land from the Abbey domain. After the fall of the 
Duke, the weavers were taken under the protection of 
the Privy Council, and many papers relating to them 
are to be found in the State Paper Office ; but when 
Mary succeeded to the throne, the little colony was 
broken up, and, accompanied by their pastor Pullen, 
they returned to the Continent, and eventually settled 
at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 

Another of the early Walloon churches was that of 
Winchelsea, formed in 1560; but it was of compara- 
tively less importance than the others, inasmuch as, 
the town being poor and decaying, most of the 
refugees, shortly after landing there, proceeded inland 
to London, Canterbury, or the other places where 
settlements had already been formed. The Dutch 
church at Dover long continued to thrive, being fed 
by increasing immigrants from the opposite coast, until 
at length it became known as the French Church. 

At Sandwich the old church of St. Peter's was set 
apart for the special use of the refugees ; but, at the 
same time, they were enjoined not to dispute openly 
concerning their religion. 1 At Rye they were allowed 

testant churches in London Edward VI., and continued to 

besides those of the Walloons worship together during that of 

and French, such as the Spanish Elizabeth, after which they seem 

Protestants, who, though few in to have become merged in the 

number, had a church of their French congregations, 
own as early as 1559; and the ' This church long continued 

Italian Protestants, who formed to flourish. The Rev. Gerard de 

n congregation in the reign of Gols, rector of St. Peter's, and 


the use of the parish church during one part of the day, 
until a special place of worship could be provided for 
their accommodation. The Walloon church at Yarmouth 
was founded in 1568, and its members were mostly 
fishermen. Queen Elizabeth granted them a license to 
carry on their trade and to form a congregation ; and 
they held their public worship in the building which 
had originally been the mansion of Thomas de Dray ton, 
representative of the town in the time of Edward III. 
At Norwich, where the number of the settlers was 
greater in proportion to the population than in most 
other towns, the choir of Friars Preachers Church, on 
the east side of St. Andrew's Hall, was assigned for the 
use of the Dutch, and the Bishop's Chapel, afterwards 
the church of St. Mary's Tombland, was appropriated 
for the use of the French and Walloons. 

Two of the most ancient and interesting of the 
churches founded by the refugees, are those of South- 
ampton and Canterbury, both of which survive to this 
day. Southampton was resorted to at an early period 
by fugitives from religious persecution in Flanders 
and France. Many came from the Channel Islands, 
where they had first fled for refuge, on account of the 
proximity of these places to the French coast. This 
appears from the register of the Southampton church, 
a document of great interest, preserved amongst the 
records of the Registrar-General at Somerset House. 

It is stated in Falle"s History of Jersey, that forty- 
two Protestant ministers of religion, besides a large 
number of lay families, passed over from France into 
Jersey in the reign of Elizabeth, many of them before 
the massacre of Saint Bartholomew. And although the 
refugees for the most part regarded the Channel Islands 
as merely temporary places of refuge, or as a sort 

minister of the Dutch congrega- townsmen that he was one of the 

tion in Sandwich between -1713 persons selected by the corpora- 

and 1737, was highly esteemed in tion to support the canopies at 

his day as an author, and was the coronation of George II. and 

so much respected by his fellow- Queen Caroline. 


of stepping-stone to England, a sufficient numbej 
remained to determine the Protestant character ol 
the community, and to completely transform th> 
islands by their industry; since which time, Jersey and 
Guernsey, from being among the most backward and 
miserable places on the face of the earth, have come to 
be recognised as among the most happy and prosper- 

The first French church at Southampton, which was 
so largely fed by arrivals from the Channel Islands, 
was, like the two earliest foreign Protestant churches 
in London, established in the reign of Edward VI. An 
old chapel in Winkle Street, near the harbour, called 
Domus Dei, or "God's House," forming part of an 
ancient hospital founded by two merchants in the time 
of Henry III., was set apart for the accommodation 
of the refugees. The hospital and chapel had originally 
been dedicated to St. Julian, the patron of travellers, 
and was probably used in ancient times by pilgrims 
passing through Southampton to and from the adjoin- 
ing monastic establishments of Netley and Beaulieu, 
and the famous shrines of Winchester, Wells, and 

There are no records of this early French church 
beyond what can be gathered from their Register, 1 
which, however, is remarkably complete and well pre- 
served, and presents many points of curious interest. 
The first entries are dated 1567, when the register 
began to be kept. From the first list of communicants 
entered in that year, it appears that their number was 
then only fifty-eight, of whom eight were distinguished 
as "Anglois." The callings of the members were 
various, medical men being comparatively numerous ; 
whilst others are described as weavers, bakers, cutlers, 
and brewers. The places from which the refugees had 

1 " Register of the Church of St. Registrar-General at Somerset 
Julian, or God's House, of South- House, 
ampton," in the Archives of the 


come are also given those most frequently occurring 
being Valenciennes, Lisle, Dieppe, Gerne'se (Guernsey), 
and .Terse. 

It further appears from the entries, that satisfactory 
evidence was required of the character and religious 
standing of the new refugees, who from time to time 
arrived from abroad, before they were admitted to the 
privikges of membership; the words " avec attestation," 
" te'moinage par dent," or simply " te'moinage," being 
attached to a large number of names. Many of the 
fugitives, before they succeeded in making their escape, 
appear to have been forced to attend Mass; and their 
first care on landing seems to have been, to seek out 
the nearest pastor, confess their sin, and take the 
sacrament according to the rights of their Church. On 
the 3rd of July 1574 (more than a year after the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew) occurs this entry 
" Tiebaut de Befroi, his wife, his son, and his daughter, 
after having made their public acknowledgment of 
having been at the mass, were all received to the 

One of the most interesting portions of the register 
is the record of fasts and thanksgivings held at " God's 
House"; in the course of which we see the poor refugees 
anxiously watching the current of events abroad, de- 
ploring the increasing ferocity of their persecutors, 
praying God to bridle the strong and wicked men 
who sought to destroy His Church, and to give the 
help of His outstretched arm to its true followers and 
defenders. The first of such fasts (Jeusnes) relates to 
the persecutions in the Netherlands by the Duke of 
Alva. It runs as follows : " The year 1568, the 3rd 
day of September, was celebrated a public fast ; the 
occasion was that Monseignor the Prince of Orange 
had descended from Germany into the Low Countries, 
to try with God's help to deliver the poor churches 
there from affliction ; and now to beseech the Lord 
most fervently for the deliverance of His people, this 
fast was celebrated." 


Another fast was held in 1570, on the occasion of 
the defeat of the Prince of Concle at the battle of 
Jarnac, when the little church of Southampton again 
beseeched help for their brethren against the calamities 
which threatened to overwhelm them. Two years 
later, on the 25th of September 1572, we find them 
again entreating help for the Prince of Orange, who 
had entered the Low Countries from Germany with a 
new army, to deliver the poor churches there from the 
hands of the Duke of Alva, " that cruel tyrant ; and 
also, principally, for that the churches of France have 
suffered a marvellous and extremely horrible calamity 
a horrible massacre having been perpetrated at Paris 
on the 24th day of August last, in which a great 
number of nobles and of the faithful were killed in 
one night, about twelve or thirteen thousand ; preach- 
ing forbidden ; and all the property of the faithful 
given up to pillage throughout the kingdom. Now 
for the consolation of them and of the Low Countries, 
and to pray the Lord for their deliverance, was cele- 
brated this solemn fast." 

Other fasts were held, to pray God to maintain her 
Majesty the Queen in good friendship and accord with 
the Prince of Orange, 1 to uphold the Protestant 
churches in France, to stay the ravages of the plague, 
to comfort and succour the poor people of Antwerp, 
driven out of that city on its destruction by the 
Spaniards, 2 and to help and strengthen the churches 
of the refuge established in England. Several of these 
fasts were appointed to be held by the conference 
(colloque) of the churches, the meetings of which were 
held annually in London, Canterbury, Norwich, South- 
ampton, and other places ; so that at the same time 
the same fast was being held in all the foreign churches 
throughout the kingdom. 

In one case the shock of an earthquake is recorded. 
The entry runs as follows : " The 28th of April, 1580, 

1 Fast, 29th August, 1576. a Fast, 22nd November, 1576. 


a fast was celebrated to pray God to preserve us 
against His anger, since on the 6th of this month we 
have been appalled by a great trembling of the earth, 
which has not only been felt throughout all this king- 
dom, but also in Picardy and the Low Countries of 
Flanders; as well as to preserve us against war and 
plague, and to protect the poor churches of Flanders 
and France against the assaults of their enemies, 
who have joined their forces to the great army of 
Spain for the purpose of working their destruction." 
Another fast commemorates the appearance of a comet, 
which was first seen on the 8th of October, and con- 
tinued in sight until the 12th of December in the 
year 1581. 

A subsequent entry relates to the defeat of the great 
Spanish Armada. On this occasion the little church 
united in a public thanksgiving. The record is as 
follows: "The 29th of November, 1588, thanks were 
publicly rendered to God for the wonderful dispersion 
of the Spanish fleet, which had descended upon the 
coast of England with the object of conquering the 
kingdom and bringing it under the tyranny of the 
Pope." And, on the 5th of December following, 
another public fast was held, for the purpose of pra) 7 - 
ing the Lord that He would be pleased to grant to 
the churches of France and of Flanders a like happy 
deliverance as had been vouchsafed to England. A 
blessing was also sought upon the English navy, 
which had put to flight the Armada of Spain. 

In the midst of these events, Queen Elizabeth visited 
Southampton with her court ; on which occasion the 
refugees sought to obtain access to her Majesty, to 
thank her for the favour and protection which they 
had enjoyed at her hands. They were unable to obtain 
an interview with the Queen, until she had set out on 
her way homeward, when a deputation of the refugees 
waited for her outside the town and craved a brief 
interview. This she graciously accorded, when their 
spokesman thanked her for the tranquillity and rest 


which they had enjoyed during the twenty-four years 
that they had lived in the town ; to which the Queen 
replied very kindly, giving praise to God who had 
given her the opportunity and the power of welcoming 
ard encouraging the poor foreigners. 

A considerable proportion of the fasts relate to the 
plague, which was a frequent and unwelcome visitor 
on one occasion sweeping away almost the entire set- 
tlement. In 1583, the communicants were reduced to 
a very small number; but those who remained met 
daily at " God's House " to pray for the abatement of 
the pestilence. It returned again in 1604, and again 
swept away a large proportion of the congregation, 
which had considerably increased in the interval. 
One hundred and sixty-one persons are set down as 
having died of plague in that year, the number of 
deaths amounting to four and five a-day. 

The greater number of the inhabitants of South- 
ampton abandoned their dwellings, and the clergy 
seem to have accompanied them ; for on the 23rd 
of July, 1665, an English child was brought to the 
French church to be baptized, by authority of the 
mayor, and the ceremony was performed by M. 
Courand, the pastor. Shortly after, M. Courand died 
at his post, after registering with his own hand the 
deaths of the greater part of his flock. On the 21st 
of September, 1665, the familiar handwriting of the 
pastor ceases, and the entry is made by another hand, 
" Monsieur Courand, notre pasteur peste." 

While death was thus busy, marrying and giving 
in marriage went on. Some couples were so im- 
patient to be united that they could not wait for the 
return of the English clergy, who had left the town, 
but hastened to be married by the French pastor at 
" God's House," as we find from the register. 

Another highly-interesting memorial of the asylum 
given to the persecuted Protestants of Flanders and 
France so many centuries ago, is presented by the 
"Walloon or French church which exists to this day 


in Canterbury Cathedral. It was formed at a very 
early period some suppose as early as the reign of 
Edward VI., like those of London and Southampton ; 
though the first record preserved of its existence is early 
in the reign of Elizabeth. Shortly after the landings 
of the foreign Protestants at Sandwich and Rye, a 
body of them proceeded to Canterbury, and sought 
permission of the mayor and aldermen to settle in 
the place. They came principally from Lisle, Nuelle, 
Turcoing, Waterloo, Darmentieres, and other places 
situated along the present French frontier. 

The first arrivals of the fugitives consisted of 
eighteen families, led by their pastor, Hector Hamon, 
"minister verbi Dei." They are described as having 
landed at Rye, and temporarily settled at Winchelsea, 
from which place they had come across the country to 
Canterbury. Persecution had made these poor exiles 
very humble. All that they sought was freedom to 
worship and to labour. They had no thought but to 
pursue their several callings in peace and quiet to 
bring up their children virtuously and to lead a dili- 
gent, sober, and religious life, according to the dictates 
of their conscience. Men such as these are the salt of 
the earth at all times ; yet they had been forced by 
a ruthless persecution from their homes, and driven 
forth as wanderers on the face of the earth. 

In their memorial to the mayor and aldermen, in 
15 64, they set forth that they had, for the love of 
religion (which they earnestly desired to hold fast with 
a free conscience), relinquished their country and their 
worldly goods; and they humbly prayed that they 
might be permitted the free exercise of their religion 
within the city, and allowed the privilege of a temple 
to hold their worship in, together with a place of sepul- 
ture for their dead. They further requested that lest, 
under the guise of religion, profane and evil-minded 
men should seek to share in the privileges which they 
sought to obtain, none should be permitted to join 
them without giving satisfactory evidences of their 


probity of character. And, in order that the young 
persons belonging to their body might not remain 
untaught, they also asked permission to maintain a 
teacher, for the purpose of instructing them in the 
French tongue. Finally, they declared their intention 
of being industrious citizens, and of proceeding, under 
the favour and protection of the magistrates, to make 
Florence serges, bombazine, Orleans silk, bayes, rnou- 
quade, and other stuffs. 1 

Canterbury was fortunate in being appealed to by 
these fugitives for an asylum bringing with them, as 
they did, skill, industry, and character. The autho- 
rities at once cheerfully granted all that they asked, 
in the terms of their own memorial. The mayor and 
aldermen gave them permission to carry on their trades 
within the precincts of the city. At the same time, 
the liberal-minded Matthew Parker, then Archbishop 
of Canterbury, with the sanction of the Queen, granted 
to the exiles the free use of the Under Croft of the 
cathedral, where " the gentle and profitable strangers," 
as the Archbishop styled them, not only celebrated 
their worship and taught their children, but set up 
their looms and carried on their industry. 

The Under Croft, or Crypt, extends under the choir 
and high altar of Canterbury Cathedral, and is of con- 
siderable extent. The body of Thomas a Becket was 
buried first in the Under Croft, and lay there for fifty 
years, until it was translated with great ceremony to 
the sumptuous shrine prepared by Stephen Langton, 
his successor, at the east end of the cathedral. Part of 
the Under Croft, immediately under the cross aisle of 
the choir, was dedicated and endowed as a chapel by 
Edward the Black Prince ; and another part of the 
area was enclosed by rich Gothic stone-work, and 
dedicated to the Virgin. 2 

1 The memorial is given in the tains an interesting Huguenot 
appendix to SOMNEE'S Antiqui- memorial of about the same date 
tics of Canterbury. as the settlement of the Walloons 

2 Canterbury Cathedral con- in the Under Croft. The visitor 


The Lady Undercroft Chapel was one of the most 
gorgeous shrines of its time. It was so rich and of such 
high esteem, that Somner says, " The sight of it was 
debarred to the vulgar, and reserved only for persons 
of great quality." Erasmus, who by special favour 
(Archbishop Warham recommending him) was brought 
to the sight of it, describes it thus : " There," said he, 
" the Virgin-mother hath a habitation, but somewhat 
dark, inclosed with a double sept or rail of iron, for 
fear of thieves. For indeed I never saw a thing more 
laden with riches. Lights being brought, we saw a 
more than royal spectacle. In beauty it far surpasseth 
that of Walsingham. This chapel is not showed but 
to noblemen and especial friends." l Over the statue 
of the Virgin, which was in pure gold, there was a 
royal purple canopy, starred with jewels and precious 
stones; and a row of silver lamps was suspended from 
the roof in front of the shrine. 

All these decorations were, however, removed by 
Henry VIIL, who took possession of the greater part 
of the gold and silver jewels of the cathedral, and had 
them converted into money. The Under Croft became 

to the cathedral observes behind his death made to Burghley and 
the high altar, near the tomb of Leicester, preserved in the State 
the Black Prince, a coffin of brick Paper Office, there does not, how- 
plastered over, in the form of ever, appear sufficient ground for 
a sarcophagus. It contains the the popular belief. His body was 
ashes of Cardinal Odo Coligny, not interred, but was placed in 
brother of the celebrated Admiral the brick coffin behind the high 
Coligny, who was one of the first altar, in order that it might be 
victims to the massacre of St. the more readily removed for in- 
Bartholomew. In 1568, the car- terment in the family vault n 
dinal visited Queen Elizabeth, France, when the religious trou- 
who received him with marked bles which then prevailed had 
respect, and lodged him sump- come to an end. But the mas- 
tuously at Sheen. Three years sacre of St. Bartholomew shortly 
later he died at Canterbury after followed ; the Coligny family 
a brief illness. Strype, and nearly were then almost destroyed ; and 
all subsequent writers, allege that hence the body of Odo Coligny 
he died of poison, administered has not been buried to this day. 
by one of his attendants because ' SOMNER. Antiquities jf 
of his supposed conversion to Pro- Canterbury. 1703. p 97. 
testantism. From a full report of 


deserted ; the chapels it contained were disused ; and 
it remained merely a large, vaulted, ill-lighted area, 
until permission was granted to the Walloons to use it 
by turns as a weaving-shed, a school, and a church. 
Over the capitals of the columns on the north side of 
the crypt are several texts of Scripture taken from the 
Psalms, the Proverbs, and the New Testament, still 
to be seen in old French, written up for the benefit of 
the scholars, and doubtless taught to them by heart. 

Desolate, gloomy, and sepulchral though the place 
might seem with the ashes of former archbishops 
and dignitaries of the cathedral mouldering under 
their feet, the exiles were thankful for the refuge it 
afforded them in their time of need, and they daily 
made the vaults resound with their prayer and praise. 
Morning and night they " sang the Lord's song in a 
strange land, and wept when they remembered Zion." 

The refugees worked, worshipped, and prospered. 
They succeeded in maintaining themselves ; they sup- 
ported their own poor; and they were able, out of 
their small means, to extend a helping hand to the 
fugitives who continued to arrive in England, still 
fleeing from the persecutions in Flanders and France. 
Every corner of the Under Croft was occupied ; and 
so many fresh immigrants continued to join them, 
that the place was soon found too small for their 

Somner, writing in 1639, thus refers to the exiles: 
" Let me now lead you to the Under Croft a place fit, 
and haply (as one cause) fitted to keep in memory the 
subterraneous temples of the primitives, in the times 
of persecution. The west part whereof, being spacious 
and lightsome, for many years hath been the strangers' 
church : a congregation for the most part of distressed 
exiles, grown so great, and yet daily multiplying, that 
the place in short time is likely to prove a hive too 
little to contain such a swarm." 

The Huguenot exiles remained unmolested in the 
exercise of their worship until the advent of Charles L 


as King of England, and of Laud as Archbishop of 
Canterbury. An attempt was then made to compel 
the refugees, who were for the most part Calvinists, to 
conform to the Anglican ritual. The foreign congre- 
gations appealed to the King, pleading the hospitality 
extended to them by the nation when they had fled 
from Papal persecution abroad, and the privileges and 
exemptions granted to them by Edward VI., which 
had been confirmed by Elizabeth and James, and even 
by Charles I. himself. The utmost concession that the 
King would grant was, that those who were born aliens 
might still enjoy the use of their own church service ; 
but that all their children born in England should 
regularly attend the parish churches. Even this small 
concession was limited only to the congregation at 
Canterbury, and measures were taken to enforce con- 
formity in the other dioceses. 

The refugees thus found themselves exposed to an 
Anglican persecution, instead of a Papal one. Rather 
than endure it, several thousands of them left the 
country, abandoning their new homes, and again risk- 
ing the loss of everything, in preference to giving up 
their views as to religion. About a hundred and forty 
families emigrated from Norwich into Holland, where 
the Dutch received them hospitably, and gave them 
house-accommodation free, with exemption from taxes 
for seven years, during which they instructed the 
natives in the woollen manufacture, of which they 
had before been ignorant. But the greater number of 
the exiles emigrated with their families to North 
America, and swelled the numbers of the little colony 
already formed in Massachusetts Bay, which eventually 
laid the foundation of the New England States. 

After the lapse of a few years, the reactionary 
course upon which Charles I. and Archbishop Laud had 
entered, was summarily checked. The foreign refugees 
were again permitted to worship God according to 
conscience, and the right of free asylum in England 
was again recognised and established. 




THE immigrations of foreign Protestants into England 
in a great measure ceased towards the end of the six- 
teenth century. In Flanders, the Protestants had for 
the most part been killed or expatriated, and their 
persecutors were left to enjoy their triumph amidst 
ruins. France also experienced a period of temporary 
repose. The ferocious wars of the League had been 
terminated by the accession of Henry of Navarre, the 
Huguenot leader, to the French crown, on which both 
parties laid down their arms for a time. Nothing 
seemed to be wanting to secure the permanent unity 
and peace of the kingdom but the acceptance by the 
King of the religion of the majority ; and to accomplish 
this great object, Henry conformed, or pretended to 
conform, making his public abjuration of the Protes- 
tant faith in the church of St. Denis, on the 25th of 
July 1593. 

In that age of assassination, Henry was probably 
influenced by the consideration that, unless he made 
his peace with the Romish Church, his life was in 
daily peril. Besides, religion formed no part of his 
genuine character. Although, as a king, he was mag- 
nanimous, large-hearted, and brave ; in his private 
life, he was profligate and sensual. He had been a 
Huguenot for political, rather than religious reasons ; 
and for political reasons he ceased to be a Huguenot, 
and became a Roman Catholic. But it was a mistake 
on his part to suppose that his life was safer after 

C-II.VP. vin. THE EDICT OF NAtfTES. 131 

his recantation than before. On the contrary, it was 
placed in still greater peril ; and his speedy assassina- 
tion was predicted on the very day of his pretended 
conversion, A member of the Grand Council, himself 
a zealous Roman Catholic, immediately on Henry's 
abjuration, whispered to a friend, " The King is lost ! 
He is killable from this hour; before he was not." 1 

One of Henry's justest and greatest acts was the 
promulgation by him, in 1598, of the celebrated Edict 
of Nantes. By that edict the Huguenots, after sixty 
years of persecution, were allowed at last comparative 
liberty of conscience and freedom of worship. What 
the Roman Catholics thought of it, may be inferred 
from the protest of Pope Clement VIII., who wrote 
to Henry to say, that " a decree which gave liberty of 
conscience to all was the most accursed that had ever 
been made" 

From the date of that edict, persons of the Re- 
formed Faith were admitted to public employment ; 
their children were allowed access to the schools and 
universities ; they were provided with equal represen- 
tation in some of the provincial parliaments, and per- 
mitted to hold a certain number of places of surety in 
the kingdom. And thus was a treaty of peace estab- 
lished for a time between the people of the contending 
faiths throughout France. 

But though Henry IV. governed France ably and 
justly for a period of sixteen years, his enemies, the 
Jesuits, never forgave him, nor did his apostasy avert 
their vengeance. After repeated attempts made upon 
his life by their emissaries, he was eventually assas- 
sinated by Francis Ravaillac, a lay brother of the 
monastery of St. Bernard, on the 14th of May 1610. 

Although the edicts of toleration were formally 
proclaimed by Henry's successor, they were practically 
disregarded and violated. Marie de Medicis, the 
queen-regent, was, like all of her race, the bitter 

1 Mcmoires de L'Estoile, 


enemy of Protestantism. She was governed by Italian 
favourites, who inspired her policy. They distributed 
amongst themselves the public treasures with so lavish 
a hand, that the Parisians rose in insurrection against 
them, murdered Concini, whom the queen had created 
Marshal d'Ancre, and afterwards burned his wife as a 
sorceress; the young king, Louis XIII., then only about 
sixteen years old, joining in the atrocities. 

Civil war shortly broke out between the court and 
the country factions, which soon became embittered 
by the old religious animosities. There was a great 
massacre of the Huguenots in Beam, where their 
worship was suppressed, and the Roman Catholic 
priests were installed in their places. Other massacres 
followed, and occasioned general alarm among the 
Protestants. In those towns where they were the 
strongest, they shut their gates against the King's 
forces, and determined to resist force by force. In 
1621 the young King set out with his army to reduce 
the revolted towns, and first attacked St. Jean d'Angely, 
which he captured after a siege of twenty-six days. 
He next assailed Montauban, but, after a siege of two 
months, he retired from the place defeated, with tears 
in his eyes. 

In 1622, the King called to his councils Armand 
Duplessis de Richelieu, the Queen's favourite adviser, 
whom the Pope had recently presented with a cardi- 
nal's hat. His force of character was soon felt, and 
in all affairs of government the influence of Richelieu 
became supreme. One of the first objects to which he 
applied himself, was the suppression of the anarchy 
which prevailed throughout France, occasioned in a 
great measure by the abuse of the feudal powers still 
exercised by the ancient noblesse. Another object 
which he considered essential to the unity and power 
of France, was the annihilation of the Protestants as 
a political party. Accordingly, shortly after his ac- 
cession to office, he advised the attack of Rochelle, the 
head-quarters of the Huguenots then regarded as 


the citadel of Protestantism in France. His advice was 
followed, and a powerful army was assembled and 
marched on the doomed place Richelieu combining in 
himself the functions of bishop, prime-minister, and 
commander-in-chief. The Huguenots of Rochelle de- 
fended themselves with great bravery for more than a 
year, during which they endured the greatest priva- 
tions. But their resistance was in vain. On the 28th 
of October, 1628, Richelieu rode into Rochelle by the 
King's side, in velvet and cuirass, at the head of the 
royal army ; after which he proceeded to perform high 
mass in the church of St. Margaret, in celebration of 
his victory. 

The siege of Rochelle, while in progress, excited 
much interest among the Protestants throughout 
England ; and anxious appeals were made to Charles I. 
to send help to the besieged. This he faithfully pro- 
mised to do ; and he despatched a fleet and army to 
their assistance, commanded by his favourite the Duke 
of Buckingham. The fleet duly arrived off Rochelle ; 
and the army landed on the Isle of Rhe', but were 
driven back to their ships with great slaughter. Buck- 
ingham attempted nothing further on behalf of the 
Rochellese. He returned to England with a disgraced 
flag and a murmuring fleet, amidst the general dis- 
content of the people. A second expedition sailed for 
the relief of the place, under the command of the Earl 
of Lindsay ; but though the fleet arrived in sight of 
Rochelle, it sailed back to England without making 
any attempt on its behalf. The popular indignation 
rose to a greater height even than before. It was 
bruited abroad, and generally believed, that both 
expeditions had been a mere blind on the part of 
Charles I., and that, acting under the influence of his 
queen, Henrietta Maria, sister of the French king, he 
had never really intended that Rochelle should be 
relieved. However this might be, the failure was 
disgraceful ; and when, in later years, the unfortunate 
Charles was brought to trial by his subjects, the abor- 


live Rochelle expeditions were bitterly remembered 
against him. 

Meanwhile Cardinal Richelieu was vigorously pro- 
secuting the war against the Huguenots, wherever 
they stood in arms against the King. His operations 
were uniformly successful. The Huguenots were 
everywhere overthrown, and in the course of a few 
years they had ceased to exist as an armed power in 
France. Acting in a wise and tolerant spirit, Richelieu 
refrained from pushing his advantage to an extremity ; 
and when all resistance was over, he advised the King 
to issue an edict, granting them freedom of worship 
and other privileges. The astute statesman was doubt- 
less induced to adopt this course by considerations of 
state policy, for he had by this time entered into a league 
with the Swedish and German Protestant powers, for 
the humiliation of the house of Austria ; and with that 
object he sought to enlist the co-operation of the King's 
Protestant as well as Roman Catholic subjects. The 
result was, that, in 1629, " the Edict of Pardon " was 
issued by Louis XIII., granting to the Protestants 
various rights and privileges, together with liberty of 
worship and equality before the law. 

From this time forward, the Huguenots ceased to 
exist as a political party, and were distinguished from 
the rest of the people by their religion only. Being 
no longer available for purposes of faction, many 
of the nobles, who had been their leaders, fell away 
from them and rejoined the Roman Catholic Church ; 
though a large number of the smaller gentry, the mer- 
chants, manufacturers, and skilled workmen, remained 
Protestants. Their loyal conduct fully justified the 
indulgences granted to them by Richelieu ; and these 
were confirmed by his successor Mazarin. Repeated 
attempts were made to involve them in the civil broils 
of the time, but they sternly kept aloof, and if they 
took up arms, it was on the side of the government. 
When, in 1632, the Duke of Montmorency sought, 
for factious purposes, to re-awaken religious passion 


in Languedoc, of which he was governor, the Hugue- 
nots refused to join him. The Protestant inhabitants 
of Montauban even offered to march against him. 
During the wars of the Fronde, they sided with the 
King against the factions. Even the inhabitants of 
Rochelle supported the regent against their own gover- 
nor. Cardinal Mazarin, then prime-minister, frankly 
acknowledged the loyalty of the Huguenots. " I have 
no cause/' he said, " to complain of the little flock ; if 
they browse on bad herbage, at least they do not stray 
away." Louis XIV. himself, at the commencement of 
his reign, formally thanked them for the consistent 
manner in which they had withstood the invitations 
of powerful chiefs to resist the royal authority ; while, 
at the same time, he professed to confirm them in the 
enjoyment of their rights and privileges. 

The Protestants, however, continued to labour under 
many disabilities. They were in a great measure ex- 
cluded from civil office and from political employment. 
They accordingly devoted themselves for the most 
part to industrial pursuits. They were acknowledged 
to be the best agriculturists, wine-growers, merchants, 
and manufacturers in France. " At all events," said 
Ambrose Pare", one of the most industrious men of his 
time, " posterity will not be able to charge us with 
idleness." No heavier crops were grown in France 
than on the farms in Beam and the south-western 
provinces. In Languedoc, the cantons inhabited by 
the Protestants were the best cultivated and the most 
productive. The slopes of the Aigoul and the Eperon 
were covered with their flocks and herds. The valley 
of Vaunage, in the diocese of Nismes, where they had 
more than sixty temples, was celebrated for the rich- 
ness of its vegetation, and was called by its inhabitants 
"the Little Canaan." The vinedressers of Berri and 
the Pays Messin, on the Moselle, restored these dis- 
tricts to more than their former prosperity; and the 
diligence,, skill, and labour with which they subdued 
the stubborn soil and made it yield its increase of 


flowers and fruits and corn and wine, bore witness in 
all quarters to the toil and energy of the men of The 

The Huguenots of the towns were similarly indus- 
trious and enterprising. At Tours and Lyons they 
prosecuted the silk manufacture with great success. 
They made taffetas, velvets, brocades, ribbons, and 
cloth of gold and silver, of finer qualities than were 
produced in any other country in Europe. They also 
carried on the manufacture of fine cloth in various 
parts of France, and exported their articles in large 
quantities to Germany, Spain, and England. They 
established linen manufactories at Vire, Falaise, and 
Argentine, in Normandy; manufactories of bleached 
cloth at Morlaix, Landerman, and Brest, and of sail- 
cloth at Rennes, Nantes, and Vitrd, in Brittany ; the 
greater part of their productions being exported to 
Holland and England. 

The Huguenots also carried on large manufactories 
of paper in Auvergne and the Angoumois. In the 
latter province they had no fewer than six hundred 
paper-mills ; the article they produced being considered 
the best in Europe. The mills at Ambert supplied 
the paper on which the choicest books, emanating 
from the presses of Paris, as well as of Amsterdam 
and London, were printed. The celebrated leather of 
Touraine, and the hats of Caudebec, were almost ex- 
clusively produced by Protestant manufacturers ; who 
also successfully carried on, at Sedan, the fabrication 
of articles of iron and steel, which were exported 
abroad in large quantities. 

Perhaps one reason why the Huguenots were so suc- 
cessful in conducting these great branches of industry, 
consisted in the fact that their time was so much less 
broken in upon by saints' days and festival-days, and 
that their labour was thus much more continuous, and 
consequently more effective, than in the case of the 
Roman Catholic portion of the population. Besides 
this, however, the Protestants were almost of necessity 


men of stronger character ; for they had to swim 
against the stream and hold to their convictions in 
the face of obloquy, opposition, and often of active per- 
secution. The sufferings they had endured for religion 
in the past, and perhaps the presentiment of heavier 
trials in the future, made them habitually grave and 
solemn in their demeanour. Their morals were severe, 
and their piety was considered rigid. Their enemies 
called them sour and fanatical, but no one called in 
question their honesty and their integrity. 1 

" If the Nismes merchants," wrote Baville, Intendant 
of that province, one of the bitterest persecutors of the 
Protestants, " are bad Catholics, at any rate they have 
not ceased to be very good traders." The Huguenot's 
word was as good as his bond, and to be " honest as 
a Huguenot " passed into a proverb. This quality of 
integrity which is so essential to the merchant, who 
deals with foreigners whom he never sees so charac- 
terised the business transactions of the Huguenots, 
that the foreign trade of the country fell almost en- 
tirely into their hands. The English and Dutch were 
always found more ready to open a correspondence 
with them than with the Roman Catholic merchants ; 
although religious affinity may possibly have had some 
influence in determining the preference. And thus at 
Bordeaux, at Rouen, at Caen, at Metz, at Nismes, and 
the other great centres of commerce, the foreign busi- 
ness of France came to be almost entirely conducted 
by Huguenot merchants. 

The enlightened minister Colbert gave every en- 
couragement to these valuable subjects. Entertaining 
the conviction that the strength of states consisted in 
the number, the intelligence, and the industry of their 

1 It is worthy of note, that the like ; not a word is to be 

while the Huguenots were stig- found in them as to their morality 

matised in contemporary .Roman and integrity of character. The 

Catholic writings as "heretics," silence of their enemies on this 

" atheists," "blasphemers," "mon- head is perhaps the most eloquent 

sters vomited forth of hell," and testimony in their favour. 


citizens, he laboured in all ways to give effect to this 
idea. 1 He encouraged the French to extend their 
manufactures ; and at the same time he held out in- 
ducements to skilled foreign artizans to settle in the 
kingdom and establish new branches of industiy. His 
invitation was accepted, and considerable numbers of 
Dutch and Walloon Protestants came across the fron- 
tier, and settled as cloth manufacturers in the northern 

Colbert was the friend, so far as he dared to be, of 
the Huguenots, whose industry he encouraged as the 
most effective means of enriching France, and enabling 
the nation to recover from the injuries inflicted upon 
it by the devastations and persecutions of the pre- 
ceding century. With that object he granted privi- 
leges, patents, monopolies, bounties, and honours, after 
the old-fashioned method of protecting industry. Some 
of these expedients were more harassing than prudent. 
One merchant, when consulted by Colbert as to the 
best means of encouraging commerce, answered curtly 
" Laissez faire et laissez passer : " " Let us alone, 

1 Some of the measures adopted of large families was offered in 
by Colbert to increase the popu- the form of an actual pension to 
lation, and to supply the loss of the fathers, of 1000 livres for ten 
life occasioned by war, were of a children, and 2000 livres for 
remarkable character. Thus, in twelve. At first such pensions 
1666, a decree was issued for the were only offered to the nobles, 
purpose of encouraging early but two years later they were 
marriages and the rearing of extended to plebeians of every 
large families. The preamble of degree. This law continued in 
this decree set forth that matri- force until 1683, when it was 
mony being "the fertile source abolished by another royal de- 
of the power and greatness of cree, in which it was stated 
states," it was desirable that cer- that the privileges and pensions 
tain privileges should be granted granted for the encouragement 
for its encouragement. Accord- of matrimony and of large fami- 
ingly, it was decreed that all lies had to be repealed ' on ac- 
young married men were to be count of the frauds and abuses 
wholly exempted from taxation which they had occasioned.'* 
until their twenty-fifth year, as All that remained of Colbert's 
well as all fathers of families scheme, was the famous Hopital 
of ten children and upwards. A des Enfants-trouves, which con- 
further Dremium on the rearing tinues to the present day. 


and let our goods pass," a piece of advice which was 
not at that time either understood or followed. 

Colbert also applied himself to the improvement of 
the internal communications of the country. With 
his active assistance and co-operation, Riquet de Bon- 
repos was enabled to construct the magnificent canal 
of Languedoc, which connected the Bay of Biscay 
with the Mediterranean. He restored the old roads 
of the country, and constructed new ones. He esta- 
blished free ports, sent consuls to the Levant, and 
secured a large trade with the Mediterranean. He 
bought Dunkirk and Mardyke from Charles II. of 
England, to the disgust of the English people. He 
founded dockyards at Brest, Toulon, and Rochefort. 
He created the French navy ; and instead of posses- 
sing only a few old ships lying rotting in the harbours, 
in the course of thirty years France came to possess 
190 vessels, of which 120 were ships of the line. 

Colbert was withal an honest man. His predecessor 
Mazarin had amassed enormous wealth, whilst Colbert 
died possessed of a modest fortune, the fruits of long 
labour and rigid economy. His administration of the 
finances was admirable. When he assumed office, the 
state was over-burdened by debt, and all but bankrupt. 
The public books were in a state of inextricable con- 
fusion. His first object was to get rid of the debt by 
an arbitrary composition, which was tantamount to an 
act of bankruptcy. He simplified the public accounts, 
economised the collection of taxes, cut off unnecessary 
expenditure, and reduced the direct taxation placing 
his chief dependence upon indirect taxes on articles of 
consumption. After thirty years' labour, he succeeded 
in raising the revenue from thirty-two millions of livres 
to ninety-two millions net, one-half only of the in- 
crease being due to additional taxation, the other half 
to better order and economy in the collection. 

At the same time, Colbert was public-spirited and 
generous. He encouraged literature and the arts, as 
well as agriculture and commerce. He granted 


160,000 in pensions to men of letters and science, 
amongst whom we meet with the names of the two 
Corneilles, Moliere, Racine, Perrault, and Mezerai. Nor 
did he confine his liberality to the distinguished men 
of France, for he was equally liberal to foreigners who 
had settled in the country. Thus Huyghens, the dis- 
tinguished Dutch natural philosopher, and Vossius, the 
geographer, were among his list of pensioners. He 
granted 208,000 to the Gobelins and other manu- 
factures in Paris, besides other donations to those 
in the provinces. He munificently supported the 
Paris Observatories, and contributed to found the 
Academy of Inscriptions, the Academy of Sciences, 
and the Academy of Painting and Sculpture. In 
short, Colbert was one of the most enlightened, 
sagacious, liberal, and honourable ministers who ever 
served a monarch or a nation. 

But behind the splendid ordonnances of Colbert, 
there stood a superior power the master of France 
himself, Louis XIV. "the Most Christian King." 
Richelieu and Mazarin had, by crushing all other 
powers in the state nobles, parliament, and people 
prepared the way for the reign of this most absolute 
and uncontrolled of French monarchs. 1 He was proud, 
ambitious, fond of power, and believed himself to be 
the greatest of men. He would have everything to 
centre in the king's majesty. At the death of Mazarin 
in 1661, when his ministers asked to whom they were 
thenceforward to address themselves, his reply was 
" A moi." The well-known saying " L'e'tat, c'est 
moi," belongs to him. His people took him at his 
word. Rank, talent, and beauty bowed down before 

1 The engrained absolutism writing when a child. Instead 
and egotism of Louis XIV., M. of such maxims as " Evil com- 
Feuillet contends, were at their munications corrupt good man- 
acme from his earliest years. ners," or "Virtue is its own 
In the public library at St. reward," the copy set for him 
Petersburg, under a glass case, was this : " Les rois font tout ce 
may be seen one of the copy- qu'ils veulent." Edin. Review. 
books in which he practised 


him : they even vied with each other who should bow 
the lowest. 

While Colbert was striving to restore the finances 
of France by the peaceful development of its industry, 
this magnificent king, with a mind far above mercan- 
tile considerations, was bent on achieving glory by the 
conquest of adjoining territories. Thus, while his 
minister was, in 1668, engaged in organising a com- 
mercial system, Louis wrote to Charles II. with the 
air of an Alexander the Great : " If the English are 
satisfied to be the merchants of the world, and leave 
me to conquer it, the matter can easily be arranged ; 
of the commerce of the globe, three parts to England, 
and one part to France." 1 Nor was this a mere whim 
of the King ; it was the fixed idea of his life. 

Louis went to war with Spain. He overran Flan- 
ders, won victories, and France paid for the glory 
in augmented taxation. He next made war with 
Holland. There were more battles, less glory, but the 
same inevitable increase of taxes. War in Germany 
followed, during which there were the great sieges of 
Besanc.on, Salin, and Dole ; though this time there was 
no glory. Again Colbert was appealed to for money ; 
but France had already been taxed almost to the utmost. 
The King told the minister, in 1673, that he must find 
sixty millions of livres more ; " if he did not, another 
would." Thus the war had become a question mainly 
of money, and the money Colbert must find. Forced 
loans were then had recourse to, the taxes were in- 
creased, honours and places were sold, and the money 
was eventually raised. 

The extravagance of Louis knew no bounds. Ver- 
sailles was pulled down, and rebuilt at enormous cost. 
Immense sums were lavished in carrying out the de- 
signs of Vauban. France became surrounded with a 
belt of three hundred fortresses. Various other spend- 
thrift schemes were set on foot, until Louis had accu- 

1 MIGNET Negoc. de la Success. ffEsp. iii. 63. 


mulated a debt equal to 100,000,000 sterling. Colbert 
at last succumbed, crushed in body and mind. He 
died in 1683, worn out with toil, mortified and heart- 
broken at the failure of all his plans. The people, 
enraged at the taxes which oppressed them, laid the 
blame at the door of the minister ; and his corpse was 
buried at night, attended by a military escort to pro- 
tect it from the fury of the mob. 

Colbert did not live to witness the more disgraceful 
events which characterised the latter part of the reign 
of Louis XIV. The wars which that monarch waged 
with Spain, Germany, and Holland, for conquest and 
glory, were carried on against men with arms in their 
hands, capable of defending themselves. But the wars 
which he waged against his own subjects the dragon- 
nades and persecutions which preceded and followed 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes, of which the vic- 
tims were defenceless men, women, and children were 
simply ferocious and barbarous, and cannot fail in the 
long run to attach the reputation of Infamous to the 
name of Louis XIV., in history miscalled " The Great." 



ONE of the first acts of Louis XIV. on assuming the 
supreme control of affairs at the death of Mazarin, was 
significant of his future policy with regard to the 
Huguenots. Among the representatives of the various 
public bodies who came to tender him their congratu- 
lations, there appeared a deputation of Protestant 
ministers, headed by their president Vignole. The King 
refused to receive them, and directed that they should 
leave Paris forthwith. Louis was not slow to follow up 
this intimation with measures of a more positive kind. 
He had been carefully taught to hate Protestantism ; 
and now that he possessed unrestrained power, he enter- 
tained the notion of compelling the Huguenots to aban- 
don their religious convictions, and adopt his own. His 
minister Louvois wrote to the governors throughout 
the provinces "His Majesty will not suffer any per- 
son in his kingdom but those who are of his religion ;" 
and orders were shortly after issued that Protestantism 
must cease to exist, and that the Huguenots must 
everywhere conform to the Royal Will. 

A series of edicts was accordingly published with 
the object of carrying the King's purpose into effect. 
The conferences of the Protestants were declared to be 
suppressed. Though worship was still permitted in 
their churches, the singing of psalms in private dwel- 
lings was ordered to be forbidden. Spies were sent 
amongst them to report the terms on which the 
Huguenot pastors spoke of the Roman Catholic 


religion, and if any fault could be found with them 
they were cited before the tribunals for blasphemy. 
The priests were authorised to enter the chambers 
of sick Protestants, and entreat them whether they 
would be converted or die in heresy. Protestant chil- 
dren were invited to declare themselves against the 
religion of their parents. Boys of fourteen and girls 
of twelve years old might, on embracing Roman 
Catholicism, become enfranchised and entirely free 
from parental control. In such cases, the parents were 
further required to place and maintain their children 
in any Roman Catholic school into which they might 
desire to enter. 

The Huguenots were again debarred from holding 
public offices ; though a few, such as Marshal Turenne 
and Admiral Duquesne, who were Protestants, broke 
through this barrier by the splendour of their services 
to the state. In some provinces, the exclusion was so 
severe that a profession of the Roman Catholic faith 
was required from simple artizans shoemakers, car- 
penters, and the like before they were permitted to 
labour at their callings. 1 

Colbert, while he lived, endeavoured to restrain the 
King, and to abate the intolerable persecutions which 
dogged the Huguenots at every step. He continued to 
employ them in the departments of finance, finding no 
honester nor abler servants. He also encouraged the 
merchants and manufacturers to persevere in their 
industrial operations, which he regarded as essential 
to the prosperity and well-being of the kingdom. He 
took the opportunity of cautioning the King lest the 

1 A ludicrous instance of this August, 1665. The corporation 

occurred at Paris, where the cor- nevertheless notoriously con- 

poration of laundresses laid a tained many abandoned women, 

remonstrance before the council but the orthodox laundresses 

that their community, having were more distressed by heresy 

been instituted by St. Louis, than by profligacy. DE FELICE, 

could not admit heretics, and History of the Protestants of 

this reclamation was gravely con- France. 
firmed by a decree of the 21st 


measures he was enforcing might tend, if carried out, 
to the impoverishment of France and the aggrandise- 
ment of her rivals. " I am sorry to say it," said he to 
Louis, "that too many of your Majesty's subjects are 
already amongst your neighbours as footmen and valets 
for their daily bread ; many of the artizans, too, are 
fled from the severity of your collectors ; they are at 
this time improving the manufactures of your ene- 
mies." But all Colbert's expostulations were in vain. 
The Jesuits were stronger than he was, and the King 
was in their hands. Besides, Colbert's power was on 
the decline ; he too had to succumb to the will of his 
royal master, who would not relieve even the highest 
genius from that absolute submission which he required 
from his courtiers. 

In 1666, the Queen-mother died, leaving to her son, 
as her last bequest, that he should suppress and 
exterminate Heresy within his dominions. The King 
knew that he had often grieved his royal mother by 
his notorious licentiousness, and he was now ready to 
atone for the wickedness of his past life, by obeying 
her wishes. The Bishop of Meaux exhorted him to 
press on in the path his sainted mother had pointed 
out to him. " O kings ! " said he, " exercise your power 
boldly, for it is divine ye are gods ! " Louis was not 
slack to obey the injunction, which so completely fell 
in with his own ideas of royal omnipotence. 

The Huguenots had already taken alarm at the 
renewal of the persecution, and such of them as could 
readily dispose of their property and goods, were 
beginning to leave the kingdom for the purpose of 
establishing themselves in other countries. To prevent 
this, the King issued an edict forbidding French sub- 
jects to proceed abroad without express permission, 
under the penalty of confiscation of their goods and 
property. This was followed by a succession of severe 
measures for the conversion or extirpation of such of 
the Protestants in number about a million and a 
half as had not by this time contrived to make their 



escape from the kingdom. The kidnapping of Protes- 
tant children was actively set on foot by the agents 
of Roman Catholic priests ; and the parents were 
subjected to heavy penalties if they ventured to 
complain. Orders were issued to pull down certain 
Protestant places of worship, and as many as eighty 
were destroyed in one diocese. 

The Huguenots offered no resistance. All that they 
did was to meet together, and pray that the King's 
heart might yet be softened towards them. Blow 
upon blow followed. Protestants were forbidden to 
print books without the authority of magistrates of the 
Romish Communion. Protestant teachers were inter- 
dicted from teaching children anything but reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. Such pastors as held meet- 
ings amid the ruins of the churches which had been 
pulled down, were condemned to do penance with a 
rope round their neck, after which they were banished 
from the kingdom. Protestants were only allowed to 
bury their dead at daybreak or at nightfall. They were 
prohibited from singing psalms on land or on water, in 
workshops or in dwellings. If a priestly procession 
passed one of their churches while psalms were being 
sung, they must stop instantly, on pain of fine of the con- 
gregation, and imprisonment of the officiating minister. 

In short, from the pettiest annoyance to the most 
exasperating cruelty, nothing was wanting on the part 
of the Most Christian King and his abettors. Their 
intention probably was to exasperate the Huguenots 
into open resistance, with the object of finding a pre- 
text for a second massacre of St. Bartholomew. But 
the Huguenots would not be exasperated. They bore 
their trials bravely and patiently, hoping and praying 
that the King's heart would relent, and that they 
might yet be permitted to worship God according to 

All their patience and resignation were in vain. 
From day to day the persecution became more oppres- 
sive and intolerable. In the intervals of his scandalous 


amours, the King held conferences with his spiritual 
directors, to whom he was from time to time driven 
by bilious disease and the fear of death. He forsook 
Madame de La Valliere for Madame de Montespan, 
and Madame de Montespan for Madame de Maintenon, 
ever and anon taking counsel with his Jesuit confessor 
Pere La Chaise. Madame de Maintenon was the in- 
strument of the latter, and between the two the " con- 
version" of the King was believed to be imminent. 
In his recurring attacks of illness, his conscience 
became increasingly uneasy. Confessor and mistress 
co-operated in turning his moroseness to account, and 
it was observed that every royal attack of bile was 
followed by some new edict of persecution against the 

Madame de Maintenon, the last favourite, was the 
widow of Scarron, the deformed wit and scoffer. She 
belonged to the celebrated Huguenot family of 
D'Aubigny, her grandfather having been one of the 
most devoted followers of Henry IV. Her father led 
a profligate life, but she herself was brought up in the 
family faith. A Roman Catholic relative, however, 
acting on the authority conferred by the royal edict, 
of abducting Protestant children, had the girl forcibly 
conveyed to the convent of Ursulines at Niort, from 
which she was transferred to the Ursulines at Paris, 
where, after some resistance, she abjured her faith and 
became a Roman Catholic. She left the convent to 
enter the world through Scarron's door. When the 
witty cripple married her, he said, "his bride had 
brought with her an annual income of four louis, two 
large and very mischievous eyes, a fine bust, an ex- 
quisite pair of hands, and a large amount of wit." 

Scarron's house was the resort of the gayest and 
loosest, as well as the most accomplished persons of the 
time. There his young wife acquired that knowledge 
of the world, conversational accomplishment, and pro- 
bably social ambition, which she afterwards turned so 
artfully and unscrupulously to account. One of her 


intimate friends was the notorious Ninon de I'Enclos ; 
and it is not improbable that the appearance of that 
woman, courted by the fashionable world after thirty 
years of polished profligacy, exercised a powerful in- 
fluence on the subsequent career of Madame Scarron. 

At Scarron's death, his young widow succeeded 
in obtaining the post of governess to the children of 
Madame de Montespan, the King's then mistress, whom 
she speedily superseded. She secured a footing in the 
King's chamber, to the exclusion of the Queen, who 
was dying by inches, 1 and by her adroitness, tact, and 
pretended devotion, she contrived to exercise an ex- 
traordinary influence over Louis, so much so, that at 
length even the priests could only obtain access to him 
through her. She undertook to assist them in effecting 
his " conversion," and laboured at the work four hours 
a day, reporting progress from time to time to Pere la 
Chaise, his confessor. She early discovered the King's 
rooted hatred towards the Huguenots, and conformed 
herself to it accordingly, increasing her influence over 
him by artfully fanning the flames of his fury against 
her quondam co-religionists ; and fiercer and fiercer 
edicts were issued against them in quick succession. 

Before the extremest measures were resorted to, 
however, an attempt was made to buy over the Protest- 
ants wholesale. The King consecrated to this traffic 
one-third of the revenue of the benefices which fell to 
the Crown during the period of their vacancy ; and the 
fund became very large through the benefices having 
been purposely left vacant. A " converted" Huguenot 
named Pelisson was employed to administer the fund. 
He published long lists of " conversions " in the 
Gazette ; but he concealed the fact that the takers of 

1 Le roi tua la reine, comme foucauld la prit par les bras, lui 

Colbert, sans s'en apercevoir. . dit : " Le roi a besoin de vous. " 

. . . Elle mournt (30 juillet Et il la poussa chez le roi. A 

1683). Madame de Maintenon 1'instant tons les deux partirent 

la quittait expiree et sortaitde la pour Saint-Cloud. MICHELET, 

chambre, lorsque M. de la Roche- Louis XIV., 273-4. 


his bribes belonged to the dregs of the people. At 
length many were detected undergoing " conversion " 
several times over; upon which a proclamation was 
published, that persons found guilty of this offence 
would have their goods and property forfeited, and be 
sentenced to perpetual banishment. 

The great body of the Huguenots remaining im- 
movable and refusing to be converted, it was found 
necessary to resort to more violent measures. They 
were attacked through their affections. Children 
of seven years old were empowered to leave their 
parents and become converted ; and many were forcibly 
abducted from their homes, and immured in convent- 
prisons, for education in the Romish faith at the expense 
of their parents. Another exquisite stroke of cruelty 
followed. While such Huguenots as conformed were 
declared to be exempt from supplying quarters for the 
soldiery, the obstinate and unconverted were ordered 
to have an extra number quartered on them. 

Louvois, the King's minister, wrote to Marillac, In- 
tendant of Poitou, in March 1681, that he was about 
to send a regiment of horse into that province. " His 
Majesty," he said, "has heard with much joy of the 
great number of persons who continue to be converted 
in your department. He wishes you to persist in 
your endeavours, and desires that the greater number 
of horsemen and officers should be billeted upon the 
Protestants. If, according to a just distribution, ten 
would be quartered upon the members of the Reformed 
religion, you may order them to accommodate twenty." 
This was the first attempt at the Dragonnades. 

Two years later, in 1683, the military executions 
began. Pity, terror, and anguish had by turns agitated 
the minds of the Protestants, until at length they were 
reduced to a state of despair. Their life was made 
intolerable. Every career was closed against them. 
Protestants of the working class were under the neces- 
sity of abjuring or starving. The mob, observing that 
the Protestants were no longer within the pale of the 


law, took the opportunity of wreaking all manner of 
outrages on them. They broke into their churches, tore 
up the benches, and, placing the Bibles and hymnbooks 
in a pile, set the whole on fire ; the authorities usually 
setting their sanction on the proceedings of the rioters 
by banishing the burned-out ministers, and interdicting 
the further celebration of worship in their destroyed 

The Huguenots of Dauphiny were at last stung 
into a show of resistance, and furnished the King with 
the pretext which he wanted for ordering a general 
slaughter of those of his subjects who would not be 
"converted" to his religion. A large congregation of 
Huguenots assembled one day amidst the ruins of a 
wrecked church, to celebrate worship and pray for 
the King. The Koman Catholics thereupon raised the 
alarm that this meeting was held for the purpose of 
organising a rebellion. The spark thus kindled in 
Dauphiny burst into flame in the Viverais, and even 
in Languedoc; and troops were brought from all 
quarters to crush the apprehended outbreak. Mean- 
while the Huguenots continued to hold their religious 
meetings ; and numbers of them were found one day 
assembled outside Bordeaux, where they had met to 
pray. There the dragoons fell upon them, cutting 
down hundreds, and dispersing the rest. "It was a 
mere butchery," says Rulhieres, " without the show of 
a combat." Several were apprehended and offered 
pardon if they would abjure; but they refused, and 
were hanged, 

Noailles, then governor, seized the opportunity of 
advancing himself in the royal favour by ordering a 
general massacre. He obeyed to the letter the cruel 
orders of Louvois, the King's minister, who prescribed 
desolation. Cruelty raged for a time uncontrolled from 
Grenoble to Bordeaux. There were massacres in the 
Viverais and massacres in the Cevennes. An entire 
army had converged on Nismes, and there was so 
horrible a dragonnade that the city was " converted " 


in twenty-four hours. Noailles wrote to the King that 
there had indeed been some slight disorder, but that 
everything had been conducted with great judgment 
and discipline; and he promised with his head that 
before the next 25th of November (1683) there would 
be no more Huguenots in Languedoc. 

Similar cruelties occurred all over France. More 
Protestant churches were pulled down, and the property 
that belonged to them was confiscated for the benefit of 
the Roman Catholic hospitals. Many of the Huguenot 
landowners had already left the kingdom, and others 
were preparing to follow them. But this did not suit 
the views of the monarch and his advisers; and the 
Ordinances were ordered to be put in force, which 
interdicted emigration, with the addition of condem- 
nation to the galleys for life, of heads of families found 
attempting to escape, and a fine of three thousand 
livres against any person found encouraging or assist- 
ing them. By the same Ordinance, all contracts for 
the sale of property made by the Reformed within one 
year before the date of their emigration, were declared 
nullified. The consequence was that many landed 
estates were seized and sold, of which Madame de 
Maintenon, the King's mistress, artfully improved the 
opportunity. Writing to her brother, for whom she 
had obtained from the King a gratuity of 800,000 
francs, she said : " I beg of you carefully to use the 
money you are about to receive. Estates in Poitou 
may be got for nothing ; the desolation of the Hugue- 
nots will drive them to sell more. You may easily 
acquire extensive possessions in Poitou." 

Thus were the poor Huguenots trodden under foot 
persecuted, maltreated, fined, flogged, hanged, or 
sabred; nevertheless, many of those who survived 
remained faithful. Towards the end of 1684, a pain- 
ful incident occurred at Marennes in Saintonge, where 
the Reformed religion extensively prevailed, notwith- 
standing the ferocity of the persecution. The church 
there comprised from 13,000 to 14,000 persons; but 


on the pretence that some children of the new con- 
verts to Romanism had been permitted to enter 
the building (a crime in the eye of the law), the 
congregation was ordered, late one Saturday evening, 
to be suppressed. On the Sunday morning a large 
number of worshippers appeared at the church-doors, 
some of whom had come from a great distance their 
own churches being already closed or pulled down, 
and amongst them were twenty-three infants brought 
for baptism. It was winter. The cold was intense. 
No shelter was permitted within the closed church ; so 
that the poor things were, for the most part, frozen to 
death on their mother's bosoms. Loud sobbing and 
wailing rose from the crowd. All wept even the men. 
They could only find consolation in prayer ; but they 
resolved, in this their darkest hour, to be faithful to the 
end, even unto death. 

A large body of troops lay encamped in Beam in 
the early part of 1685, to watch the movements of the 
Spanish army; but a truce having been agreed upon, the 
Marquis de Louvois resolved to employ the regiments 
in converting the Huguenots of the surrounding dis- 
tricts after the methods adopted by Noailles at Nismes. 
Some hundreds of Bearnese Protestants having been 
driven by force into a church where the Bishop of Lescar 
officiated, the doors were closed, and the poor people 
were forced to kneel down and receive the bishop's 
absolution at the point of the sword. To escape their 
tormentors, the Reformed fled into the woods, the 
wildernesses, and the caverns of the Pyrenees. They 
were pursued like wild beasts, brought back to their 
dwellings by force, and compelled to board and lodge 
their persecutors. The dragoons entered the houses 
with drawn swords, shouting, " Kill, kill, or become 
Catholics." The scenes of brutal outrage which occurred 
during these dragonnades cannot be described. The 
soldiers were among the roughest, loosest, cruellest of 
men. They suspended their victims with ropes, blow- 
ing tobacco-smoke into their nostrils and mouths, and 


practising upon them a hundred other nameless cruel- 
ties; until the sufferers promised everything, to rid 
themselves of their persecutors. No wonder that the 
constancy of the Bearnese at length yielded to the 
cruelty of their persecutors, and that they hastened 
to the priests in crowds to abjure their religion. 

The success of the dragonnades in enforcing conver- 
sion in Beam, encouraged the King to employ the same 
means elsewhere ; and in the course of four months, 
Languedoc, Guienne, Saintonge, Poitou, Viverais, Dau- 
phiny, Cevennes, Provence, and Gex were scoured by 
these missionaries of the Church. Neither age nor 
sex was spared. The men who refused to be con- 
verted were thrown into dungeons, and the women 
were immured in prison-convents. Louvois thus re- 
ported the result of his operations, in September 
1685 : "Sixty thousand conversions have been made 
in the district of Bordeaux, and twenty thousand in 
that of Montauban. So rapid is the progress, that 
before the end of the month ten thousand Protestants 
will not be left in the district of Bordeaux, where 
there were one hundred and fifty thousand on the 
loth of last month." Noailles wrote to a similar 
effect from Nismes : " The most influential people," 
said he, "abjured in the church the day following 
my arrival. There was a slackening afterwards, but 
matters soon assumed a proper shape with the help of 
some billetings on the dwellings of the most obstinate." 
The King jocularly called the dragoons, who effected 
these conversions, " ses missionnaires bott& ! " 

In the meantime, while these forced conversions of 
the Huguenots were being made by the dragoons of 
De Louvois and De Noailles, Madame de Maintenon 
continued to labour at the conversion of the King 
himself. She was materially assisted by her royal 
paramour's bad digestion, and by the qualms of con- 
science which from time to time beset him at the 
dissoluteness of his past life. Every twinge of pain, 
every fit of colic, every prick of conscience was sue- 


ceeded by new resolutions to extirpate heresy. Penance 
must be done for his incontinence ; but not by himself. 
It was the virtuous Huguenots that must suffer vica- 
riously for him ; and, by punishing them, he flattered 
himself that he was expiating his own sins. " It was 
not only his amours which deserve censure," says 
Sismondi, "although the scandal of their publicity, 
the dignities to which he raised the children of his 
adultery, and the constant humiliation to which he 
subjected his wife, add greatly to his offence against 
public morality. . . . He acknowledged in his judg- 
ments, and in his rigour towards his people, no rule 
but his own will. At the very moment that his 
subjects were dying of famine, he retrenched nothing 
from his prodigalities. Those who boasted of having 
converted him, had never represented to him more 
than two duties that of renouncing his incontinence, 
and that of extirpating heresy in his dominions." 1 

The farce of Louis' " conversion " went on. In 
August, 1684, Madame de Maintenon wrote thus : 
" The King is prepared to do everything that shall be 
judged useful for the welfare of religion ; this under- 
taking will cover him with glory before God and 
man ! " The dragonnades were then in full career 
throughout the southern provinces, and a long wail 
of anguish was rising from the persecuted all over 
France. In 1685 the King's sufferings increased, and 
his conversion became imminent. His miserable body 
was already beginning to decay ; but he was willing 
to make a sacrifice to God of what the devil had left 
of it. Not only did he lose his teeth, but caries in the 
jaw-bone developed itself; and when he drank, the 
liquid passed through his nostrils. 2 In this shocking 
state, Madame de Maintenon became his nurse. 

The Jesuits now obtained all that they wanted. 
They made a compact with Madame, by which she 

DE SISMONDI Hijitoire de France, sxv. 481. 
1 Journal MS. des Medeciius, 1685. 


was to advise the King to revoke the Edict of Nantes, 
while they were to consent to her marriage with him. 
Pere la Chaise, the Royal confessor, advised a private 
marriage. The ceremony was performed at Versailles 
by the Archbishop of Paris, in the presence of the 
confessor and two more witnesses. The precise date 
of the transaction is not known; but it is surmised 
that the Edict was revoked one day, and that the 
marriage took place the next. 1 

The Act of Revocation was published on the 22nd 
of October, 1685. It was the death-knell of the 

1 Madame dit (Mcmoires, ii. 
108) que le manage eut lieu 
deux ans apris la mort de la, 
reine, done dans les derniers 
mois de 1685. M. de Noailles 
(ii. 121) etablit la meme date. 
Pour le jour precis, on 1'ignore. 
On doit conjecture! qu'il eut lieu 

apres le jour de la Revocation, 
declaree a la fin d'octobre, ce 
jour ouleroitint parole, accorda 
1'acte qu'elle avait consenti, et ou 
elle fut ainsi engag6e sans retour. 
MICHELET Louis XIV. ct la 
Revocation, 300. 



GREAT was the rejoicing of the Jesuits on the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes. Rome sprang up with a 
shout of joy to celebrate the event. Te Deums were 
sung, processions went from shrine to shrine, and the 
Pope sent a brief to Louis conveying to him the 
congratulations and praises of the Romish Church. 
Public thanksgivings were held at Paris, in which 
the people eagerly took part, thus making themselves 
accomplices in the proscription by the King of their 
fellow-subjects. The provost and sheriffs had a statue 
of Louis erected at the Hotel de Ville, the bas-reliefs 
displaying a frightful bat, whose wings enveloped the 
books of Calvin and Huss, and bearing the inscrip- 
tion, Luduvico Magno, victori perpetuo, ecclesice ao 
regum, dignitatis assertori. 1 Lesueur was employed 
to paint the subject for the gallery at Versailles, and 
medals were struck to commemorate the extinction 
of Protestantism in France. 

The Roman Catholic clergy were almost beside 
themselves with joy. The eloquent Bossuet was 
especially fervent in his praises of the monarch : 
" Touched by so many marvels," said he (loth January, 
1686), " let us expand our hearts in praise of the piety 
of the Great Louis. Let our acclamations ascend to 
heaven, and let us say to this new Constantino, this 
new Theodosius, what the six hundred and thirty 

1 The statue was pulled down in 1792, and cast into cannon which 
thundered at Yalmy 


fathers said in the Council of Chalce'don, 'You have 
strengthened the faith, you have exterminated the here- 
tics : King of Heaven, preserve the king of earth.'" 
Massillon indulged in a like strain of exultation : 
" The profane temples," said 'he, " are destroyed, the 
pulpits of seduction are cast down, the prophets of 
falsehood are torn from their flocks. At the first blow 
dealt to it by Louis, heresy falls, disappears, and is 
reduced either to hide itself in the obscurity whence 
it issued, or to cross the seas, and to bear with it into 
foreign lands its false gods, its bitterness, and its rage." 

Let us now see what the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes involved : The demolition of all the remaining 
Protestant temples throughout France, and the entire 
proscription of the Protestant religion ; the prohibition 
of even private worship, under penalty of confiscation 
of body and property ; the banishment of all Protes- 
tant pastors from France within fifteen days; the 
closing of all Protestant schools; the prohibition of 
parents to instruct their children in the Protestant 
faith ; the injunction, under a penalty of five hundred 
livres in each case, to have their children baptized 
by the parish priest, and brought up in the Roman 
Catholic religion ; the confiscation of the property and 
goods of all Protestant refugees who failed to return 
to France within four months ; the penalty of the 
galleys for life to all men, and of imprisonment for 
life to all women, detected in the act of attempting 
to escape from France ! 

Such were a few of the dastardly and inhuman 
provisions of the Edict of Revocation. It was a pro- 
clamation of war by the armed against the unarmed 
a war against peaceable men, women and children a 
war against property, against family, against society, 
against public morality, and, more than all, against 
religion and the rights of conscience. 

The military jacquerie at once began. The very day 
on which the Edict of Revocation was registered, steps 
were taken to destroy the great Protestant church at 


Charenton, near Paris. It had been the work of the 
celebrated architect Debrosses, and was capable of 
containing 14,000 persons. In five days it was levelled 
with the ground. The great temple of Quevilly, near 
Rouen, of nearly equal size, in which the celebrated 
minister Jacques Basnage preached, was in like manner 
demolished. At Tours, at Nismes, at Montauban, and 
all over France, the same scenes were enacted, the mob 
eagerly joining in the work of demolition with levers 
and pickaxes. Eight hundred Protestant temples were 
thrown down in a few weeks. 

The provisions of the Edict of Revocation were 
rigorously put in force. They were also followed by 
other edicts still more severe. The Protestants were 
commanded to employ only Roman Catholic servants 
under penalty of a fine of 1000 livres, while Protestant 
servants were forbidden to serve either Protestant 
or Roman Catholic employers. If any men-servants 
were detected violating this law, they were liable to be 
sent to the galleys ; whereas women-servants were to 
be flogged and branded with a fleur-de-lis the em- 
blazonment of the " Most Christian King." Protestant 
pastors found lurking in France after the expiry of 
fifteen days, were to be condemned to death; and 
any of the King's subjects found giving harbour to 
the pastors were to be condemned the men to be 
galley-slaves, the women to imprisonment for life ! 
The reward of 5500 livres was offered for the appre- 
hension of any Protestant pastor. 

The Huguenots were not even permitted to die in 
peace. They were pursued to death's door, and into 
the grave itself. They were forbidden to solicit the 
offices of those of their own faith, and were required 
to confess and receive unction from the priests, on 
penalty of having their bodies, when dead, removed 
from their dwelling by the common hangman, and 
flung into the public sewer. In the event of the sick 
Protestant recovering, after having rejected the viati- 
cum, he was to be condemned to perpetual confinement 


at the galleys, or imprisonment for life, with confisca- 
tion of all his property. 

Crushed, tormented, and persecuted by these terrible 
enactments, the Huguenots felt that life in France had 
become intolerable. It is true, there was an alterna- 
tive conversion. But Louis XIV., with all his power, 
could not prevail against the impenetrable rampart of 
conscience, and a large proportion of the Huguenots 
persistently refused to be converted. They would not 
act the terrible lie to God, and seek their personal 
safety at the price of hypocrisy. They would not 
become Roman Catholics ; they would rather die. 

There was only one other means of relief flight 
from France. Yet it was a frightful alternative, to 
tear themselves from the country they loved, from their 
friends and relatives, from the homes of their youth 
and the graves of their kindred, and fly they knew 
not whither. The thought of self-banishment was so 
agonising that many hesitated long and prepared to 
endure much before taking the irrevocable step ; and 
many more prepared to suffer death rather than leave 
their country and their homes. 

Indeed, to fly in any direction became increasingly 
difficult from day to day. The frontiers were strongly 
patrolled by troops and gensdarmes; the coast was 
closely watched by an armed coast-guard, while ships 
of war cruised at sea to intercept and search outward- 
bound vessels. The law was strictly enforced against 
all persons taken in the act of flight. Under the 
original edict, detected fugitives were to be condemned 
to the galleys for life, while their denouncers were to be 
rewarded with half their goods. But this punishment 
was not considered sufficiently severe ; and on the 7th 
of May, 1686, the King issued another edict, proclaim- 
ing that any captured fugitives, as well as any person 
found acting as their guide, would be condemned to 

Amidst the general proscription, a few distinguished 
exceptions were made by the King, who granted pei- 


mission to several laymen, in return for past public 
services, to leave the kingdom and settle abroad. 
Amongst these were Marshal Schomberg, one of the 
first soldiers of France, who had been commander-in- 
chief of its armies, and the Marquis de Ruvigny, one of 
its ablest ambassadors, whose only crime consisted in 
being Protestants. The gallant Admiral Duquesne 
also, the first sailor of France, was a Huguenot. The 
King sent for him, and urged him to abjure his re- 
ligion. But the old hero, pointing to his gray hairs, 
replied, " For sixty years, sire, have I rendered unto 
Cresar the things which are Cresar's ; suffer me still 
to render unto God the things which are God's." 
Duquesne was permitted to end his few remaining 
days in France, for he was then in his eightieth year ; 
but his two sons were allowed to emigrate, and they 
shortly after departed into Holland. 

The banished pastors were treated with especial 
severity. Fifteen days only had been allowed them 
to fly beyond the frontier ; and if they tarried longer 
in their agonising leave-taking of their flocks, they 
were liable to be sent to the galleys for life. Yet 
with that exquisite malignity which characterised 
the acts of the monarch and his abettors, they were in 
some cases refused the necessary permits to pass the 
frontier, in order that they might thereby be brought 
within the ran<re of the dreadful penalties proclaimed 
by the Act of Revocation. The pastor Claude, one of 
the most eloquent preachers of his day, who had been 
one of the ministers of the great church at Charenton, 
was ordered to quit France within twenty-four hours ; 
and he set out forthwith, accompanied by one of the 
King's footmen, who saw him as far as Brussels. 

The other pastors of Paris were allowed two days 
to make their preparations for leaving. More time 
was allowed to those in the provinces ; but they were 
prevented carrying anything with them, even their 
children, all under seven years of age being taken 
from them, to be brought up in the religion of their 


persecutors. Even infants at the breast were to be 
given up ; and many a mother's heart was torn by con- 
flicting feelings, the duty of following a husband on 
the road to banishment, or remaining behind to suckle 
her helpless infant. 

When all the banished pastors had fled, those of 
their flocks who still remained steadfast prepared to 
follow them into exile ; for many felt it easier to be 
martyrs than apostates. Those who possessed goods 
and movables, made haste to convert them into money 
in such a way as to excite the least possible suspicion ; 
for spies were constantly on the watch, ready to inform 
against them. Such as were engaged in trade, com- 
merce, and manufactures, were surrounded by difficul- 
ties ; yet they were prepared to dare and risk all 
rather than abjure their religion. They prepared to 
close their workships, their tanneries, their paper-mills, 
their silk-manufactories, and the various branches of 
industry which they had built up, and to fly with the 
merest wreck of their fortunes into other countries. 
The owners of land had still greater difficulties to 
encounter. They were in a measure rooted to the 
soil ; and according to the royal edict, if they emi- 
grated without special permission, their property was 
liable to immediate confiscation by the state. Never- 
theless, many of these, too, resolved to brave all risks 
and fly from France. 

When the full tide of the emigration set in, it was 
found difficult to guard the extensive French frontier, 
so as effectually to prevent the escape of the fugitives. 
The high-roads as well as the by-ways were regularly 
patrolled day and night, and all the bridges leading 
out of France were strongly guarded. But the fugi- 
tives avoided the frequented routes, and crossed the 
frontier through forests, over trackless wastes, or by 
mountain-paths, where no patrols were on the watch ; 
and they thus contrived to escape in large numbers 
into Switzerland, Germany, and Holland. They mostly 
travelled by night, not in bands but in small parties, 



and often singly. When the members of a family 
prepared to fly, they fixed a rendezvous in some town 
across the nearest frontier; then, after prayer and 
taking a tender leave of each other, they set out 
separately, and made for the agreed point of meeting, 
usually travelling by different routes. 

Many of the fugitives were of course captured by 
the King's agents. Along so extensive a frontier, it 
was impossible to elude their vigilance. To strike 
terror into such of the remaining Huguenots as might 
be contemplating their escape, the prisoners who were 
caught were led as a Show through the principal 
towns, with heavy chains round their necks, in some 
cases weighing over fifty pounds. Sometimes they 
were placed in carts, with irons on their feet, 
the chains being made fast to the cart. They were 
forced to make long marches; and, when they sank 
under fatigue, blows compelled them to rise. After 
they had been thus driven through the chief towns 
by way of example, the prisoners were sent to the 
galleys, where there were already more than a 
thousand by the end of 1686. The galley-slaves in- 
cluded men of all conditions : pastors and peasants ; 
old men with white hairs and boys of tender years ; 
magistrates, officers, and men of gentle blood, mixed 
with thieves and murderers ; and no discrimination 
whatever was made in their classification, or in the 
barbarity of their treatment. 

These cruelties were, however, of no avail in check- 
ing the emigration. The Huguenots continued to flee 
out of France in all directions. The Great Louis, still 
bent on their " conversion," increased his guards along 
the frontiers. The soldiers were rewarded in propor- 
tion to the captures they effected. The aid of the 
frontier peasantry was also invited, and thousands of 
them joined the troops in guarding the highways, 
the bridges, the ferries, and all the avenues leading 
out of France. False statements were published by 
authority, to the effect that such of the emigrants as 


had reached foreign countries were destitute and 
starving. It was alleged that ten thousand of them 
had died of misery in England, and that most of 
those who survived were imploring permission to 
return to France and abjure ! 

In vain ! the emigration continued. Some bought 
their way across the frontier ; others fought their way. 
They went in all sorts of disguises ; some as pedlars, 
others as soldiers, huntsmen, valets and beggars. Some, 
to disarm suspicion, even pretended to sell chaplets 
and rosaries. The Huguenots conducted the emigra- 
tion on a regular system. They had Itineraries pre- 
pared and secretly distributed, in which the safest 
routes and hiding-places were described in detail, a 
sort of " underground railroad," such as existed in 
the United States before the abolition of slavery 
Many escaped through the great forest of Ardennes 
into Luxembourg ; others through the Vosges moun- 
tains into Germany ; and others through the passes ol 
the Jura into Switzerland. Some were shot by the 
soldiers and peasantry; a still greater number were 
sent to the galleys; yet many thousands of them 
nevertheless continued to make their escape. 

Many a tradition is still preserved in Huguenot 
families of the hairbreadth escapes of their ancestors 
in those terrible times. Thus De la Rive (afterwards 
an officer under William III.) and his wife escaped 
across the frontier into Holland in the guise of orange- 
sellers, leading a donkey and panniers. The young 
D'Albiacs, whose blood now intermingles with the 
ducal family of Roxburgh, were smuggled out of the 
country in hampers. The sisters De la Cherois, whose 
descendants still exist in Ireland, fled in disguise 
on horseback, travelling only after dark, and conceal- 
ing themselves in the woods in the daytime. The 
two La Condamine chikh'en, whose descendants still 
flourish in England and Scotland, were carried off in 
baskets slung across a mule, travelling only at night. 
The ancestor of the Courtaulds, now settled in Essex, 


was carried off, when quite a boy, in a donkey's pan- 
nier from Saintonge to the northern frontier, accom- 
panied by a faithful servant, who, upon approaching 
any town where their progress was likely to be 
opposed, covered up the child with greens and garden 

The flight of men was accompanied by that of 
women, old and young ; often by mothers with 
infants in their arms. The hearts of the women 
were especially lacerated by the cruelties inflicted on 
them through their affections ; by the tearing of their 
children from them for the purpose of being educated 
in convents; by the quartering of dragoons in their 
dwellings ; and by the various social atrocities which 
preceded as well as followed the Edict of Revocation. 1 
While many Protestant heads of families were ready 
to conform, in order to save their families from insult 
and outrage by a lawless and dissolute soldiery, the 
women often refused to follow their example, and 
entreated their husbands to fly from the land where 
such barbarities had become legalised, and where a 
daily war was being carried on against womanhood 
and childhood against innocence, morality, religion, 
and virtue. To women of pure feelings, life under 
such circumstances was more intolerable even than 

1 The frightful cruelty of these dioceses to enforce them without 

measures shocked the Roman fail. COQUEREL, Histolre des 

Catholic clergy themselves, and, Eglises du Desert, i. p. 68. The 

to their honour be it said, in priests who visited the slaves at 

many districts they refrained the galleys were horribly shocked 

from putting them in force. On at the cruelties practised on them, 

discovering this, Louis XIV., The Abbe Jean Bion shed tears 

furiously zealous for the extirpa- at the sight of the captives 

tion of heresy, ordered his minis- covered with bleeding wounds 

ter De Portchartrain to address a inflicted by the whip, and he 

circular to the bishops of France, could not resist the impression : 

charging them with want of zeal " Their blood preached to me/' 

in carrying his edicts into effect, says he in his Relation, " and I 

and calling upon them to require felt myself a Protestant." 
the curates of their respective 


Everywhere, therefore, were the Huguenot women, 
as well as the Huguenot men, found fleeing into exile. 
They mostly fled in disguise, often alone, to join their 
husbands or fathers at the appointed rendezvous. 
Benoit says that they cut off their hair, disfigured 
their faces with dyes, assumed the dress of pedlars or 
lacqueys, and condescended to the meanest employ- 
ments, for the purpose of disarming suspicion and en- 
suring their escape. 1 Young women, in many cases of 
gentle birth, who under ordinary circumstances would 
have shrunk from the idea of walking a few miles 
from home, prepared to set out upon a journey on foot 
of hundreds of miles, passing through woods, along un- 
frequented paths, across mountain-ranges, and braving 
all dangers, so that they might but escape, though it 
were with their bare lives, from the soil of France. 

The adventures of some of the women who suc- 
ceeded in making their escape are full of romance, and 
cannot be read without painful interest. Thus, Lord 
du Bourdieu's widow, the daughter of Count de la 
Yalade, escaped disguised as a peasant, with her infant 
son slung in a shawl at her back, passing through the 
frontier guards into German Switzerland, from whence 

1 Women of quality, even sixty sickness, dumbness, and even in- 
and seventy years of age, who sanity. Some went disguised as 
had, so to speak, never placed a men ; and some, too delicate and 
foot upon the ground except to small to pass as grown men, 
cross their apartments or to stroll donned the dress of lacqueys, 
in an avenue, travelled a hundred and followed on foot, through 
leagues, to some village which the mud, a guide on horseback, 
had been indicated by a guide. who assumed the character of a 
Girls of fifteen, of every rank, man of importance. Many of 
exposed themselves to the same these females reached Rotterdam 
hazard. They drew wheelbar- in their borrowed garments, and 
rows, they bore manure, panniers, hastening to the foot of the 
and other burdens. They dis- pulpit, before they had time to 
figured their faces with dyes to assume a more decent garb, pub- 
embrown their complexion, with lished their repentance of their 
ointments or juices that blistered compulsory signature. ELIE 
their skins, and gave them a BENOIT Histoire de VEdit de 
wrinkled aspect. Women and Nante*, v. 561. 953. 
girls were seen to counterfeit 


she found her way to London and rejoined her rela- 
tives. 1 Another young married woman, equally noble, 
though untitled Judith Mariengault, from whom some 
of the best blood in America has come has herself told 
the story of her flight. She says : " We quitted our 
home in the night, leaving the soldiers in their beds, 
and abandoning to them our home and all that it con- 
tained. Well knowing that we should be sought for 
in every direction, we remained ten days concealed in 
Dauphiny, at the house of a good woman, who had 
no thought of betraying us." Making a long circuit 
through Germany and Holland, and suffering many 
misfortunes, the family at last reached London, from 
whence they took ship to Carolina. But their suffer- 
ings were not ended. " The red fever," Judith con- 
tinues, " broke out on board the ship : many of us died 
of it, and among them our aged mother. We touched 
at the island of Bermuda, where the vessel which 
carried us was seized. We spent all our money there, 
and it was with great difficulty that we procured a 
passage on board of another ship. New misfortunes 
awaited us in Carolina. At the end of eighteen months 
we lost our eldest brother, who succumbed to such 
unusual fatigues ; so that after our departure from 
France we endured all that it was possible to suffer. I 
was six months without tasting bread, besides working 
like a slave ; and during three or four years I never 
had the wherewithal completely to satisfy the hunger 
which devoured me/' " Yet," adds this admirable 
woman, " God accomplished great things in our favour 
by giving us the strength necessary to support these 

At a village in Champagne, during a dreadful day of 
persecution, when blood was streaming in the streets, 
two soldiers entered the house of a Protestant, and 
after killing some of the inmates, one of them, seeing 

1 The child she carried across to manhood, and became minis- 
the frontier on her back, grew up ter of the Savoy church, London. 


an infant in a cradle, rushed at it with his drawn 
sword and stabbed it, but not fatally. The child was 
snatched up by a bystander, who exclaimed, " At least 
the babe is not a Protestant," and saved it. 1 The child 
proved to be a boy, and was given to a Protestant 
woman to nurse, who had a male child of her own at 
the breast. The boys grew up together. When old 
enough, they emigrated into Holland together ; entered 
the ariny of the Prince of Orange, accompanied him to 
England, and fought in Ireland together. There they 
settled and married ; and the son of the one emigre' 
married the daughter of the other. Such were the 
ancestors of the Morell family, which has produced so 
many distinguished ministers of religion and men of 
science in England. 

Many fled with nothing but their clothes and their 
Bibles. Such was the case of Henri de Dibon, whose 
short story is contained in a leaf written inside the 
Bible 2 carried with him in his flight, as thus related 
to the late Rev. George Stanley Faber, D.D., by his 
maternal grandmother, Margaret de Dibon, the grand- 
daughter of the refugee : 

" This Bible once belonged to M. de Dibon, a Hugue- 
not gentleman, whose family estate and residence were 
situated in the Isle of France. 

" At the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in the 
year 1685, M. de Dibon was arrested by order of Louis 
XIV. ; and on his firm refusal to abandon the religion 
of his ancestors, his whole property was confiscated, 
and he himself was thrown into prison. 

" Before the arrival of the dragoons at his residence, 
he had time sufficient to bury this, his family Bible, 
within a chest in his garden. There he left it, in 
hopes of some day recovering what he esteemed his 
best treasure. 

1 A Sketch of the Life and 3 This French Bible is still in 

Character of the Rev. J. Morell, the possession of the Faber family, 

LL.D., by the Rev. J. E. Wref ord, and is greatly prized by them. 



" While in confinement he was frequently tortured 
by the application of fire to wreaths of straw, which 
were fastened round his legs ; but through the grace of 
God, he was enabled to persevere in making a good 
confession. This particular torture was especially re- 
sorted to, in consequence of his being a victim to the 

" He at length effected his escape ; but ere he quitted 
his native land for ever, he had the resolution to visit 
the estate of his forefathers, now no longer his, for the 
purpose of recovering his Bible. This he accomplished; 
and with the word of God in his hand, he finally 
reached England in the reign of William III. of 
glorious memory." 

Jean Marteilhe of Bergerac, in his highly interesting 
autobiography, 1 has described the remarkable diffi- 
culties which Huguenot young ladies occasionally 
encountered in their efforts to escape. He had himself 
been taken prisoner in his attempt to escape across 
the French frontier near Marienbourg, and was lodged 
in the gaol at Tournay to wait his trial. While lying 
there, five Huguenot fugitives, who had been captured 
by the dragoons, were ushered into his cell. Three 
of these he at once recognised, through their disguises, 
as gentlemen of Bergerac ; but the other two he failed 
to recognise. They eventually proved to be two young 
ladies, Mademoiselle Madras and Conceil of Bergerac, 
disguised as boys, who had set out, though it was 
winter, to make their escape from France through the 
forest of Ardennes. They had travelled thirty leagues 
on foot, under dripping trees, along broken roads, and 
by almost trackless paths, enduring cold, hunger, and 

1 The narrative of Jean Mar- under the fictitious name of "J. 

teilhe, entitled Merrwires d'un Willington," in the following 

Protestant condamne aux Ga- year. It has since been repub- 

Ures de France pour cause de lished by the Religious Tract 

Religion, ecrits par lui-meme, Society, under the title of Auto- 

originally appeared at Rotterdam biography of a French Protestant 

in 1755, and was translated into condemned to the Galleys for tlie 

English by Oliver Goldsmith, sake of his Religion. 


privations, " with a firmness and constancy," says 
Marteilhe, " extraordinary for persons brought up in 
refinement, and who previous to this expedition would 
not have been able to walk a league." They were, 
however, captured and put in gaol; and when they 
recognised in their fellow-prisoners other Huguenot 
fugitives from Bergerac, they were so happy that they 
wept for joy. Mai'teilhe strongly urged that the gaoler 
should be informed of their sex, to which the young 
ladies assented, when they were removed to a separate 
cell. They were afterwards tried, and condemned to 
be immured in the Convent of the Repentants at 
Paris, where they wept out the rest of their lives and 

Marteilhe himself refused all the tempting offers, as 
well as the dreadful threats, which were made to induce 
him to abjure his religion ; and at seventeen years of age 
he was condemned to be sent to the galleys. Marched 
from gaol to gaol, and from town to town, loaded with 
chains like his fellow-prisoners, he was first placed in 
the galleys at Dunkirk, where he endured the most 
horrible hardships 1 during twelve years ; after which, 
on the surrender of Dunkirk to the English, he was 
marched, with twenty-two other Protestant galley- 
slaves, still loaded with chains, through Paris and the 
other principal towns, to Marseilles, to serve out the 
remainder of his sentence. 

There were other galley-slaves of even more tender 
years than Marteilhe. Andrew Bosquet was only six- 
teen, and he remained at the galleys twenty-six years. 
Francis Bourry and Matthew Morel were but fifteen; 
and only a few years since, Admiral Boudin, maritime 
prefect at Toulon, in turning over the ancient records 
of his department, discovered the register of a child 

1 What life at the galleys was, the galleys, by Athanase Coc- 

may be learned from Marteilhe's querel fils, entitled Leg Formats 

own narrative above cited, as well pour la Foi (Galley- Slaves for 

as from a highly interesting ac- the Faith), published at Paris by 

count of the Protestants sent to Levy Brothers. 


who had been sent to the galleys at twelve years of 
age " for having accompanied his father and mother to 
the preaching " ! 

On the other hand, age did not protect those found 
guilty of adhering to their faith. David de Caumont, 
baron of Montbelon, was seventy years old when he 
was sent to the galleys. Antoine Astruc was of 
the same age ; and Antoine Morlier seventy-one. 
Nor did distinction in learning protect the hapless 
Protestants ; for the celebrated counsellor of the King, 
Louis de Marolles, was sent to the galleys with the 
rest. At first, out of regard for his eminence, the 
gaoler chained him by only one foot ; but next day, by 
the express orders of Louis the Great, a heavy chain 
was fixed round his neck. It was while chained with 
all sorts of malefactors that Marolles compiled his 
Discourse on Providence, which was afterwards pub- 
lished and translated into English. Marolles was 
a profound mathematician the author of one of the 
best treatises on algebra ; and, while chained in his 
dungeon, he proposed a problem to the mathematicians 
of Paris which was afterwards inserted in the works of 

Another distinguished galley-slave was John Huber, 
father of three illustrious sons Huber of the Bird/j, 
Huber of the Ants, and Huber of the Bees. The 
following touching incident is from the elder Huber's 
journal : " We arrived one night at a little town, 
chained, my wife and my children, with fourteen 
galley-slaves. The priests came to us, offering freedom 
on condition that we abjured. We had agreed to pre- 
serve a profound silence. After them came the women 
and children of the place, who covered us with mud. 
I made my little party fall on their knees, and we put 
up this prayer, in which all the fugitives joined : 
' Gracious God, who seest the wrongs to which we are 
hourly exposed, give us strength to support them, and 
to forgive in charity those who wrong us. Strengthen 
us from good even unto better.' The people about us 


expected to hear complaints and outcries : our words 
astonished them. We finished our little act of worship 
by singing the hundred and sixteenth psalm. At this 
the women began to weep. They washed off the mud 
with which our children's faces had been covered, and 
they sought permission to have us lodged in a barn 
separate from the other galley-slaves, which was done 
at their request." 

To return to the fugitives who evaded the dragoons, 
police, and coast-guard, and succeeded in making their 
escape from France. Many of them fled by sea, for it 
was difficult to close that great highway, or to guard 
the coast so strictly as to preclude the escape of those 
who dared to trust themselves upon it. Some of the 
fugitives from inland places, who had never seen 
the sea in their lives, were so appalled at the sight 
of the wide and stormy waste of waters, and so 
agonised by the thought of tearing themselves from 
their native land for ever, that their hearts sank 
within them, and they died in sheer despair, with- 
out being able to accomplish their purpose. Others, 
stronger and more courageous, prepared to brave all 
risks ; and on the first opportunity that offered, they 
put out to sea, from all parts of the coast, in open 
boats, in shallops, in fishing-smacks, and in trading- 
ships, eager to escape from France in anything that 
would float. 

"The Protestants of the seaboard," says Weiss, "got 
away in French, English, and Dutch merchant- vessels, 
whose masters hid them under bales of goods and 
heaps of coals, and in empty casks, where they had 
only the bunghole to breathe through. There they 
remained, crowded one upon another, until the ship 
sailed. Fear of discovery and of the galleys gave 
them courage to suffer. Persons brought up in every 
luxury, pregnant women, old men, invalids, and chil- 
dren vied with each other in constancy to escape from 
their persecutors, often risking themselves in mere 
boats upon voyages the thought of which would in 


ordinary times have made them shudder. A Normal 
gentleman, Count de Marance', passed the Channel, in 
the depth of winter, with forty persons, amongst whom 
were several pregnant women, in a vessel of seven 
tons burthen. Overtaken by a storm, they remained 
long at sea, without provisions or hope of succour, 
dying of hunger ; he, the countess, and all the passen- 
gers, reduced, for sole sustenance, to a little melted 
snow, with which they appeased their burning thirst, 
and moistened the parched lips of their weeping 
children, until they landed, half-dead, upon England's 

The Lord of Castlefranc, near Rochelle, was even 
less fortunate than the Count de Marance'. He was 
captured at sea, in an open boat, while attempting 
to escape to England with his wife and family. Three 
of his sons and three of his daughters thus taken, 
were sent to the Caribbee Islands as slaves. His three 
other daughters were detained in France in strict 
confinement ; and after much suffering, during which 
they continued steadfast to their faith, they were at 
length permitted to depart for Geneva. The father 
contrived in some way to escape from France and to 
reach London, where he lived for many years in 
Bunhill Fields. The six slaves in the Caribbee Islands 
were eventually liberated by the crew of an English 
vessel, and brought to London. The three young men 
entered the English army, under William HI. Two of 
them were killed in battle in Flanders, and the third 
retired on half-pay, settling at Portarlington in Ireland, 
where he died. 

Among the many who escaped in empty casks may 
be mentioned the Misses Raboteau, of Pont-Gibaud, 
near Rochelle. Their relatives had become " new 
Catholics," by which name the converts from Pro- 
testantism, often pretended, were called; but the two 
young ladies refused to be converted, and they waited 
an opportunity for making their escape from France. 
The means were at length provided by an exiled rela- 


live, John Charles Raboteau, who had emigrated long 
before, and settled as a wine-merchant in Dublin. 
He carried on a brisk trade with the French wine- 
growers, and occasionally sailed in his own ship to 
Rochelle, where he became the temporary guest of his 
relatives. At one of his visits, the two young ladies 
confided to him that they had been sentenced to adopt 
the alternative of either marrying two Roman Catholic 
gentlemen selected for their husbands, or being shut 
up in a convent for life. There was one other alterna- 
tive flight, upon which they had resolved, if their 
uncle would assist them. He at once assented, and 
made arrangements for their escape. Two horses were 
obtained, on which they rode by night to Rochelle, 
where lodgings had been taken for them at the house 
of a widow. There was still, however, the greater 
difficulty to be overcome of getting the delicate freight 
put on board. Raboteau had been accustomed to take 
to Ireland, as part of his cargo, several large casks of 
French apples ; and in two of such casks the young 
ladies were carried on board ship. They reached 
Dublin in safety, where they settled and married, and 
their descendants still survive. 1 

The Rev. Philip Skelton mentions the case of a 
French gentlewoman brought from Bordeaux to Ports- 
mouth by a sea-captain of his acquaintance, which 
shows the agonies of mind which must have been 
endured by these noble women before they could 
bring themselves to fly alone across the sea to England 
for refuge. This lady had sold all the property she 
could convert into money, with which she purchased 
jewels, as being the easiest to carry. She contrived to 

1 One of them married Alder- cated and sold as belonging to 

man Peter Barre, whose son was " Religionaires fugitifs da roy- 

the famous Isaac Barre, M.P., aume pour cause de la religion." 

and Privy Councillor ; the other Several of their descendants have 

married Mr. Stephen Chaigneau, filled important offices in the 

descended from an ancient family State, Army, and Church of 

in the Charente, where their es- England and Ireland, 
tate of Labellouiere was confis- 


get on board the Englishman's ship by night, bringing 
with her the little casket of jewels her sole fortune. 
She remained in a state of the greatest fear and 
anxiety till the ship was under sail. But no sooner 
did she find herself fairly out at sea and the land 
disappearing in the distance, than she breathed freely, 
and began to give way to her feelings of joy and 
gratitude. This increased in proportion as she neared 
England, though about to land there an exile, a solitary 
woman, and a foreigner ; and no sooner did she reach 
the shore than she threw herself down and passion- 
ately kissed the ground, exclaiming, " Have I at last 
attained my wishes ? Yes, gracious God ! I thank 
Thee for this deliverance from a tyranny exercised 
over my conscience, and for placing me where Thou 
alone art to reign over it by Thy word, till I shall 
finally lay down my head upon this beloved earth ! " l 

Another notable escape by sea was that of David 
Garric, or Garigue, the grandfather of Garrick, the 
celebrated actor. He first escaped himself, next his 
wife escaped, and finally, more than two years later, 
their only child escaped, whom they had left an infant 
at nurse. The story is best told in the touching little 
narrative of the refugee himself: 

" The 5th October, 1685. I, David Garric, arrived at 
London, having come from Bourdeaux the 31st August, 
running away from the persecution of our Holy Re- 
ligion. I passed through Saintonge, Poitou, and Brit- 
tany. I embarked at St. Malo for Guernsey, where I 
remained for the space of a month, leaving everything, 
even my wife and a little boy four months old, called 
Peter Garric, who was then out at nurse at the Bastide, 
near Bourdeaux. 

" The 5th December, 1685, English style. God gave 
me my wife at London. She embarked from Bour- 
deaux the 19th November, from whence she saved 

1 PHILIP SKELTON [Rector of passion for the French Protest 
Fintona, county Tyrone] Com- ant Refugees recommended, 1751 


herself, and in a bark of 14 ton, being hid in a hole, 
and was a month upon sea with strong tempests, and 
at great peril of being lost and taken by our perse- 
cutors, who are very inveterate. Pray God convert 
them. * * * 

"The 22d May, 1687. Little Peter arrived at Lon- 
don, by the grace of God, in the ship of John White, 
with a servant, Mary Mongorier, and I paid for their 
passage 22 guineas." l 

The measures adopted by the French king to pre- 
vent the escape of fugitives by sea, proved as futile as 
those employed to prevent their escape by land. The 
coast-guard was increased, and more tempting rewards 
were offered for the capture of the flying Protestants. 
The royal cruisers were set to watch every harbour 
and inlet, to prevent any vessel setting sail without a 
most rigid search of the cargo for concealed Hugue- 

When it became known that many had escaped in 
empty casks, provision was made to meet the case, and 
the royal order was issued that, before any ship was 
allowed to set sail for a foreign port, the hold should 
be fumigated with deadly gas, so that any hidden 
Huguenot who could not be detected might thus be 
suffocated. 2 This expedient was only of a piece with 
the refined and malignant cruelty of the Great Louis. 
But it failed like the other measures ; for the Huguenots 
still continued to make their escape. 

It can never be known, with anything approaching 
accuracy, how many persons fled from France during 
this Great Exodus. Vauban, the military engineer, 
writing only a few years after the Revocation, said 

1 Our acknowledgments are sition qui, lorsq'on y mettait le 
due to Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster feu developpait une odeur mor- 
king-at-arms, for the copy of the telle dans tons les recoins du 
document (Heard Collection. Col- navire, de sorte que, en la respi- 
lepe of Arms, London) from rant, ceux qui s'etaient caches 
which we make the above ex- trouvaient une mort certaine I " 
tracts. ROYER Hittoire de la Colon ie 

2 " On se serrait d'une compo- Fran$ai$e en Prnste, p. 153. 


that " France had lost a hundred thousand inhabitants, 
sixty millions of money, nine thousand sailors, twelve 
thousand tried soldiers, six hundred officers, and its 
most nourishing manufactures." But the emigration 
was not then by any means at its height; and for 
many years after, the Huguenots continued to swarm 
out of France and join their exiled compatriots in 
other lands. Sismondi computed the total number of 
emigrants at from three to four hundred thousand ; 
and he was further of opinion that an equal number 
perished in prison, on the scaffold, at the galleys, and 
in their attempts to escape. 1 

The emigration gave the death-blow to several great 
branches of industry. Hundreds of manufactories 
were closed, whole villages were depopulated, many 
large towns became half deserted, and a large extent 
of land went entirely out of cultivation. 2 The skilled 
Dutch cloth-workers, whom Colbert had induced to 
settle at Abbeville, emigrated in a body, and their 
manufacture was extinguished. At Tours, where some 
40,000 persons had been employed in the silk manu- 
factures, the number fell to little more than 4000 ; and 
instead of 8000 looms at work there remained only 
about 100 ; while of 800 mills, 730 were closed. Of 
the 400 tanneries which had before enriched Lorraine, 
Weiss says there remained but 54 in 1698. The popu- 
lation of Nantes, one of the most prosperous cities of 
France, was reduced from 80,000 to less than one-half; 
and a blow was struck at its prosperity from which it 
has never recovered. 

1 Boulainvillers states that un- in the later years of Louis XIV. 's 
der the intendancy of Lamoignon reign : " The cultivation of the 
de Baville, a hundred thousand soil is almost abandoned ; the 
persons were destroyed by pre- towns and the country are becom- 
mature death in the single pro- ing depopulated. All industries 
vince of Languedoc, and that languish, and fail to support the 
one-tenth of them perished by labourers. France has become as 
fire, strangulation, or the wheel. but a huge hospital without pro- 
DE FELICE, p. 340. visions." 

2 Fenelon thus describes France 


The Revocation proved almost as fatal to the pros- 
perity of Lyons as it did to that of Tours and Nantes. 
That city had originally been indebted for its silk manu- 
factures to the civil and religious wars of Sicily, Italy, 
and Spain, which occasioned numerous refugees from 
those countries to settle in Lyons and carry on their 
trade. And now the same religious persecutions which 
had made the prosperity of Lyons, threatened to prove 
its ruin. Of about 12,000 artizans employed in the 
silk manufacture, some 9000 fled into Switzerland 
and other countries. The industry of the place was 
for a time completely prostrated. More than a hun- 
dred years passed before it was restored to its former 
prosperity ; and then only to suffer another equally 
staggering blow from the violence and outrages 
which accompanied the outbreak of the French Revo- 

Although Protestantism seemed to be utterly 
stamped out in France during the century which 
followed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
although its ministers were banished, its churches and 
schools suppressed, and it was placed entirely beyond 
the pale of the law, it nevertheless continued to have 
an active existence. Banished ministers from time to 
time returned secretly, to minister to their flocks ; but 
they were liable to be seized and suffer death in conse- 
quence, as many as twenty-nine Protestant pastors 
having been hanged between 1684 and 1762. During 
the same period thousands of their followers were sent 
to the galleys, and died there. The names of 1546 ot 
these illustrious galle3'-slaves are given in Les Formats 
pour la Foi,lout the greater number have long since been 
forgotten on earth. The principal offence for which 
they were sent to the galleys was, for attending the 
Protestant meetings, which still continued to be held ; 
for the Protestants, after the Revocation, constituted a 
sort of underground church, regularly organised, though 
its meetings were held by night, in forests, in caves 
among the hills, or in unsuspected places, and even 





in the heart of large towns and cities, in all parts of 
France. 1 

Without pursuing the subject of the sufferings of 
the Huguenots who remained in France, of whom 
there were more than a million, notwithstanding the 
frightful persecutions to which they continued to be 
subjected, let us now follow the fugitives into the 
countries in which they found a refuge, and observe 
the important influence which they exercised, not 
only on their industrial prosperity, but also on their 
political history. 

1 The Churches of the Desert, 
as they were called, continued to 
exist down to the period of the 
French Revolution, when Protes- 
tantism in France was again al- 
lowed openly to show itself. An 
interesting account of the Pro- 
testant church in France during 
this " underground " period is to 

be found in Charles Coqnerel's 
Histolre des Eglises du Desert, in 
2 vols., Paris, 1841. The present 
author has also endeavoured to 
describe the same subject in a 
separate book, entitled Tlie Hu- 
guenots in France, after the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 


OF 1688. 

THE Exodus of the French Protestants exercised a 
highly important influence on European politics. 
Among its other effects, it contributed to establish 
religious and political freedom in Switzerland, and to 
render it, in a measure, the Patmos of Europe. It 
strengthened the foundations of liberty in the then 
comparatively insignificant electorate of Branden- 
burg, which has since become developed into the 
great German Empire. It fostered the strength and 
increased the political power and commercial wealth of 
the States of Holland. And, lastly, it contributed 
to the success of the English Revolution of 1C88, and 
to the establishment of the British Constitution on its 
present basis. 

Long before the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
the persecutions of the French Protestants had excited 
the pity and indignation of Europe ; and Switzerland 
and the northern nations vied with each other in ex- 
tending to them their sympathy and their help. The 
principal seats of Protestantism being in Languedoc, 
Dauphiny, and the south western provinces of France, 
the first emigrants readily passed across the frontier, 
through Jura and Savoy into Switzerland, where they 
made for the asylum of Geneva. That city had 
in a measure been created by the genius of Calvin, 
who strove to make it a sort of Christian Sparta. 
Under his regime the place became entirely changed 


It had already emancipated itself from the authority 
of the Duke of Savoy, and established alliances with 
adjoining cantons for the purpose of ensuring its 
independence, when Calvin undertook the administra- 
tion of its ecclesiastical policy. There can be no doubt 
as to the rigour as well as the severity of Calvin's rule ; 
but Geneva was surrounded by ferocious enemies, and 
had to struggle for its very life. Mignet has in a few 
words described the rapid progress made by that city : 
"In less than half a century the face of Geneva 
had become entirely changed. It passed through 
three consecutive revolutions. The first delivered 
it from the Duke of Savoy, who lost his delegated 
authority in the attempt to convert it into an abso- 
lute sovereignty. The second introduced into Geneva 
the Reformed worship, by which the sovereignty 
of the bishop was destroyed The third constituted 
the Protestant administration of Geneva, and the 
subordination to it of the civil power. The first of 
these revolutions gave Geneva its independence of the 
ducal power ; the second, its moral regeneration and 
political sovereignty ; the third its greatness. These 
three revolutions not only followed each other ; they 
were linked together. Switzerland was bent on liberty, 
the human mind on emancipation. The liberty of 
Switzerland made the independence of Geneva, the 
emancipation of the human mind- effected its reforma- 
tion. These changes were not accomplished without 
difficulties, nor without wars. But if they troubled 
the peace of the city, if they agitated the people's 
hearts, if they divided families, if they occasioned im- 
prisonments, if they caused blood to be shed in the 
streets, they tempered characters, they awoke minds, 
they purified morals, they formed citizens and men, 
and Geneva issued transformed from the trials through 
which it passed. It had been subject, and it had 
grown independent ; it had been ignorant, and it had 
become one of the lights of Europe ; it had been a little 
town, and it was now the Capital of a great Cause. 


Its science, its constitution, its greatness, were the 
work of France, through its exiles of the sixteenth 
century, who, unable to realise their ideas in their own 
country, had carried them into Switzerland, whose 
hospitality they repaid by giving them a new worship, 
and the spiritual government of many peoples." l 

Geneva having thus been established as a great 
Protestant asylum and stronghold, mainly through 
the labours of Frenchmen Calvin, Farel, De Beze, 
D'Aubigne', and many more the fugitive Protestants 
naturally directed their steps thither in the first place. 
In 1685, hundreds of them arrived in Geneva daily ; 
but, as the place was already crowded, and the accom- 
modation it provided was but limited, the greater 
number of the new arrivals travelled onward, into the 
interior cantons. Two years later, the refugees were 
arriving in thousands, mostly from Dauphiny and 
Lyons; the greater number of them being artizans. 
While the persecution raged in Gex, close to the Swiss 
frontier, it seemed as if the whole population were 
flying. Geneva became so crowded with fugitives that 
they had to camp out at night in the public squares. 

The stream of emigrants was not less considerable 
at Basle, Zurich, Berne, and Lausanne. The ambas- 
sador of Louis XIV. wrote to his royal master : " The 
fugitives continue to crowd to Zurich ; I met a number 
of them on the road from Basle to Soleure." A month 
later he informed his court that all the roads were full 
of French subjects making for Berne and Zurich ; and 
a third despatch informed Louis that carts laden with 
fugitives were daily passing through the streets of 
Basle. As the fugitives were mostly destitute, the 
Protestant cantons provided a fund 2 to facilitate the 

1 MIGNET Memoires IRgfo- As the emigration increased, so 

riqiies, Paris, 1854, pp. 385-7. did their bounty, nntil, in 1707, 

* The city of Geneva was su- they contributed as much as 
perbly bountiful. In 1685, the 234,672 florins towards the ex- 
citizens contributed 88,161 florins penses of the emigration. "With- 
to the Protestant refugee fund. in a period of forty years," says 


transit of those whom the country was unable to 
maintain. Thus 15,591 persons were forwarded to 
Germany at the expense of the League. 

Louis XIV. beheld with vexation the departure of 
so large a portion of his subjects, who preferred emi- 
gration and destitution, to French citizenship and 
forcible "conversion"; and he determined to interpose 
with a strong hand, so as, if possible, to prevent their 
further flight. Accordingly, when the people of Gex 
went flying into Geneva in crowds, Louis called upon 
the magistrates to expel them at once. The republican 
city was comparatively small and unarmed, and un- 
able to resist the will of a monarch so powerful as 
Louis the Great then was. The magistrates, there- 
fore, made a show of compliance with his orders, and 
directed the expulsion of the fugitives by sound of 
trumpet. The exiles left the city by the French gate 
in a long and sad procession ; but at midnight the 
citizens went forth and led them round the walls, 
bringing them into Geneva again by the Swiss gate, 
on the opposite side of the city. 

On this proceeding being reported to Louis, he 
vowed vengeance upon Geneva for thus trifling with 
his express orders, and giving refuge to his contuma- 
cious subjects. But Berne and Zurich having hastened 
to proffer their support to Geneva, the French king's 
threats remained unexecuted. The refugees, accord- 
ingly, remained in Switzerland, and settled in the 
various Protestant cantons, where they founded many 
important branches of industry, which continue to 
flourish to this day. 

The Protestant refugees received a like cordial wel- 

Graverol, in his History of the Berne and Vaud during the same 

City of Nlsmes (London 1703), period exceeded 4,000,000 florins. 

" Geneva furnished official con- This expenditure was altogether 

tributions towards the assistance exclusive of the individual con- 

of the refugees of the Edict of tributions and private hospitality 

Nantes, amounting to not less of the Swiss people, which were 

than 5,143.266 florins." The alike liberal and bountiful, 
sums expended by the cantons of 


coine in the provinces of North Germany, where they 
succeeded in establishing many important and highly 
nourishing colonies. The province of Brandenburg, 
the nucleus of modern Prussia, had been devastated 
and almost ruined by the Thirty Years' War. Its 
trade and manufactures were destroyed, and a large 
proportion of its soil lay uncultivated. The Elector 
Frederick William was desirous of replenishing the 
population ; and, with that view, he sought to attract 
to it men of skill and industry from all quarters. The 
Protestants whom the king of France was driving out 
of his kingdom, were precisely the sort of men whom 
the Elector desired for subjects ; and he sent repeated 
invitations to them to come and settle in Brandenburg, 
with the promise of liberty of worship, protection, 
and hospitality. As early as 1661, numerous refugees 
embraced his offer, and settled in Berlin, where they 
prospered, increased, and eventually founded a flourish- 
ing French Protestant colony. 

The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes furnished 
the Elector with an opportunity for renewing his 
invitation with greater effect than before. The pro- 
mulgation of the Edict of Paris was almost imme- 
diately followed by the promulgation of the Edict of 
Potsdam. By the latter edict, men of the Reformed 
religion, driven out of France for conscience' sake, were 
offered a free and safe retreat through all the dominions 
of the Elector. They were promised rights, franchises, 
and other advantages, on their settlement in Branden- 
burg, " in order to relieve them, and in some sort to 
make amends for the calamities with which Providence 
had thought fit to visit so considerable a part of His 
Church." Facilities were provided to enable the emi- 
grants from France to reach the Prussian States. Those 
from the southern and eastern provinces of France were 
directed to make for the Rhine, and from thence to 
find their way by boats to Frankfort-on-the-Maine, or 
to Cleves, where the Prussian authorities awaited them 
with subsidies, and the means for travelling eastward. 


Free shipping was also provided for them at Amster- 
dam, from whence they were to proceed to Hamburg, 
where the Prussian resident was directed to assist them 
in reaching their intended destination. 

These measures shortly had the effect of attracting 
large numbers of Huguenots into the northern pro- 
vinces of Germany. The city of Frankfort became 
crowded with exiles arriving from the eastern provinces 
of France. The fugitives were everywhere made wel- 
come, and succoured and helped. The Elector assisted 
them with money out of his own private means. " I 
will sell my plate," he said, " rather than they should 
lack assistance." 

On arriving in Brandenburg, the emigrants proceeded 
to establish their colonies throughout the electorate. 
Nearly every large town in Prussia had its French 
church, and one or more French pastors. The cele- 
brated Ancillon was pastor of the church at Berlin ; 
and many of the Protestant gentry resorted thither, 
attracted by his reputation. The Huguenot immi- 
gration into Prussia consisted of soldiers, gentlemen, 
men of letters and artists, traders, manufacturers, and 
labourers. 1 

Numerous other bodies of the refugees settled in the 
smaller states of Germany, in Denmark, in Sweden, 
and even in Russia. Others crossed the ocean and 
founded settlements abroad ; in Dutch Surinam, at the 
Cape, and in the United States of America. The 
settlement formed at the Cape of Good Hope was 
of considerable importance. It was led by a nephew 
of Admiral Duquesne, and included members of some 
of the most distinguished families of France Du 
Plessis de Mornay, Roubaix de la Fontaine, De 
Chavannes, De Villiers, Du Prd, Le Roux, Rous- 

1 The personal history and Messrs. Ennan and Reclam. en- 
particulars of the refugees who titled Memoires pour sercir a 
settled in Prussia are given at THistoire dcs Refugtis Francois 
full length in a work published dans leg Etats du Roi. 
at Berlin, in 9 TO!S. 8vo, by 


seau, D'Abling, De Cilliers, Le Sueur, Maude', aud 
many more. The names of some of these are to be 
found among the roll of governors of the colony 
under the Dutch. The refugees mostly settled in 
the Berg Valley, afterwards known as French Valley, 
and now as De Fransche Hoek. Weiss says their de- 
scendants number as many as 4000 persons ; and that 
they are still Huguenots in religion, and proud of their 
descent. The old families treasure their original 
French Bibles, and Clement Marot's hymn books, 
brought from France by their ancestors. A simple- 
minded farmer of Stellenbosch, near Cape Town, now 
represents the ancient ducal house of Du Plessis. It is 
said that when Napoleon I., in the early part of his reign, 
wished to rally round his throne all the old French 
families he could induce to acknowledge his preten- 
sions, he offered to the Du Plessis at the Cape the 
restoral of his family title and estates ; but the offer 
was declined. The Cape boer, in whose mind all 
recollection of his family traditions had died away, 
preferred his quiet vineyard on the Berg River to the 
brilliant saloons of the Tuileries. 1 The news of the outer 
world took a long time to reach the secluded descend- 
ants of the exiles. Weiss says that in 1828, when the 
evangelical missionaries told them that religious tolera- 
tion bad existed in France for forty years, the old men 
shed tears, and could with difficulty believe that their 
brethren could be so favourably treated in a country 
from which their ancestors had been so cruelly expelled. 
The emigration to the United States of America 
was also of considerable importance. The first set- 
tlement of Walloons was on Staten Island, where they 
built a little church near Richmond, afterwards re- 
moved to Wahle Bocht, or the " Bay of Foreigners," 
since corrupted into Wallabout. The Staten Island 
refugees are still represented by the Disosways and 
Orisons, who occupy the same farms which their an- 

1 HENRY HALL, in Notet and Queries, April 24 1869. 


cestors held a century and a half ago. Other settle- 
ments were established in the State of New York, at 
Albany, under their patron Van Ransselaer, and at 
Manhattan, where they were joined by a body of per- 
secuted Vaudois from the south of France. At New 
Rochelle also, in Westchester County, another settle- 
ment was formed, which long continued to flourish. 
Among the descendants of these emigrants, were the 
celebrated families of Jay and De Lancey, well known 
in the political history of the United States. In Mas- 
sachussets they formed several settlements ; and the 
celebrated Faneuil Hall, at Boston, where the plea for 
national independence was so early heard, was the 
gift of the son of a refugee. Worcester, in the same 
state, was originally a Huguenot colony. 

In Maryland, and in Virginia, other settlements were 
formed; and from the Maurys and Fontaines of the 
latter state, some of the best blood of America has 
come. South Carolina was even styled " The Home 
of the Huguenots," nearly a thousand fugitives having 
reached it from the ports of Holland alone. There 
they formed three colonies, at Charlestown, at Santee, 
and Orange Quarter on the Cooper River. The first 
pastor of the Huguenot church at Charlestown was 
Elias Prioleau, a descendant of Antoine Prioli, Dosre of 
Venice in 1618. From the French settlers in Carolina 
have come the Ravenels, Fravezants, Peronneaus, 
Laurens, Neuvilles, Boudinots, Manigaults, Marions, 
Legares, Hugers, Gaillards, Benorts, Bayards, Dupres, 
Chevaliers, and many illustrious Americans. 

But Holland and England constituted the principal 
asylums of the exiled Huguenots Holland in the 
first instance, and England in the next ; many of the 
refugees passing from the one country into the other, 
in the course of the great political movements which 
followed close upon the Revocation of the Edict of 

Holland had long been a refuge for the persecuted 
Protestants of Europe. During the religious troubles 


of the sixteenth century, exiles fled to it from all 
quarters from Germany, Flanders, France, and Eng- 
land. During the reign of Queen Mary, thirty thousand 
English Protestants fled thither, who for the most part 
returned to England on the accession of Elizabeth. 
There were colonies of foreign exiles settled in nearly 
all the United Provinces of Germans in Friesland 
and Guelderland, and of Walloons in Amsterdam, 
Haarlem, Leyden, Delft, and other towns in North 
and South Holland. And now these refugees were 
joined by a still greater influx of persecuted Protes- 
tants from all parts of France. Bayle designated 
Holland " the great ark of the fugitives." It became 
the chief European centre of free thought, free re- 
ligion, and free industry. A healthy spirit of liberty 
pervaded it, which awakened and cultivated the best 
activities and energies of its people. 

The ablest minds of France, proscribed by Louis 
XIV., took refuge in the Low Countries, where they 
taught from professors' chairs, preached from pulpits, 
and spoke to all Europe through the medium of. the 
printing-press. Descartes, driven from France, betook 
himself to Holland, where he spent twenty years, and 
published his principal philosophical works. It was 
the retreat of Bayle, Huyghens, l Jurieu, and many 
more of the best men of France, who there uttered 
and printed freely what they could do nowhere else. 
Among the most stirring books which emanated from 
the French press in Holland, were those of Jurieu 
formerly professor of theology and Hebrew in the 
university of Sedan who now sought to rouse the 
indignation of Europe against the tyranny of Louis 
XIV. His writings were not permitted to circulate 
in France, where all works hostile to the King and 
the Jesuits were seized and burnt; but they spread 

1 Though Huyghens was a duced to settle there by the 
native of Holland, he had long invitation of Colbert, 
lived jn Paris, having been ill- 


over northern Europe, and fanned the general indigna- 
tion against Louis XIV. into a still fiercer flame. 

Among the celebrated French Protestant divines 
who took refuge in Holland were Claude, Basnage, 
Martin, Benoit, and Saurin. Academies were expressly 
established at Leyden, Rotterdam, and Utrecht, in 
which the more distinguished of the banished minis- 
ters were appointed to professors' chairs, whilst others 
were distributed throughout the principal towns, and 
placed in charge of Protestant churches. A fund was 
raised by voluntary subscription for the relief of the 
fugitives, to which all parties cheerfully and liberally 
contributed, not only Lutherans and Calvinists, but 
Jews and even Roman Catholics. 

The public as well as the private hospitality of 
Holland towards the fugitives was indeed splendid. 
The magistrates of Amsterdam not only freely con- 
ferred on them the rights of citizenship, with liberty 
to exercise their respective callings, but granted them 
exemption from local taxes for three years. The 
States of Holland and the province of Friesland 
granted them similar privileges, with an exemption 
from all imposts for a period of twelve years. Every 
encouragement was given to the immigration. There 
was not a town but was ready to welcome and help 
the destitute foreigners. The people received them 
into their houses as guests; and when the private 
dwellings were rilled, public establishments were 
opened for their accommodation. Yet this was not 
enough. The Dutch, hearing of the sufferings of the 
poor exiles in Switzerland, sent invitations to them 
to come into Holland, where they held out that there 
was room enough for all. 

The result was an immense increase of the emigra- 
tion from France into Holland, of men of all ranks 
artizans, cloth-makers, silk-weavers, glass-makers, 
printers, and manufacturers. They were distributed, 
on their arrival, throughout the various towns and 
cities, where they settled down to pursue their re- 


spective callings ; and in the course of a short time they 
more than repaid, by the exercise of their industry 
and their skill, the hospitality of their benefactors. 

Another important feature of the immigration into 
Holland remains to be mentioned. This was the 
influx of a large number of the best sailors of France, 
from the coasts of Guienne, Saintonge, La Rochelle, 
Poitou, and Normandy, together with a still larger 
number of veteran officers and soldiers of the French 
army. This accession of refugees had the effect of 
greatly adding to the strength both of the Dutch 
navy and army; and, as we shall hereafter find, it 
exercised an important influence on the political 
history both of Holland and England. 

Louis XIV. endeavoured to check the emigration 
of his subjects into Holland, as he had tried to stop 
their flight into Switzerland and England, but in vain. 
His envoy expostulated against their reception by the 
States; and the States reiterated their proclamations 
of privileges to the refugees. The people began to fear 
that Louis would declare war against Holland ; though 
the Prince of Orange did not shrink from an encounter 
with the French king. 

William, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of 
Holland, hated France as his forefathers had hated 
Spain. Under an appearance of physical weakness 
and phlegmatic indifference he concealed an ardent 
mind and an indomitable will. He was cool and 
taciturn, yet full of courage and even daring. He 
was one of those rare men who never knew despair. 
When the great French army of 100,000 men, under 
Conde and Turenne, swept over Flanders in 1672, 
capturing city after city, and approached Amsterdam, 
the inhabitants became filled with dread. De Witt 
proposed submission ; but William, then only twenty- 
two years of age, urged resistance, and his view was 
supported by the people. He declared that he would 
die in the last ditch rather than see the ruin of his 
country ; and, true to his word, he ordered the dykes 

loo WILLIAM in. AND LOUIS xiv. CHAK xi. 

to be cut and the country laid under water. The 
independence of Holland was saved, but at a frightful 
cost ; and William never forgot, perhaps never for- 
gave, the injury which Louis XIV. had thus caused 
him to inflict upon Holland. 

William had another and more personal cause of 
quarrel with Louis. The Prince took his title from 
the small but independent principality of Orange, 
situated in the south-east of France, a little to the 
north of Avignon. Though Orange was a fief of the 
Imperial and not of the French crown, Louis, disre- 
garding public law, overran it, dismantled the forti- 
fications of the principal town, and subjected the 
Protestants of the district to the same cruelties which 
he had practised upon his own subjects of the same 
faith. On being informed of these outrages, William 
declared aloud at his table that the Most Christian 
King " should be made to know one day what it was 
to offend a Prince of Orange." Louis' ambassador 
at the Hague having questioned the Prince as to the 
meaning of the words, the latter positively refused 
either to retract or explain them. 

It may not be unimportant to remark that William 
was, like the other princes of his race, an enthusiastic 
Protestant. The history of his family was identified 
with the rise and progress of the new views, as well 
as with the emancipation of the United Provinces 
from the yoke of Spain and the Inquisition. His 
great-grandsire had fallen a victim to the dagger of 
Gerard, the agent of the Jesuits, and expired in the 
arms of his wife, the daughter of Admiral Coligny. 
Thus, the best Huguenot blood flowed in the veins of 
the young Prince of Orange ; and his sympathies 
were wholly on the side of the fugitives who sought 
the asylum of Holland against the cruelty of their 

At the same time, William was doubly related to 
the English royal family. His mother was the 
daughter of Charles I., and his wife was the daughter 


of James II., reigning king of England. James 
being then without male issue, the Princess of Orange 
was the heiress-presumptive to the British throne. 
Though William may have been ambitious, he was 
cautious and sagacious, and probably had not the 
remotest idea of anticipating the succession of his 
wife by the overthrow of the government of his 
father-in-law, but for the circumstances about to be 
summarily described, and which issued in the Revo- 
lution of 1688. 

Although the later Stuart kings, who were Roman 
Catholics at heart, hated Protestantism, they never- 
theless felt themselves under the necessity of continu- 
ing the policy initiated by Queen Elizabeth, of giving 
a free asylum in England to the persecuted Huguenots. 
In 1681, Charles II. was constrained by public opinion 
to sanction a bill granting large privileges to such of 
the refugees as should land on our shores. They were 
to have free letters-patent granted them ; and on their 
arrival at any of the out-ports, their baggage and 
stock-in-trade when they had any were to be 
landed duty free. But the greater number arrived 
destitute. For example, a newspaper of the day thus 
announced the landing of a body of the refugees at 
Plymouth : " Plymouth, 6th September, 1681. An 
open boat arrived here yesterday, in which were forty 
or fifty Protestants who resided outside La Rochelle. 
Four other boats left with this, one of which is said to 
have put into Dartmouth, but it is not yet known 
what became of the other three." 

Large numbers of the fugitives continued to land 
at all the southern ports at Dover, at Rye, at 
Southampton, at Dartmouth, and at Plymouth ; and, 
wherever they landed, they received a cordial wel- 
come. Many were pastors, who came ashore hunger- 
ing and in rags, lamenting the flocks, and some the 
wives and children, which they had left behind them 
in France. The people crowded round the venerable 
sufferers with indignant and pitying hearts. They 


received them into their dwellings, and hospitably 
relieved their wants. Very soon the flocks followed 
in the wake of their pastors. These landings con- 
tinued for many years, during which the refugees 
crowded all the southern ports. The local clergy 
led and directed the hospitality of the inhabitants, 
usually placing the parish church at the disposal of 
the exiles during a part of each Sunday, until they 
could be provided with accommodation of their own. l 

The sight of so much distress borne so patiently 
and uncomplainingly, deeply stirred the heart of the 
nation ; and every effort was made to succour and 
help the poor refugees for conscience' sake. Public 
collections were made in the churches. A fund was 
raised for the relief of the most necessitous, and for 
enabling the foreigners to proceed inland to places 
where they could pursue their industry. Many 
were thus forwarded from the sea-coast to London, 
Canterbury, Norwich, and other places, where they 
eventually formed prosperous settlements, and laid 
the foundations of important branches of industry. 

James II. succeeded to the British throne at the 
death of his brother Charles II. on the 6th of January, 
1685, the year in which the Edict of Nantes was re- 

1 At Rye, the refugees were innocent people, such as serve 

granted the use of the parish God constantly and uniformly, 

church from eight to ten in the according to the usage and 

morning, and from twelve to two custom of the Church of Eng- 

in the afternoon, the appropria- land. And further, that we be- 

tion being duly confirmed by the lieve them to be falsely aspersed 

Council of State. Reports having for Papists and disaffected per- 

been spread abroad, that the fugi- sons, no such thing appearing 

tives were persons of bad char- unto us by the conversations of 

acter, disaffected, and Papists in any of them. This we do freely 

disguise, the vicar and principal and truly certifie, for and of 

inhabitants of Rye drew up and them. In witness whereof, we 

published the following testi- have hereunto set our hands, 

monial in their behalf : the 18th day of April, 1682. 

" These are to certifie to all Wm. Williams, vicar ; Thos. 
whom it may concern, that the Tournay," etc. etc. State Pa- 
French Protestants that are pen, Domestic Calendar, 1682, 
settled inhabitants of this town No. 65. 
of Rye, are a sober, harmless, 


voked. Charles and James were both Roman Catho- 
lics, Charles when he was not a scoffer, James always. 
The latter had long been a friend of the Jesuits, in 
disguise ; but no sooner did he become king, than he 
threw off the mask, and exhibited himself in his true 
character. James was not a man to gather wisdom 
from experience. During the exile of his family, he 
had leamt nothing and forgotten nothing; and it 
shortly became clear to the English nation that he 
was bent on pursuing almost the identical course 
which had cost his father his crown and his head. 

If there was one feeling that characterised the 
English people about this time, more than another, it 
was their aversion to Popery, not merely Popery as a 
religion, but as a policy. It was felt to be contrary to 
the whole spirit, character, and tendency of the nation. 
Popery had so repeatedly exhibited itself as a perse- 
cuting policy, that not only the religious but the non- 
religious, not only the intelligent few, but the illiterate 
many, regarded it with feelings of deep aversion. 
Great, therefore, was the public indignation when it 
became known that one of the first acts of James, on 
his accession to the throne, was to order the public 
celebration of the Mass at Westminster, after an inter- 
val of more than a century. The King dismissed from 
about his person clergymen of the English Church, 
and introduced well-known Jesuits in their stead. He 
degraded several of the bishops, though he did not yet 
venture openly to persecute them. But he showed his 
temper and his tendency, by actively reviving the 
persecutions of the Scotch Presbyterians, whom he 
pursued with a cruelty only equalled by Louis XIV. 
in his dealings with the Huguenots. 1 

James II. was but the too ready learner of the lessons 

1 In Scotland, whoever was de- says that the Scotch Act of Par- 
tected preaching in a conventicle liament (James VII., 8th May, 
or attending one. was punishable 1685) enacting these penalties 
nith death and the confiscation was passed at the special instance 
of all his property. Macaulay of the King. 



of despotism taught him by Louis XIV., whose pen- 
sioner he was, and whose ultimate victim he proved to 
be. The two men indeed resembled each other in many 
respects, and their actions ran in almost parallel lines ; 
though those who concede to Louis the title of " Great," 
will probably object that the Engfish king was merely 
the ape of the French one. They were both dissolute, 
and both bigots, vibrating alternately between their 
mistresses and their confessors. What La Yalliere, 
Montespan, and Maintenon were to Louis XIV., Arabella 
Churchill and Catherine Sedley were to James II. The 
principal difference between them in this respect was, 
that Louis sinned with comely mistresses, and James 
with ugly ones. Louis sought absolution from Pere 
la Chaise, and James from Father Petre; and when 
penance had to be done, both laid it alike upon their 
Protestant subjects, Louis increasing the pressure of 
persecution on the Huguenots, and James upon the 
Puritans and Covenanters. Both employed military 
missionaries in carrying out their designs of conver- 
sion; the agents of Louis being the "dragons" of 
Noailles, those of James being the dragoons of Claver- 
house. Both were despisers of constitutional power, and 
sought to centre the government in themselves. But 
while Louis succeeded in crushing the Huguenots, 
James ignominiously failed in crushing the Puritans. 
Louis, it is true, brought France to the verge of ruin, 
and paved the way for the French Revolution of 1792; 
whilst, happily for England, the designs of James 
were summarily thwarted by the English Revolution of 
1688, and the ruin of his kingdom was thus averted. 

The designs of James upon the consciences of his 
people, were not long in developing themselves. The 
persecution of the Scotch Covenanters was carried on 
with increased virulence, until resistance almost dis- 
appeared ; and then he turned his attention to the 
English Puritans. Baxter, Howe, Bunyan, and hun- 
dreds of nonconformist ministers, were thrown into 
gaol ; but there were as yet no hangings nor shootings 


of them, as there had been in Scotland. To strengthen 
his power, and enable him to adopt more decisive 
measures, James next took steps to augment the stand- 
ing army, a measure which exposed him to increased 
public odium. Though contrary to law, he in many 
cases dismissed the Protestant officers of regiments, 
and appointed Roman Catholics in their stead. To 
render their appointments legal, he proposed to repeal 
the Test Act, as well as the Habeas Corpus Act; but 
his minister Halifax refusing to concur in this course, 
he was dismissed, and Parliament was adjourned. 
Immediately before its re-assembling, the news arrived 
from France of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and of the horrible cruelties perpetrated on the Hugue- 
nots. The intelligence caused a thrill of indignation 
to run throughout England ; and very shortly, crowds 
of the destitute fugitives landed on the southern coast, 
spreading abroad the tale of horror. 

Shortly after, there came from France the report of 
a speech addressed by the Bishop of Valance to Louis 
XIV. in the name of the French clergy. "The pious 
sovereign of England," said the orator, " looked to the 
Most Christian King, the eldest son of the Church, 
for support against a heretical nation." The natural 
inference drawn was, that what Louis had done in 
France, James was about to imitate in England by 
means of his new standing army, commanded by 
Roman Catholic officers. 

To allay the general alarm which began to prevail, 
James pretended to disapprove of the cruelties to 
which the Huguenots had been subjected; and, in 
deference to public opinion, he granted some relief to 
the exiles from his privy purse, inviting his subjects 
to imitate his liberality, by making a public collection 
for them in the churches throughout the kingdom. 
His acts, however, belied his words. At the instiga- 
tion of Barillon, he had the book published in Holland 
by the banished Haguenot pastor Claude, describing 
the sufferings of his brethren, burnt by the hangman 


before the Royal Exchange ; and when the public 
collection was made in the churches, and 40,000 was 
paid into the chamber of London, James gave orders 
that none should receive a farthing of relief unless 
they first took the sacrament according to the Angli- 
can ritual. Many of the exiles who came for help, 
when they heard of the terms on which alone it was 
to be granted, went away unrelieved, with sad and 
sorrowful hearts. 

James proceeded steadily in his reactionary course. 
He ordered warrants to be drawn in defiance of the 
law, authorising priests of the Church of Rome to hold 
benefices in the Church of England. A Jesuit was 
quartered as chaplain in University College, Oxford ; 
and the Roman Catholic rites were there publicly cele- 
brated. The deanery of Christ Church was conferred 
upon a minister of the Church of Rome, and mass was 
duly celebrated there. Roman Catholic chapels and 
convents rose all over the country; and Franciscan, 
Carmelite, and Benedictine monks, appeared openly, in 
their cowls, beads, and conventual gai'bs. The King 
made little secret of his intention to destroy the 
Protestant Church ; and he lost no time in carrying 
out his measures, even in the face of popular tumult 
and occasional rioting, placing his reliance mainly 
upon his standing army, which was encamped on 
Hounslow Heath. At the same time, Tyrconnel was 
sent over to Ireland to root out the Protestant colonies 
there. One of his first acts was to cast adrift about 
4000 Protestant officers and soldiers, supplanting them 
with as many staunch Papists. Those in his confidence 
boasted that within a few months there would not be a 
man of English race left in the Irish army. The Irish 
Protestants, indeed, began to fear another massacre; 
and a number of families, principally gentlemen, 
artificers, and tradesmen, left Dublin for England in 
the course of a few days. 

At length resistance began to show itself. The Par- 
liaments both of England and Scotland pronounced 


against the King's policy, and he was unable to carry 
his measures by constitutional methods. He accord- 
ingly resolved, like Louis XIV., to rule by the strong 
hand, and to govern by royal edict. Such was the 
state of affairs, rapidly verging on anarchy and civil 
war, when the English nation, sick of the rule of 
James II., after a reign of only three years, and 
eager for relief, looked abroad for succour ; and, with 
almost general consent, they fixed their eyes upon 
William, Prince of Orange, as the one man capable of 
helping them in their time of need. 

The Prince of Orange had meanwhile been diligently 
occupied, amongst other things, with the reorganisation 
of his army ; and the influx of veteran officers and 
soldiers of the French king, banished from France 
because of their religion, furnished him with every 
facility for the purpose. He proposed to the States 
of Holland that they should raise two new regiments, 
to be composed entirely of Huguenots ; but the States 
were at first unwilling to make such an addition to 
their army. They feared the warlike designs of their 
young prince, and were mainly intent upon reducing 
the heavy imposts that weighed upon the country, occa- 
sioned by the recent invasion of Louis XIV., from the 
effects of which they were still suffering. 

William, fearing lest the veterans whom he so 
anxiously desired to retain in his service should de- 
part into other lands, then publicly proclaimed that he 
would himself pay the expenses of all the Military 
Refugees, rather than that they should leave Holland. 
On this the States hesitated no longer, but agreed to 
pension the French officers until they could be incor- 
porated in the Dutch army; and 180,000 florins a year 
were voted for the purpose. Companies of French 
cadets were also formed and maintained at the expense 
of the state. The Huguenot officers and men were 
drafted as rapidly as possible into the Dutch army ; 
and before long William saw his ranks swelled by 
a formidable body of veteran troops, together with a 


large number of officers of fusiliers from Strasburg, 
Metz, and Verdun, Whole companies of Huguenot 
troops were drafted into each regiment under their 
own officers, while the principal fortresses at Breda, 
Maestricht, Bergen-op-Zoom, Bois-le-Duc, Zutphen, 
Nimuegen, Arnheim, and Utrecht, were used as so 
many depots for such officers and soldiers as continued 
to take refuge in Holland. 

William's plans were so carefully prepared, and he 
conducted his proceedings with so much secrecy, that 
both James II. and Louis XIV. were kept entirely in 
the dark as to his plans and intentions. At length the 
Prince was ready to embark his army, and England 
was ready to receive him. It forms no part of our 
purpose to relate the circumstances connected with the 
embarkation of William, his landing in England, and 
the revolution which followed, further than to illus- 
trate the part which the banished Huguenots played 
in that great political transaction. The narrative will 
be found in the pages of Macaulay, though that his- 
torian passes over with too slight notice the services of 
the Huguenots. 

Michelet observes with justice : " The army of 
William was strong precisely in that Calvinistic ele- 
ment which James repudiated in England I mean in 
our Huguenot soldiers, the brothers of the Puritans. I 
am astonished that Macaulay has thought fit to leave 
this circumstance in the background. I cannot believe 
that great England, with all her glories and her inherit- 
ance of liberty, is unwilling nobly to avow the part 
which we Frenchmen had in her deliverance. In the 
Homeric enumeration which the historian gives of the 
followers of William, he reckons up English, Germans, 
Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, with the picturesque detail of 
their arms, uniforms, and all, down even to the two 
hundred negroes with their black faces set off by em- 
broidered turbans and white feathers, who followed the 
body of English gentry led by the Earl of Macclesfield. 
But he did not see our Frenchmen. Apparently the 


proscribed Huguenot soldiers who followed William 
did not do honour to the Prince by their clothes ! 
Doubtless many of them wore the dress in which they 
had fled from France and it had become dusty, worn, 
and tattered." 1 

There is indeed little reason to doubt that the 
flower of the little army with which William landed at 
Torbay, on the 15th of November, 1688, consisted of 
Huguenot soldiers, trained under Schomberg, Turenne, 
and Conde. The expedition included three entire 
regiments of French infantry, numbering 2250 men, 
and a complete squadron of French cavalry. These 
were nearly all veteran troops, whose valour had been 
proved on many a hard-fought field. Many of them 
were gentlemen born, who, unable to obtain commis- 
sions as officers, were content to serve in the ranks. 
The number of French officers was very large in 
proportion to the whole force, 736, besides those in 
command of the French regiments, being distributed 
through all the battalions. It is, moreover, worthy of 
note that William's ablest and most trusted officers 
were Huguenots. Schomberg, the refugee marshal of 
France, was next in command to the Prince himself; 
and such was the confidence which that skilful general 
inspired, that the Princess of Orange gave him secret 
instructions to assert her rights, and carry out the 
enterprise, should her husband fall. William's three 
aides-de-camp, De 1'Etang, De la Meloniere, and the 
Marquis d'Arzilliers, were French officers, as were also 
the chiefs of the engineers and the artillery, Gambon 
and Goulon, the latter being one of Vauban's most dis- 
tinguished pupils. Fifty -four French gentlemen served 
in William's regiment of horse-guards, and thirty-four 
in his body-guard. Among the officers of the army of 
liberation, distinguished alike by their birth and their 
military skill, were the cavalry officers Didier de 
Boncourt and Chalant de Remeugnac, colonels ; Danser- 

1 MICHELET Louis -TIF. et la Revocation, pp. 418-19. 


ville, lieutenant-colonel ; and Petit and Picard, majors; 
whilst others of equal birth and distinction as soldiers 
served in the infantry. 1 

Marshal Schomberg was descended from the Dukes 
ofCleves, whose arms he bore. Several of his ancestors 
had held high rank in the French service. One of 
them was killed at the battle of Ivry on the side of 
Henry IV., and another commanded under Richelieu 
at the siege of Rochelle. The marshal, whose mother 
was an Englishwoman of the noble house of Dudley, 
began his career in the Swedish army in the Thirty 
Years' War, after which he entered the service of the 
Netherlands, and subsequently that of France. There 
he led an active and distinguished career, and rose by 
successive steps to the rank of marshal. The great 
Conde had the highest opinion of his military capacity, 
and compared him to Turenne. He commanded armies 
successfully in Flanders, Portugal, and Holland ; but 
on the Revocation of the Edict, being unable to con- 
form to popery, he felt compelled to resign his military 
honours and emoluments, and leave France for ever. 

Schomberg first went to Portugal, which was as- 
signed to him as his place of exile ; but he shortly 
after left that country to take service, with numerous 
other French officers, under Frederick William of 
Brandenburg. His stay at Berlin was, however, of 
short duration ; for, when he heard of the intentions of 
William of Orange with respect to England, he at once 
determined to join him. Offers of the most tempting 
kind were held out by Frederick William to induce him 
to remain in Prussia. The Elector proposed to appoint 
him governor-general, minister of state, and member 

1 Among the captains of horse veur, Rapin (afterwards the his- 

were Massole de Montant, Petit, torian), De Cosne-Chavernay, 

De Maricourt, De Boncourt, De Danserville, Massole de Montant,' 

Fabrice, De Lauray, Baron d'En- Jacques de Baune, Baron de Ave- 

tragues, Le Coq de St. Leger, De jan, Nolibois, Belcastel, Jaucourt 

Saumaise, De Lacroix, De Dam- de Villarnoue, Lislemaretz, De 

pierre; while among the captains Montazier, and the three brothers 

of infantry we rind De Saint Sau- De Batz. 


of the privy council ; but in vain. Schomberg felt 
that the interests of Protestantism, of which William 
of Orange was the recognised leader, required him to 
forego his own personal interests ; and though nearly 
seventy years of age, he quitted the service of Prussia 
to enter that of Holland. He was accompanied by a 
large number of veteran Huguenot officers, full of 
bitter resentment against the monarch who had driven 
them forth from France, and who burned to meet their 
persecutors in the field and avenge themselves of the 
cruel wrongs which they had suffered at their hands. 

What the embittered feelings of the French Protes- 
tant gentry were, and what was the nature of the 
injuries they had suffered because of their religion, 
may, however, best be explained by the following nar- 
rative of the sufferings and adventures of a Norman 
gentleman who succeeded in making his escape fyom 
France, who joined the liberating army of William 
of Orange as captain of dragoons, took part in the ex- 
pedition to England, served with the English army in 
the Irish campaigns, and afterwards settled at Port- 
arlington in Ireland, where he died in 1709. 


PAIGN OF 1689-90. 

ISAAC DUMONT DE BOSTAQUET was a Protestant gen- 
tleman possessing considerable landed property near 
Yerville in Normandy, about eight leagues from 
Dieppe. He had been well educated in his youth, 
and served with distinction in the French army as 
an officer of Norman horse. After leaving the army, 
he married, and settled on his paternal estates, where 
he lived the life of a retired country gentleman. 1 

It was about the year 1661, that the first muttering 
of the coming storm reached De Bostaquet in his 
ancient chateau of La Fontelaye. The Roman Catho- 
lics, supported by the King, had begun to pull down 
Protestant churches in many districts ; and now it 
began to be rumoured abroad that several in Nor- 
mandy were to be demolished ; amongst others the 
church of Lindeboeuf, in which De Bostaquet and his 
family worshipped. He at once set out for Paris, to 
endeavour, if possible, to prevent the outrage. He saw 
his old commander Turenne, and had interviews with 
the King's ministers, but without any satisfactory 
result ; for on his return to Normandy he found that 
the temple at Lindeboeuf had been demolished during 
his absence. 

1 The account given in this Waddington, and published at 

chapter is mainly drawn from Paris in 1864. The MS. was 

the Memoires Inedits de Dumont in the possession of Dr. Vig- 

de Bostaquet, Gcntilhomme, Nor- noles, Dean of Ossory, a lineal 

mantl, edited by MM. Read and descendant of De Bostaouet. 


When De Bostaquet complained to the local au- 
thorities of the outrage, he was told that the King 
was resolved to render the exercise of the Protestant 
worship so difficult that it would be necessary for 
all Protestants throughout France to conform them- 
selves to the King's religion. This, however, De 
Bostaquet was not prepared to do ; and a temporary 
place of worship was fitted up in the chateau at La 
Fontelaye, where the scattered flock of Lindeboeuf re- 
assembled, and the seigneur himself on an emergency 
preached, baptized, and performed the other offices 
of religion. And thus he led an active and useful life 
in the neighbourhood for many years. 

But the persecution of the Protestants became in- 
creasingly hard to bear. More of their churches were 
pulled down, and their worship was becoming all but 
proscribed. De Bostaquet began to meditate emigra- 
tion into Holland; but he was bound to France by 
many ties of family as well as property. By his 
first wife he had a family of six daughters and one 
son. Shortly after her death he married a second 
time, and a second family of six children was added to 
the first. But his second wife also died, leaving him 
with a large family to rear and educate ; and, as in- 
telligent female help was essential for this purpose, he 
was thus induced to marry a third time ; and a third 
family, of two sons and three daughters, was added to 
the original number. 

At last the Edict was revoked, and the dragoons 
were let loose on the provinces to compel the conver- 
sion of the Protestants. A body of cuirassiers was 
sent into Normandy, which had hitherto been exempt 
from their visitations. On the intelligence of their ad- 
vance reaching De Bostaquet, he summoned a meeting 
of the neighbouring Protestant gentry at his house at 
La Fontelaye, to consider what was best to be done. 
He then declared to them his intention of leaving 
France should the King persist in his tyrannical 
course. Although all who were present praised his 


resolution, none offered to accompany him, not even 
his eldest son, who had been married only a few 
months before. When the ladies of the household 
were apprised of the resolution he had expressed, 
they implored him, with tears in their eyes, not to 
leave them ; if he did, they felt themselves lost. His 
wife, on the eve of another confinement, joined her 
entreaties to those of his children ; and he felt that 
under such circumstances, the idea of flight must be 
given up. 

The intelligence shortly reached La Fontelaye that 
the cuirassiers had entered Rouen sword in hand, 
under the Marquis de Beaupre' Choiseul; that the 
quartering of the troops on the inhabitants was pro- 
ducing " conversions " by wholesale ; and that crowds 
were running to M. de Marillac, the Intendant, to sign 
their abjuration, and thus get rid of the soldiers. De 
Bostaquet then resolved to go over to Rouen himself, 
and see with his own eyes what was going on there. 
He was greatly shocked both by what he saw and 
by what he heard. Sorrow sat on all countenances 
except those of the dragoons, who paraded the streets 
with a truculent air. There was the constant moving 
of them from house to house. Wherever they were 
quartered, they swore, drank, and hectored, until the 
inmates signed their abjuration, when they were with- 
drawn for the purpose of being quartered elsewhere. 
De Bostaquet was ineffably pained to find that these 
measures were generally successful ; that all classes 
were making haste to conform ; and that even his 
brother-in-law, M. de Lamberville, who had been so 
staunch but a few days before, had been carried 
along by the stream and abjured. 

De Bostaquet hastened from the place, and returned 
to La Fontelaye sad at heart. The intelligence which 
he brought with him, of the dragonnades at Rouen, occa- 
sioned deep concern in the minds of his household ; 
but only one feeling pervaded them, resignation and 
steadfastness. De Bostaquet took refuge in the hope 


that, belonging as he did to the noblesse, he would be 
spared the quartering of troops in his family. But he 
was mistaken. At Rouen, the commandant quartered 
thirty horsemen upon Sieur Chauvel, until he and his 
lady, to get rid of them, signed their abjuration ; and 
an intimation was shortly after made to De Bostaquet, 
that unless he and his family abjured, a detachment 
of twenty-five dragoons would be quartered in his 
chateau. Fearing the effects on his wife, in her then 
delicate state of health, as well as desirous of saving 
his children from the horrors of such a visitation, he 
at once proceeded to Dieppe with his eldest son, and 
promised to sign his abjuration after placing himself 
for a time under the instruction of the reverend 
penitentiary of Notre Dame de Rouen. 

No sooner had he put his name to the paper, than 
he felt degraded in his own eyes. He felt that he had 
attached his signature to a falsehood, for he had no 
intention of attending mass or abjuring his religion. 
But his neighbours were now abjuring all round. 
His intimate friend, the Sieur de Boisse', had a com- 
pany of musketeers quartered on him until he signed. 
Another neighbour, the Sieur de Montigny, was in 
like manner compelled to abjure, his mother and 
four daughters, to avoid the written lie, having pre- 
viously escaped into Holland. None were allowed to 
go free. Old M. de Grosmdnil, De Bostaquet's father- 
in-law, though laid up by gout and scarce able to 
hold a pen, was compelled to sign. In anticipation of 
the quartering of the dragoons on the family, his wife 
had gone into concealment, the children had left the 
house, and even the domestics could with difficulty be 
induced to remain. The eldest daughter fled through 
Picardy into Holland ; the younger daughters took 
refuge with their relatives in Rouen; the son also 
fled, none knew whither. Madame de Grosme'nil 
issued from her concealment to take her place by 
her suffering husband's bed, and she too was com- 
pelled to sign her abjuration ; but she was so shocked 


and grieved by the sin she had committed, that she 
shortly after fell ill and died. "All our families," 
says De Bostaquet, "succumbed by turns." A body 
of troops next made their appearance at La Fon- 
telaye, and required all the members of the household 
to sign their abjuration. De Bostaquet 's wife, his 
mother whose grey hairs did not protect her his 
sons, daughters, and domestics, were all required to 

The whole family now began seriously to meditate 
Might from France, De Bostaquet's mother, notwith- 
standing her burden of eighty years, being one of the 
most eager to escape. Attempts were first made to 
send away the girls singly, and several journeys were 
made to the nearest port with that object ; but no 
ship could be met with, and the sea-coast was found 
strictly guarded. De Bostaquet's design having become 
known to the commandant at Dieppe, he was privately 
warned of the risk he ran of being informed against, 
and of having his property confiscated and himself 
sent to the galleys. But the ladies of the family 
became every day more urgent to flee, declaring that 
their consciences would not allow them any longer 
hypocritically to conform to a Church which they 
detested, and that they were resolved to escape from 
their present degradation at all risks. 

At length it was arranged that an opportunity 
should be taken of escaping during the fetes of Pen- 
tecost, when there was to be a grand review of the 
peasantry appointed to guard the coast, during which 
they would necessarily be withdrawn from their posts 
as watchers of the Huguenot fugitives. The family 
plans were thus somewhat precipitated, before De 
Bostaquet had been enabled to convert his property 
into money, and thereby provide himself with the 
means of conducting the emigration of so large a 
family. It was at first intended that the young 
ladies should endeavour to make their escape, their 
father accompanying them to the coast to see them 


safe on board ship, and then returning to watch over 
his wife, who was approaching the time of her confine- 

On the morning of Pentecost Sunday, the whole 
family assembled at worship, and besought the blessing 
of God on their projected enterprise. After dinner 
the party set out. It consisted of De Bostaquet, his 
aged mother, several grown daughters, and many 
children. The father had intended that his youngest 
son should stay behind ; but with tears in his eyes he 
implored leave to accompany them. The cavalcade 
first proceeded to the village of La Haliere, where 
arrangements had been made for their spending the 
night, while De Bostaquet proceeded to Saint Aubin 
to engage an English vessel lying there to take them 
off the coast. 

The following night, about ten o'clock, the party 
set out from Luneray, accompanied by many friends, 
and a large number of fugitives like themselves, 
making for the sea-coast. De Bostaquet rode first, 
with his sister behind him on a pillion. His son- 
in-law, De Renfreville, and his wife, rode another 
horse in like manner. De Bostaquet's mother, the 
old lady of eighty, was mounted on a quiet pony, 
and attended by two peasants. His son and daughter 
were also mounted, the latter on a peasant's horse, 
which carried the valises. De Renfreville's valet rode 
another nag, and was armed with a musketoon. Thus 
mounted, and after many adieux, the party set out for 
Saint Aubin. On their way thither they were joined 
by other relatives M. de Montcornet, an old officer 
in the French army, De Bostaquet's brother-in-law, 
and M. de Bequigny, who was accompanied by a 
German valet, with another young lady behind him 
on a pillion. 

" We found before us in the plain," says De Bos- 
taquet, "more than three hundred persons men, 
women, and children all making for the sea-coast, 
some for Saint Aubin, and others for Quibervilie. 


Nearly tbe whole of these people were peasants, there 
being very few of the better class among them ; and 
none bore arms but ourselves and the two valets of De 
Be'quigny and De Renfreville, who carried musketoons. 
The facility with which fugitives had heretofore been 
enabled to escape, and the belief that there was no 
danger connected with our undertaking, made us 
travel without much precaution. The night was 
charming, and the moon shone out brightly. The 
delicious coolness which succeeded the heat of the 
preceding day enabled the poor peasants on foot to 
march forward with a lighter step ; and the prospect of 
a speed} 7 deliverance from their captivity made them 
almost run towards the shore with as much joy as 
if they had been bound for a wedding-party. * * * 

" Those who intended to embark at Quiberville now 
left us, while those who were bound for Saint Aubin 
proceeded in that direction. As yet we had en- 
countered no obstacle. "We passed through Flainville 
without any one speaking to us ; and, nattering our- 
selves that everything was propitious, we at length 
reached the shore. We found the coast-guard station 
empty ; no one appeared ; and without fear we alighted 
to rest our horses. We seated the ladies on the shingle 
by the side of my mother, a tall girl from Caen keep- 
ing them company. 

" I was disappointed at seeing no signs of the vessel 
in which we were to embark. I did not know that 
they were waiting for some signal to approach the 
land. While I was in this state of anxiety, my son 
came to inform me that his aunt had arrived. Her 
carriage had not been able to reach the shore, and she 
waited for me about a gun-shot off. I went on foot, 
accompanied by my son, to find her. She and her 
children were bathed in tears at the thought of their 
separation. She embraced me tenderly, and the sight 
of herself and little ones afflicted me exceedingly. My 
daughter from Ribceuf alighted from the carriage to 
salute me, as well as Mademoiselle Duval. 


" I had been with them for a very little while, when 
I perceived that there was a general movement down by 
the margin of the sea, where I had left my party. I 
asked what it was, and fearing lest the vessel might 
appear too far off, I proposed to have the carriage 
brought nearer to the shore ; but I was not left long 
in uncertainty, A peasant called out to me, that there 
was a great disturbance going forward ; and soon after, 
I heard the sound of drums beating, followed by a 
discharge of musketry. It immediately occurred to 
me that it must be the coast-guard returned to occupy 
their post, who had fallen on our party ; and I began 
to fear that we were irretrievably lost. I was on foot 
alone, with my little son, near the carriage. I did not 
see two horsemen, who were coming down upon us at 
full speed, but I heard voices crying with all their 
might, ' Help ! help ! ' I found myself in a strange state 
of embarrassment, without means of defence, when my 
lacquey, who was holding my horses on the beach, ran 
towards me with my arms. 

" I had only time to throw myself on my horse and 
call out to my sister-in-law in the carriage, to turn 
back quickly, when I hastened, pistol in hand, to the 
place whence the screams proceeded. Scarcely was I 
clear of the carriage, when a horseman shouted, 'Kill ! 
kill !' I answered, ' Fire, rascal!' At the same moment 
he fired his pistol full at me, so near that the discharge 
flashed along my left cheek and set fire to my peruke, 
but without wounding me. I was still so near the 
carnage, that both the coachmen and lacquey saw 
my hair in a blaze. I took aim with my pistol at 
the stomach of the scoundrel, but, happily for him, it 
missed fire, although I had primed it afresh on leaving 
Luneray. The horseman at once turned tail, accom- 
panied by his comrade. I then took my other pistol, 
and followed the two at the trot, when one called out 
to the other, ' Fire ! fire ! ' The one that had a musket 
proceeded to take aim at me, and as it was nearly as 
light as day, and I was only two or three horselengths 



from him, he fired and hit me in the left arm, with 
which I was holding my bridle. I moved my arm 
quickly, to ascertain whether it was broken, and put- 
ting spurs to my horse, I gained the crupper of the 
man who had first fired at me, who was now on my 
left, and as he bent over his horse's neck, I discharged 
my pistol full into his haunch. The two horsemen at 
once disappeared and fled. 

" I now heard the voice of De Bequigny, who, embar- 
rassed by his assailants on foot, was furiously defending 
himself; and, without losing time in pursuing my 
fugitives, I ran up to him sword in hand, encountering 
on the way my son-in-law, who was coming towards 
me. I asked him whither he was going; and he said that 
he was running in search of the horses which his valet 
had taken away. I told him it was in vain, and that 
he was flying as fast as his legs could carry him, for I 
had caught sight of him passing as I mounted my horse. 
But I had no time to reason with him. In a moment 
I had joined De Bequigny, who had with him only 
old Montcornet, my wife's uncle; but before a few 
minutes had passep, we had scattered the canaille, and 
found ourselves masters of the field. De Be*quigny 
informed me that his horse was wounded, and that he 
could do no more ; and I told him that I was wounded 
in the arm, but that it was necessary, without loss of 
time, to ascertain what had become of the poor women. 

" We found them at the place where we had left 
them, but abandoned by everybody; the attendants 
and the rest of the troop having run away along the 
coast, under the cliffs. My mother, who was extremely 
deaf through age, had not heard the firing, and did not 
know what to make of the disturbance, thinking only 
of the vessel, which had not yet made its appearance. 
My sister, greatly alarmed, on my reproaching her 
with not having quietly followed the others, answered 
that my mother was unable to walk, being too much 
burdened by her dress ; for, fearing the coldness of the 
night, she had clothed herself heavily. M. de Bequigny 


then suggested that it might yet be possible to rally 
some of the men of our troop, and thereby rescue the 
ladies from their peril. Without loss of time I ran 
along the beach for some distance, supposing that some 
of the men might have hidden under the cliffs through 
fear. But my labour was useless: I saw only some 
girls, who fled away weeping. Considering that my 
presence would be more useful to our poor women, I 
rejoined them at the gallop. M. de B^quigny, on his 
part, had returned from the direction of the coast- 
guard station, to ascertain whether there were any 
persons lurking there, for we entertained no doubt 
that it was the coast-guard that had attacked us ; and 
the two horsemen with whom I had the affair con- 
firmed me in this impression, for I knew that such 
men were appointed to patrol the coasts, and visit the 
posts all the night through. On coming up to me, 
Bequigny said he feared we were lost ; that the rascals 
had rallied to the number of about forty, and were 
preparing for another attack. 

" We had no balls remaining with which to reload 
our pistols. Loss of blood already made me feel very 
faint. De Be'quigny's horse had been wounded in the 
shoulder by a musket-shot, and had now only three 
legs to stand upon. In this extremity, and not knowing 
what to do to save the women and children, I begged 
him to set my mother behind me on horseback. He 
tried, but she was too heavy, and he set her down 
again. M. de Montcornet was the only other man we 
had with us, but he was useless. He was seventy- 
two, and the little nag he rode could not be of much 
service. De Bequigny 's valet had run away, after 
having in the skirmish fired his musketoon and 
wounded a coast-guardsman in the shoulder, of which 
the man died. The tide, which began to rise, deterred 
me from leading the women and children under the 
cliffs; besides, I was uncertain of the route in that 
direction. My mother and sister conjured me to fly 
instantly, because, if I was captured, my ruin was 


certain, whilst the worst that could happen to them 
would be, confinement in a convent. 

" In this dire extremity, my heart was torn by a 
thousand conflicting emotions, and I was overwhelmed 
with despair at being unable to rescue those so dear to 
me from the perils which beset them. I knew not what 
course to take. While in this state of irresolution, I 
felt myself becoming faint through loss of blood. 
Taking out my handkerchief, I asked my sister to tie 
it round my arm, which was still bleeding ; but want- 
ing the nerve to do so, as well as not being sufficiently 
tall to reach me on horseback, I addressed myself to 
the young lady from Caen, who was with them, and 
whom they called La Rosiere. She was tall, and by 
the light of the moon she looked a handsome girl. 
She had great reluctance to approach me in the state 
in which I was ; but at last, after entreating her 
earnestly, she did me the service which I required, 
and the further flow of blood was stopped. 

" After resisting for some time the entreaties of my 
mother and sister to leave them and fly for my life 
but seeing that my staying longer with them was use- 
less, and that De Montcornet and De Bdquigny also 
urged me to fly I felt that at length I must yield to 
my fate, and leave them in the hands of Providence. 
My sister, who feared being robbed by the coast-guard 
on their return, gave me her twenty louis d'or to keep, 
and praying Heaven to preserve me, they forced me to 
leave them and take to flight, which I did with the 
greatest grief that I had ever experienced in the whole 
course of my life." l 

De Bostaquet and his friend De Bdquigny first fled 
along the shore, but the shingle greatly hindered them. 
On their way they fell in first with De Bdquigny's 
valet, who had fled with the horses, and shortly after 
with Judith-Julie, Dumont's little daughter, accom- 
panied by a peasant and his wife. She was lifted up 

M&nwirea Intdits, pp. 121-5. 


and placed in front of the valet, and they rode on 
Leaving the sea-shore by a road which led from the 
beach inland, Dumont preceded them, his drawn 
sword in his hand. They had not gone far when they 
were met by six horsemen, who halted and seemed 
uncertain whether to attack or not; but observing 
Dumont in an attitude of defence, they retired, and 
the fugitives fled, as fast as Bequigny's wounded horse 
would allow them, to Luneray, to the house from 
which they had set out on the previous night. There 
Dumont left his daughter, and again De Bequigny and 
he rode out into the night. As day broke, they reached 
St. Laurent. They went direct to the house of a 
Huguenot surgeon, who removed Dumont's bloody 
shirt, probed the wound to his extreme agony, but 
could not find the ball, the surgeon concluding that it ' 
was firmly lodged between the two bones of the fore- 
arm. The place was too unsafe for Dumont to remain ; 
and though suffering much and greatly needing rest, he 
set out again, and made for his family mansion at La 
Fontelaye. But he did not dare to enter the house. 
Alighting at the door of one of his tenants named 
Malherbe, devoted to his interest, he despatched him 
with a message to Madame de Bostaquet, who at 
once hastened to her husband's side. Her agony of 
grief may be imagined on seeing him, pale and suffer- 
ing, his clothes covered with blood, and his bandaged 
arm in a sling. Giving her hasty instructions as to what 
she was to do in his absence amongst other things 
with respect to the sale of his property and everything 
that could be converted into money and after much 
weeping and taking many tender embraces of his wife 
and daughters, committing them to the care of God, he 
mounted again and fled northwards for liberty and 

De Bostaquet proceeds in his narrative to give a 
graphic account of his flight across Normandy, 
Picardy, Artois, and Flanders, into Holland, in the 
course of which he traversed wor^s, swam rivers, and 

214 II I,, III I MO J'K \J(DY. fJIAJ Ctt 

hairlu-eadth eSfiapM Knowing (lie country 
ly, and having many fru-nds and relative* in 

Normandy and I'ieardy Koman < at l.'.iir- M VU M 

Protextants, he often contrived t ,-, .-. ni^ht 1 * 

helt,-,, a ehan;-e of ||f,. ;,, ,oln<'titl|c :, : _ . 

..I l,..t .-; . loi hiinwlf aii'l hi;-; IVi. M.I Saint R\>y, who 
accompanied him They lodged tin- fit t r.r/ht ;,' 
VnrvMiiiM-H witli a kiri'inan on whom h<- <-.<>u\<] rely: for 

M. de Verdun, May* De Bcwtaquet, "WM A good man, 
though i, papbt and even a bigot." A surgeon wa 

. nt Inr lo .!,, tl,,. fi|..iti\ ;-, arm, whit-h |,a.| \,< .-,,,,,< 

inewauingly painful . The nurfleoo probed the \\- . . 1 1 1 . 1 . 
but *till no t>all oould be found. Mounting again, the 
two rod*- all 'lay, and by nightfall !;, 
fffH^^fg for a vkilled army turgeon, the wound was 

|,| a;-ain l.iit with no [,c(t., . -. || ,, the 

ruiuour of the attair At Saint Aubin, greatly magnified, 

n-m-lii-.l !< Bo:,l,a<|urt, ami lin-lin;- that his only .at. ty 

lay in flight, he gtarted auain with hU friend and tok 
the route for Holland through Heard?, They rode 
onwards to Belozane, then to Neufchitel, where Saint- 
i parted, returning home. 

Th< fugitive Mifiiiid Fouearmont alone by moon- 
light in great pain, hi* arm being exceedingly swollen 
and much inflamed, fib at once tent for a surgeon, 
who iiivwM-ii ih. wound, hut r.-ar.-.i gangrene. Next 
morning the inflammation had subnided, and he set 
">n, again, reaching the outskirts of :<!> 

!.. |,us:.i-'l on ihr left, lint! arriving a (, ]'<. ,), |<-niy. 

h. ||,.. r,o,-,,| (hi- Sommc. Mr WHS now Mi IVa,,|y. 

Pressing onward, he reached Pro vj lie, where he WM 
kindlv entertained for the night by a Prote^ 

- M dc Moiithtic Tli'' cam an<i inHamtnalion m 

In aim ;.lill iliciX'HMing, llu n \Vf 

to, Thr wound, \vhi-n -'XpOied, Wa foiind hlacK. 

swll< n. .Mud angry-loolsing. The surgeon sounded 

agttin, lound n<> i.ail, and concluded |,y n'OOtQttietl'i 

IM il. , t i< I ami low MI. I, The patient n maincd with 
hi In. M<| (or i\\.. da\s. diirin;-; which M. Mont.. 

CHAP. m. JUt&irES rr HOLLA*!*, sis 

arrived, for the purpose of accompanying him in his 
flight into Holland. 

Next day, to De Bostaquet's great surprise, the ball, 
for which the surgeons had so often been searching in 
vain, was found in the finger of one of his gloves, into 
which it had dropped. He was now comparatively 
relieved; and, unwilling to trespass longer on the kind- 
ness of his friends, after a few more days' rest be again 
took the road with his aged relative. They travelled 
by Le Quesnel and Doulkns, then along the great 
high road of Hesdin and through the woods of the 
Abbey of Sercan ; next striking the Arras road (where 
they were threatened with an attack by foot-pads), 
they arrived at La Gnorgues; and crossing the frontier, 
they at last, after many adventures and perils, arrived 
in safety at Courtrai, where they began to breathe 
freely. But Dnmont did not consider himself safe 
until he had reached Ghent; for Courtrai was still 
under the dominion of Spain. So again pushing on 
the fugitives rested not until they arrived at Ghent, 
late at night, where the two way-worn travellers at 
length slept soundly. Next day, Montoornet, who 
though seventy-two years old, had stood the fatigues 
of the journey surprisingly well, proceeded to join his 
son, then lying with many other refugee officers in 
garrison at Maastricht ; while De Bostaquet went for- 
ward into Holland to join the fugitives who were now 
flocking thither in great numbers from all parts of 

Such is a rapid outline of the escape of Dumont de 
aquet into the great Protestant asylum of the 
north. His joy, however, was mingled with grief, for 
he had left his wife and family behind him in France, 
under the heel of the persecutor. After many painful 
rumours of the severe punishments to which his chil- 
dren had been subject ed, he was at length joined by 
his wife, his son, and one of his daughters, who sue- 
led in escaping by sea. The ladies -taken prisoners 
by the coast-guard at St. Aubin, besides being heavily 


fined, were condemned to be confined in convents' 
some for several years each, and others for life. The 
gentlemen and men-servants who accompanied them, 
were condemned to the galleys for life, and their pro- 
perty and goods were declared forfeited to the King. 
This completed the ruin of Dumont de Bostaquet, so 
far as worldly wealth was concerned ; for by the law 
of Louis XIV., the property not only of all fugitives, 
but of all who abetted fugitives in their attempt to 
escape, was declared confiscated, while they were 
themselves liable, if caught, to suffer the penalty of 

De Bostaquet was hospitably received by the Prince 
of Orange, and, on his application for employment, he 
was appointed to the same rank in the Dutch army 
that he had before held in that of Louis XIV. When 
the expedition to England was decided upon, such of 
the refugee officers as were disposed to join William 
were invited to send in their names ; and De Bostaquet 
at once volunteered, with numbers more. Fifty of the 
French officers were selected for the purpose of being 
incorporated in the two dragoon regiments, red and 
blue ; and De Bostaquet was appointed to a captaincy 
in the former regiment, of which De Louvigny was 
the colonel. 

The fleet of William had already been assembled at 
Maasluis, and with the troops on board, shortly spread 
its sails for England. But the expedition, consisting 
of about five hundred sail, had scarcely left the Dutch 
shores before it was dispersed by a storm, which raged 
for three days. One ship, containing two companies 
of French infantry, commanded by Captains de Chau- 
vernay and Rapin-Thoras (afterwards the historian), 
was driven towards the coast of Norway. Those on 
board gave themselves up for lost ; but the storm abat- 
ing, the course of the vessel was altered, and she after- 
wards reached the Maas in safety. Very few ships 
were missing when the expedition re-assembled; but 
among the lost was one containing four companies of a 


Holstein regiment and some sixty French officers and 
volunteers. When De Bostaquet's ship arrived in the 
Maas, it was found that many of the troop horses had 
been killed in the storm, or were so maimed as to be 
rendered unfit for service. After a few days' indefati- 
gable labour, however, all damages were made good, 
the fleet was refitted anew, and again put to sea, this 
time with better prospects of success. 

"Next day," says De Bostaquet, in his Memoirs, 
" we saw the coasts of France and England stretching 
before us on either side. I confess that I did not look 
upon my ungrateful country without deep emotion, 
as I thought of the many ties of affection which still 
bound me to it, of my children, and the dear relatives 
I had left behind : but as our fleet might even now be 
working out their deliverance, and as England was 
drawing nearer, I felt that one must cast such thoughts 
aside, and trust that God would yet put it into the 
heart of our Hero to help our poor country under the 
oppressions beneath which she was groaning. The 
fleet was regarded by the people on the opposite shores 
of the Channel with very different emotions. France 
trembled; while England, seeing her deliverer ap- 
proaching, leapt with joy. It seemed as if the Prince 
took a pleasure in alarming France, whose coast he 
long kept in sight. But at length, leaving it behind, 
we made for the opposite shore, and all day long 
we held along the English coast, sailing towards the 
west. Night hid the land from further view, and next 
morning not a trace of it was to be seen. As the wind 
held good, we thought that by this time we must have 
passed out of the English Channel, though we knew 
not. whither we were bound. Many of our soldiers 
from Poitou hoped that we might effect a landing 
there. But at three in the afternoon we again caught 
sight of the English land on our right, and found that 
we were still holding the same course. M. de Bethen- 
cour, who knew the coast, assured us that we were 
bound for Plymouth; and it seemed to me that such 


was the Prince's design. But the wind having shifted, 
we were astonished to see our vanguard put about, 
and sail as if right down upon us. Nothing could be 
more beautiful than the evolution of the immense 
flotilla which now took place under a glorious sky. 
The main body of the fleet and the rear-guard lay to, 
in order to allow the Prince's division to pass through 
them, on which every ship in its turn prepared to 
tack. There were no longer any doubts as to where we 
were to land. We distinctly saw the people along the 
heights watching, and doubtless admiring, the magni- 
ficent spectacle ; but there appeared to be no signs of 
alarm at sight of the multitude of ships about to enter 
their beautiful bay." 

De Bostaquet proceeds to describe the landing at 
Torbay, and the march of the little army inland, through 
mud and mire, under heavy rain and along villainous 
roads, until they entered Exeter amidst the acclama- 
tions of the .people. De Bostaquet found that many of 
his exiled countrymen had already settled at Exeter, 
where they had a church and minister of their own. 
Among others, he met with a French tailor from Lintot 
in Normandy, who had become established in business, 
besides other refugees from Dieppe and the adjoining 
country, who were settled and doing well. De Bosta- 
quet expressed himself much gratified with his short 
stay in Exeter, which he praised for its wealth, its 
commerce, its manufactures, and the hospitality of its 

After resting six or seven days at Exeter, William 
and his army marched upon London through Salisbury, 
being daily joined by fresh adherents, gentry, officers, 
and soldiers. The army of James made no effort at 
resistance, but steadily retii'ed; the only show of a 
stand being made at Reading, where five hundred of 
the King's horse, doubtless fighting without heart, were 
put to flight by a hundred and fifty of William's 
dragoons, led by the Huguenot Colonel Marouit. Not 
another shot was fired before William arrived in 


London, where he was welcomed as the nation's deli- 
verer. By this time James was making arrangements 
for flight, together with his Jesuits. He might easily 
have been captured and made a martyr of; but the 
mistake made with Charles I. was not repeated in his 
case, and James, having got on board a smack in the 
Thames, was allowed to slink ignominiously out of the 

The Huguenot officers and soldiers of William's army 
found many of their exiled countrymen already settled 
in London. Soho in the west, and Spitalfields in the 
east, were almost entirely French quarters. Numbers 
of new churches were about this time opened for the 
accommodation of the immigrants, in which the service 
was conducted in French by their own ministers, some 
of the most eminent of whom had taken refuge in 
England. The exiles formed communities by them- 
selves ; they were for the most part organised in congre- 
gations ; and a common cause and common sufferings 
usually made them soon acquainted with each other. 
De Bostaquet and his compatriots, therefore, did not 
find themselves so much strangers in London as they 
expected to be ; for they were daily encountering 
friends and brothers in misfortune. 

A distinguished little circle of exiles had by this 
time been formed at Greenwich, of which the aged 
Marquis de Ruvigny formed the centre. That noble- 
man had for many years been one of the most trusted 
servants of the French Government. He held various 
high offices in his own country, being a general in the 
French army and a councillor of state ; and he had on 
more than one occasion represented France as envoy 
at the English court. But he was a Protestant, and 
was therefore precluded from holding public office sub- 
sequent to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. "Had 
the Marquis," says Macaulay, " chosen to remain in his 
native country, he and his household would have been 
permitted to worship God privately according to their 
own forms. But Ruvigny rejected all offers, cast in 


his lot with his brethren, and, at upwards of eighty 
years of age, quitted Versailles, where he might still 
have been a favourite, for a modest dwelling at Green- 
wich. That dwelling was, during the last months of 
his life, the resort of all that was most distinguished 
among his fellow-exiles. His abilities, his experience, 
and his munificent kindness, made him the undisputed 
chief of the refugees. He was at the same time half 
an Englishman; for his sister had been Countess of 
Southampton, and he was uncle of Lady Russell. He 
was long past the time of action. But his two sons, 
both men of eminent courage, devoted their swords to 
the service of William." 1 

A French church had been founded by the Marquis 
of Ruvigny at Greenwich, in 1686, 2 of which M. Severin, 
an old and valued friend of De Bostaquet and his wife, 
was appointed pastor ; so that our Huguenot officer at 
once found himself at home. He was cordially received 
by the aged Marquis, who encouraged him to bring 
over his family from Holland and settle them in the 
place. This De Bostaquet did accordingly, and during 
his brief residence at Greenwich, his wife presented 
him with another son, his nineteenth child, to which 
the Marquis de Ruvigny stood godfather, and after 
whom he was named. Only a month later, the good 
old Marquis died, and De Bostaquet, with many of the 
more illustrious exiles, followed his remains to his 
tomb in the church of the Savoy, in the Strand, where 
he was buried. 

Meanwhile, William had been occupied in consoli- 
dating his government, and reducing the disaffected 
parts of the kingdom to obedience. With Scotland 
this was comparatively easy ; but with Ireland the 

1 MACAULAY History of Eng- behind the shop of Mr. Harding, 

land, vol. iii. ch. 14. oilman. The Commandments were 

- The French chapel at Green- written up in French on each side 

wich was recently in existence, of the pulpit, until the year 1814, 

and used as a Baptist chapel. It when they were effaced, 
was situated in London Street, 


case was very different. The Irish Roman Catholics 
remained loyal to James, because of his religion ; and 
when he landed at Kinsale, in March 1689, he saw 
nearly the whole country at his feet. Only the little 
Presbyterian colony established in Ulster made any 
show of resistance. James had arrived in Ireland 
with substantial help in arms and money obtained 
from the French king ; and before many weeks had 
elapsed, 40,000 Irish stood in arms to support his 
authority. The forces of William in Ireland were few 
in number and bad in quality, consisting for the most 
part of raw levies of young men taken suddenly from 
the plough. They were therefore altogether unequal 
to cope with the forces of James, Tyrconnel, and the 
French Marshal de Rosen ; and but for vigorous mea- 
sures on the part of William and his government, it was 
clear that Ireland would be lost to the English crown. 
The best troops of William had by this time been 
either sent abroad or disbanded. The English and 
Dutch veteran regiments had for the most part been 
despatched to Flanders to resist the French armies of 
Louis, who threatened a diversion in favour of James 
in that quarter; while, in deference to the jealousy 
which the English people naturally entertained against 
the maintenance amongst them of a standing army 
especially an army of foreigners the Huguenot 
regiments had beer disbanded, almost immediately 
after the abdication of James and his flight into 
France. So soon, however, as the news of James's 
landing in Ireland reached London, measures were 
taken for their re-embodiment; and four excellent 
regiments were at once raised one of cavalry and 
three of infantry. The cavalry regiment was raised 
by Schomberg, who was its colonel; and it was en- 
tirely composed of French gentlemen officers and 
privates. The infantry regiments were raised with 
the help of the aged Marquis de Ruvigny ; and at his 
death, in July 1689, the enterprise was zealously pro- 
secuted by his two sons Henry, the second Marquis, 


and Pierre de Ruvigny, afterwards better known as 
La Caillemotte. These regiments were respectively 
commanded by La Caillemotte, Cambon, and La 

The French regiments were hastily depatched to 
join the little army of about 10,000 men sent into the 
north of Ireland, to assist the Protestants in arms there, 
during the same month in which they were raised. Their 
first operation was conducted against the town of Car- 
rickfergus, which fell after a siege of a week, but not 
without loss, for the Huguenot regiments who led the 
assault suffered heavily, the Marquis de Venours and 
numerous other officers being amongst the killed. 

Shortly after, the Huguenot regiment of cavalry 
arrived from England ; and, joined by three regiments of 
Enniskilleners, the army marched southward. De Bos- 
taquet held his former rank of captain in Schomberg's 
horse ; and he has recorded in his memoirs the incidents 
of the campaign with his usual spirit. The march lay 
through burnt villages and a country desolated by the 
retiring army of James. They passed through Newry 
and Carlingford, both of which towns were found 
in ashes. They at length arrived in the neighbour- 
hood of Dundalk, where they encamped. James lay at 
Drogheda with an army of 20,000 men, or double their 
number. But the generals of neither force wished for 
battle ; Schomberg, because he could not rely upon his 
troops, who were ill-fed and (excepting the Huguenot 
veterans) ill-disciplined ; l and Count Rosen, James's 
French general, because he did not wish to incur the 
risk of a defeat. The raw young English soldiers in 
the camp at Dundalk, unused to campaigning, died in 

1 Schomberg found that the better than the others." And a 

greater number of them had never few months later he added 

before fired a pun. " Others can " From these three regiments, 

inform your Majesty," he wrote and from that of cavalry, your 

to William (12th Oct., 1689) Majesty has more service than 

that the three regiments of from double the number of the 

French infantry and their regi- others." 
ment of cavalry do their duty 


great numbers. The English foot were mostly without 
shoes and very badly fed ; yet they were eager to fight, 
thinking it better to die in the field than in the camp. 
When they clamoured to be led into action, Schomberg 
good-humouredly said, " We English have stomach 
enough for fighting : it is a pity that we are not equally 
fond of some other parts of a soldier's business." 

At length, after enduring great privations, and 
leaving many of his men under the sod at Dun- 
dalk, Schomberg decided to follow the example of 
the Jacobite army, and go into winter quarters. His 
conduct of the campaign occasioned much dissatis- 
faction in England, where it was expected that he 
should meet and fight James with a famished army 
of less than half the number, and under every disad- 
vantage. It had now, however, become necessary to 
act with vigour if the policy initiated by the Revolu- 
tion of 1688 was to be upheld; for a well-appointed 
army of 7300 excellent French infantry, commanded 
by the Count of Lauzun, with immense quantities of 
arms and ammunition, were on their way from France, 
with the object of expelling the Protestants from Ire- 
land and replacing James upon the British throne. 

William now felt that the great crisis of the struggle 
had arrived. Determining to take the field in person, 
he made his arrangements accordingly. He ordered 
back from Flanders his best English and Dutch regi- 
ments. He also endeavoured, so far as he could, to 
fight Frenchmen with Frenchmen ; and he despatched 
agents abroad, into all the countries where the banished 
Huguenot soldiers had settled, inviting them to take 
arms with him against the enemies of their faith. His 
invitation was responded to with alacrity. Many of 
Schomberg's old soldiers, who had settled in Branden- 
burg, Switzerland, and the provinces of the Lower 
Rhine, left their new homes and flocked to the stan- 
dard of William. The Baron d'Avejan, lieutenant- 
colonel of an English regiment, wrote to a friend in 
Switzerland, urging the immediate enlistment of expa- 


triated Protestants for his regiment. " I feel assured," 
said he, " that you will not fail to have published in all 
the French churches in Switzerland the obligations 
under which the refugees lie to come and aid us in 
this expedition, which is directed to the glory of God, 
and ultimately to the re-establishment of His Church 
in our country." 

These stirring appeals had the effect of attracting a 
large number of veteran Protestant soldiers to the army 
of William. Sometimes four and five hundred men 
left Geneva in a week for the purpose of enlisting in 
England. Others were despatched from Lausanne, 
where they were provided by the Marquis d'Arzilliers 
with the means of reaching their destination. Many 
more, scattered along the shores of Lake Leman, were 
drilled daily under the flag of Orange, notwithstanding 
the expostulations of Louis' agents, and sent to swell 
the forces of William. 

By these means, as well as by energetic efforts at 
home, 1 William was enabled, by the month of June, 
1690, to assemble in the north of Ireland an army of 
36,000 men English, French, Dutch, Danes, and Ger- 
mans ; and putting himself at their head, he at once 
marched southward. 2 Arrived at the Boyne, about 

1 DE FELICE History of the explained to his majesty the 

Fi-ench Protestants (p. 339), says, cause of his being settled there ; 

that " England raised eleven re- and as the king was about to pass 

giments of French volunteers ; " on, he asked permission to em- 

but he does not give his author- brace him. To this William at 

ity. It is probable this number once assented, receiving the Hu- 

is an exaggeration. guenot's salute on his cheek, 

* William landed at Oarrick- after which, stooping from his 

fergus on the 14th of June, 1690. horse towards Bulmer's wife, a 

From thence he proceeded to pretty Frenchwoman, he said, 

Belfast. On his way southward "And thy wife too ;" and saluted 

to join the army at Lough brick- her heartily. The name Bulmer 

land, when passing through the has since been changed to Boomer, 

village of Lambeg, near Lisburn, but the Christian name Rene or 

he was addressed by one Ren6 Rainey is still preserved mong 

Bulmer, a Huguenot refugee, the descendants of the family. 

then residing in a house now Ulster Journal of Archeology, 

known as The Priory. Rene i. 135, 286-94. 


three miles west of Drogheda, he discerned the com- 
bined French and Irish army drawn up on the other 
side, prepared to dispute the passage of the river. The 
Huguenot regiments saw before them the flags of Louis 
XIV. and James II. waving together the army of the 
king who had banished them from country, home, and 
family, making common cause with the persecutor of 
the English Protestants ; and when it became known 
amongst them that every soldier in the opposing force 
bore the same badge the white cross in their hats 
which distinguished the assassins of their forefathers 
on the night of St. Bartholomew, they burned to meet 
them in battle. 

On the morning of the 1st of July, the Count 
Me'nard de Schomberg, one of the old marshal's sons, 
was ordered to cross the river on the right, by the 
bridge of Slane, and turn the left flank of the opposing 
army. This movement he succeeded in accomplishing 
alter a short but sharp conflict ; upon which William 
proceeded to lead his left, composed of cavalry, across 
the river, considerably lower down. At the same time, 
the main body of infantry composing the centre was 
ordered to advance. The Dutch guards led, closely 
followed by the Huguenot foot. Plunging into the 
stream, they waded across and reached the opposite 
bank under a storm of cannon and musketry. Scarcely 
had they struggled up the right bank, than the Hu- 
guenot colonel, La Caillemote, was struck down by a 
musket-shot. As he was being carried oif the field, 
covered with blood, through the ranks of his advanc- 
ing troops, he called out to them, "A la gloire, mes 
enfans ' a la gloire ! " 

A strong body of Irish cavalry charged the advanc- 
ing infantry with great vigour, shook them until they 
reeled, and compelled them to give way. Old Marshal 
Schomberg, who stood eagerly watching the advance 
of his troops from the northern bank, now saw that 
the crisis of the fight had arrived, and he prepared to 
act accordingly. Placing himself at the head of his 



Huguenot regiment of horse which he had held in 
reserve, and pointing with his sword across the river, 
he called out, " Allons, tries amis! rappelez votre 
courage et vos ressentements : VOILA. vos PERSECU- 
TEURS ! " l and plunged into the stream. On reaching 
the scene of contest, a furious struggle ensued. The 
Dutch and Huguenot infantry rallied ; and William, 
coming up from the left with his cavahy, fell upon 
the Irish flank and completed their discomfiture. The 
combined French and Irish army was forced through 
the pass of Duleek, and fled towards Dublin James 
II. being the first to carry thither the news of his 
defeat. 2 William's loss did not exceed 400 men ; but, 
to his deep grief, Marshal Schomberg was found 
amongst the fallen, the hero of eighty-two having been 
cut down in the mele'e by a party of Tyrconnel's horse ; 
and he lay dead upon the field, with many other 
gallant gentlemen. 

1 Rapin, who relates this inci- Tyrconnel, the wife of his vice- 
dent in his History of England, roy. "Madam," said he, "your 
was present at the battle of the countrymen can run well." " Not 
Boyne as an officer in one of the quite so well as your Majesty," 
Huguenot regiments. was her retort. " for I see you 

2 On reaching Dublin Castle. have won the race." 
James was received by Lady 



IT forms no part of our purpose to describe the 
military operations in Ireland, which followed the 
battle of the Boyne. We may, however, mention the 
principal Huguenot officers who took part in them. 
Amongst these, one of the most distinguished was 
Henry, second Marquis de Ruvigny. At the date 
of the Revocation, he had attained the rank of bri- 
gadier in the army of Louis XIV., and was considered 
an excellent officer, having served with great distinc- 
tion under Conde and Turenne. Indeed, it is believed 
that the French army in Germany would have been 
lost, but for the skill with which he reconciled the 
quarrels of the contending chiefs who aspired to its 
command after the death of Turenne. 

Louis XIV. desired to retain Ruvigny in his service ; 
but casting in his lot with the exiled Protestants, he 
left France with his father and settled with him at 
Greenwich, where he dispensed hospitality and bounty. 
He did not at first join the British army which fought 
in Ireland. But when he heard that his only brother, 
De la Caillemotte, as well as Marshal Schomberg, had 
been killed at the Boyne, he could restrain his ardour 
no longer, and offered his services to William. The 
King appointed him major-general, and also gave him 
the colonelcy of Schomberg's regiment of Huguenot 

Ruvigny joined the army of General Ginkell, while 
engaged in the siege of Athlone. A Huguenot soldier 


was the first to mount the breach, where he fell, cheer- 
ing on his comrades. The place was taken by Ginkell, 
after which the French general, Saint Ruth, retired 
with the Irish army to Aughrim, where he took up an 
almost impregnable position. Notwithstanding this 
advantage, Ginkell attacked and routed the Irish, the 
principal share in the victory being attributed to the 
Marquis de Ruvigny and his horse, who charged im- 
petuously and carried everything before them. 

That the brunt of this battle was borne by the 
Huguenot regiments, is shown by the extent of their 
loss. Ruvigny 's regiment lost 144 men killed and 
wounded ; that of Cambon 106 ; and that of Belcastle 
85 being about one-fifth of the total loss on the side 
of the victors. " After the battle," says De Bostaquet, 
" Ginkell came up and embraced De Ruvigny, declaring 
how much he was pleased with his bravery and his 
conduct ; then advancing to the head of our regiment, 
he highly praised the officers as well as the soldiers. 
M. Causaubon, who commanded, gained great honour 
by his valour that day." l For the services rendered 
by De Ruvigny on this occasion, William raised him 
to the Irish peerage, under the title of Earl of Galway, 

In 1693, Lord Galway joined William in Flanders, 
and was with him in the battle of Ne'erwinden, where 
the combined Dutch and English army was defeated 
by Marshal Luxemburg. The Huguenot leader fought 
with conspicuous bravery at the head of his cavalry, 
and succeeded in covering William's retreat. He was 
shortly after promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 

The war with France was now raging all round her 
borders, along the Flemish and the German frontiers, 
and as far south as the country of the Italian Vaudois. 
The Vaudois were among the most ancient Protestant 
people in Europe ; and Louis XIV., not satisfied with 
exterminating Protestantism in his own dominions, 

Meinoires Inedits de Ditmont de Bflstaqiict. p. 303. 

CHAP. xin. WAR IN SAVOY. 229 

sought to carry the crusade against it beyond his own 
frontiers into the territories of his neighbours. He ac- 
cordingly sent a missive to the young Duke of Savoy, 
requiring him to extirpate the Vaudois, unless they 
conformed to the Roman Catholic religion. The duke 
refused to obey the French king's behest, and besought 
the heir of the Emperor of Germany and the Protestant 
princes of the north, to enable him to resist the armies 
of Louis. The Elector of Brandenburg having applied 
to William III. for one of his generals, Charles, Duke 
of Schomberg, whose father fell at the Boyne, was at 
once despatched to the aid of the Savoy prince, with 
an army consisting for the most part of Huguenot 
refugees. William also undertook to supply a subsidy 
of 100,000 a year, as the joint contribution of Eng- 
land and Holland to the cause of Protestantism in 

On Schomberg's arrival at Turin, he found the 
country in a state of great consternation, the French 
army under Catinat having overrun it in various 
directions. With Schomberg's vigorous help, the pro- 
gress of the French army was for a time checked ; 
but unfortunately Schomberg allowed himself to be 
drawn into a pitched battle on the plains of Marsiglia 
in October, 1693, when his army suffered a complete 
defeat. At the same time the general received a 
mortal wound, of which he died a few days after the 

On this untoward result of the campaign becoming 
known in England, the Earl of Galway was despatched 
into Savoy to take the command ; as well as to repre- 
sent England and Holland as ambassador at the court 
of Turin. To his dismay, the Earl discovered that the 
Duke of Savoy was then engaged in a secret treaty 
with the French Government for peace ; on which he 
at once withdrew with his contingent the only object 
he had been able to accomplish, being to secure a 
certain degree of liberty of worship for the persecuted 


On his return to England, the Earl was appointed 
one of the Lords-Justices of Ireland; and during the 
time that he held that office, he devoted himself to 
the establishment of the linen trade, the improvement 
of agriculture, and the reparation of the losses and 
devastations from which the country had suffered 
during the civil wars. 

In the meantime, Louis XIV., with that meanness 
of character that distinguished him in all his dealings 
with the Huguenots, when he heard of Ruvigny's 
services to William III., ordered the immediate confis- 
cation of all his property in France. To compensate 
Ruvigny for this heavy loss, William conferred upon 
him the confiscated estate of Portarlington ; when he 
at once proceeded to found a Huguenot colony at that 
place. By his influence he induced a large number 
of the best class of the refugees principally exiled 
officers and gentry, with their families to settle there; 
and he liberally assisted them out of his private 
means in promoting the industry and prosperity of 
the town and neighbourhood. He erected more than 
a hundred new dwellings of a superior kind, for the 
accommodation of the settlers. He built and endowed 
two churches for their use one French, the other 
English, as well as two excellent schools for the 
education of their children. Thus the little town 
of Portarlington shortly became a centre of polite 
learning, from which emanated some of the most 
distinguished men in Ireland ; while the gentle and 
industrious life of the colonists exhibited an example 
of patient labour, neatness, thrift, and orderliness, 
which exercised a considerable influence on the sur- 
rounding population. 

Lord Galway was not, however, permitted to enjoy 
the grant which William III. had made to him, of the 
Portarlington estate. The appropriation was violently 
attacked in the English Parliament; and a bill was 
passed annulling that and all grants of a like kind 
which had been made by the King. The estate was 




accordingly taken from Lord Galway, and sold by 
the Government Commissioners to the London Hollow 
Sword-Blade Company. The Earl's career as an Irish 
landlord was thus brought to an end ; and Ruvigny, 
like many of his fellow-exiles, was again left landless. 
During the time, however, that the Portarlington 
estate was in his possession, he granted to some of 
the Huguenot exiles leases for lives, renewable for 
ever. These leases were not interfered with, and they 
still continue in force. 

While the English Parliament displayed this jealousy 
of the foreign officers by whom William III. had been 
so faithfully served, and who contributed so materially 
to the success of the Revolution of 1688, they enter- 
tained an equal jealousy of the Huguenot regiments 
which still remained in the service of the Kino-. Fre- 


quent motions were made in the House of Commons 
for their disembodiment ; and on the loth of Septem- 
ber, 1698, on the motion for going into a committee 
of supply, the amendment was proposed : " That an 
address be presented to the Lords- Justices to intercede 
with His Majesty that the five regiments 1 of French 
Protestants should be disbanded." In the face of the 
war which was impending in Europe, William could 
not agree to the measure; and the regiments continued 
to be actively employed under different designations 
down to the middle of the eighteenth century. 

1 There were two cavalry regiments, and three infantry, in the 
Huguenot force, viz. : 







Galway's Horse . . 






Miremont's Dragoons 






Marlon's Foot . . . 






La Meloniere's do. . 






Belcastel's do. . . . 











Nothing could shake the King's attachment to Lord 
Galway, or Lord Galway's to him. Being unable, 
as King of England, to reward his faithful follower, 
William appointed him general in the Dutch army, 
and colonel of the Dutch regiment of foot-guards 
(blue). In 1701, Evelyn thus records in his diary a 
visit made to the distinguished refugee on his arrival 
in London from Ireland : "June 22. I went to 
congratulate the arrival of that worthy and excellent 
person, my Lord Galway, newly come out of Ireland, 
where he had behaved himself so honestly and to the 
exceeding satisfaction of the people ; but he was re- 
moved thence for being a Frenchman, though they 
had not a more worthy, valiant, discreet, and trusty 
person on whom they could have relied for conduct 
and fitness. He was one who had deeply suffered, 
as well as the Marquis his father, for being Pro- 

From this time, Lord Galway was principally em- 
ployed abroad on diplomatic missions, and in the field. 
The war against France was now in progress on the 
side of Spain, where the third Duke of Schomberg, 
Count Me'nard, who led the attack in the battle of the 
Boyne, was, in 1704, placed in command of the British 
troops, then fighting against the Bourbon Philip V., in 
conjunction with a Portuguese force. Philip was 
supported by a French army under command of the 
Duke of Berwick, the natural son of the dethroned 
James II. The campaign having languished under 
Schomberg, and the government at home becoming 
dissatisfied with his conduct, the Earl of Galway was 
sent out to Portugal to take the command. 

The battles which followed were mostly fought over 
the ground since made so famous by the victories of 
Wellington. There was the relief of Gibraltar, the 
storming of Alcantara, the siege of Badajos in which 
the Earl of Galway lost an arm the capture of 
Ciudad Rodrigo, and the advance upon Madrid. Then 
followed the defection of the Portuguese, and a sue- 


cession of disasters : the last of which was the battle 
of Almanza, where the British, ill-supported by their 
Portuguese allies, were defeated by the French army 
under the Duke of Berwick. Shortly afterwards, the 
British forces returned home, and the Earl of Galway 
resided for the rest of his life mostly at Rookley, near 
Southampton, taking a kindly interest to the last in 
the relief of his countrymen suffering for conscience' 
sake. 1 

When the refugees first entered the service of 
the Elector of Brandenburg, doubts were expressed 
whether they would fight against their fellow-country- 
men. When they went into action at Neuss, one 
of the Prussian generals exclaimed, "We shall have 
these knaves fighting against us presently." But all 
doubts were dispelled by the conduct of the Hugue- 
not musketeers, who rushed eagerly upon the French 
troops, and by the fuiy of their attack carried every- 
thing before them. It was the same at the siege of 
Bonn, where a hundred refugee officers, three hundred 
Huguenot cadets, with detachments of musketeers 
and horse grenadiers, demanded to be led to the 
assault ; and on the signal being given, they rushed 
forward with extraordinary gallantry. " The officers," 
says Ancillon, " gave proof that they preferred rather 
to rot in the earth after an honourable death, than 
that the earth should nourish them in idleness whilst 
their soldiers were in the heat of the fight." The 
outer works were carried, and the place was taken. 

1 It was when on a visit at Russell was his nearest surviving 

Stratton House, that the good relative, and became his heiress 

Earl of Galway was summoned at the age of eighty-four. The 

to his rest. He probably sank property of Stratton has passed 

under the " bodily pains " to out of Russell hands ; and Lord 

which he was so long subject Galway 's gravestone [in Michel- 

namely, gout and rheumatism. dever churchyard, where he was 

His mind was entire to the last. buried"!, cannot now be recog- 

He died on the 3rd of September, nised. AGNEW Protexta nt JEx- 

1720, aged seventy-two. He was iles from France in tJie reign of 

the last of his family. Lady Louis XI V. } p. 149. 


But nowhere did the Huguenots display such a fury 
of resentment against the troops of Louis as at the 
battle of Almanza, above referred to, where they were 
led by Cavalier, the famous Camisard chief. 

Jean Cavalier was the son of a peasant, of the 
village of Ribaute, near Anduze, in Languedoc. Being 
an ardent Protestant, he took refuge from the persecu- 
tions in Geneva and Lausanne, where he worked for 
some time as a journeyman baker. But his love for 
his native land drew him back to Languedoc ; and he 
"happened to visit it in 1702, at the time when the 
Abbe du Chayla was engaged in directing the extir- 
pation of the Protestant peasantry in the Cevennes. 
These poor people continued, in defiance of the law, 
to hold religious meetings in the woods, and caves, 
and fields ; in consequence of which they were 
tracked, pursued, sabred, hanged, or sent to the galleys, 
wherever found. 

The peasants at length revolted. From forty to fifty 
of the most determined among them assembled at the 
Abbs' du Chayla's house at Pont-de-Montvert, and 
proceeded to break open the dungeon in which he had 
penned up a band of prisoners, amongst whom were 
two ladies of rank. The Abbd ordered his servants to 
repel the assailants with firearms; nevertheless they 
succeeded in effecting an entrance, and stabbed the 
priest to death. Such was the beginning of the war 
of the Blouses, or Camisards. The Camisards were 
only poor peasants, driven to desperation by cruelty, 
without any knowledge of war, and without any arms 
except such as they wrested from the hands of their 
enemies. Yet they maintained a gallant struggle 
against the united French armies for a period of nearly 
five years. 

On the outbreak of the revolt, Jean Cavalier assem- 
bled a company of volunteers to assist the Cevennes 
peasantry ; and before long he became their recog- 
nised leader. Though the insurrection spread over 
Languedoc, their entire numbers did not exceed 10,000 


men. But they had the advantage of fighting in a 
mountain country, every foot of which was familiar 
to them. They carried on the war by surprises, 
clothing and arming themselves with the spoils they 
took from the royal troops. They supplied them- 
selves with balls made from the church-bells. They 
had no money, and needed none ; the peasantry and 
herdsmen of the country supplying them with food. 
When they were attacked, they received the first fire 
of the soldiers on one knee, singing the sixty-eighth 
psalm : " Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered." 
Then they rose, precipitated themselves on the enemy, 
and fought with all the fury of despair. If they suc- 
ceeded in their onslaughts, and the soldiers fled, they 
then held assemblies, which were attended by the 
Huguenots of the adjoining country ; and when they 
failed, they fled into the hills, in the caverns of which 
were their magazines and hospitals. 

Great devastation and bloodshed marked the w,ar 
carried on against the Camisards. No mercy was 
shown either to the peasantry taken in arms, or to 
those who in any way assisted them. Whole villages 
were destroyed. The order was issued that wherever 
a soldier or a priest perished, the village should im- 
mediately be burnt down. The punishment of the 
stake was revived. Gibbets were erected arid kept at 
work all over Languedoc. Still the insurrection was 
not suppressed; and the peasantry continued to hold 
their religious meetings wherever they could. 

One day, on the 1st of April, 1703, the intelligence 
was brought to Marshal Montrevil, in command of the 
royal troops, that some three hundred persons had 
assembled for worship in a mill near Nisrnes. He at 
once hastened to the place with a strong force of 
soldiers, ordered the doors to be burst open, and the 
worshippers slaughtered on the spot. The slowness 
with which the butchery was carried on provoked the 
marshal's indignation, and he ordered the mill to be 
fired. All who had not been murdered were burnt, 


all, excepting one solitary girl, who was saved through 
the humanity of the marshal's lacquey ; but she was 
hanged next day, and the lacquey who had saved her 
narrowly escaped the same fate. 

Even this monstrous cruelty did not crush the in- 
surrection. The Camisards were from time to time 
reinforced by burnt-out peasants ; and, led by Cavalier 
and his coadjutor Roland, they beat the detachments 
of Montrevil on every side at Nayes, at the rocks 
at Aubias, at Martignargues, and at the bridge of 
Salindres. Louis XIV. was disgusted at the idea of 
a marshal of France, supported by a royal army 
thoroughly appointed, being set at defiance by a mise- 
rable horde of Protestant peasants ; and he ordered 
the recall of Montrevil. Marshal Villars was then sent 
to take the command. 

The new marshal was an honourable man, and not 
a butcher. He shuddered at the idea of employing 
means such as his predecessor had employed, to reduce 
the King's subjects to obedience ; and one of the first 
things he did was to invite Cavalier to negotiate. The 
quondam baker's boy of Geneva agreed to meet the 
potent marshal of France, and listen to his proposals. 
Villars thus described him in his letter to the minis- 
ter of war : " He is a peasant of the lowest rank, not 
yet twenty-two years of age, and scarcely seeming 
eighteen ; small, and with no imposing mien, but pos- 
sessing a firmness and good sense that are altogether 
surprising. He has great talent in arranging for the 
subsistence of his men, and disposes his troops as 
well as the best trained officers could do. From the 
moment Cavalier began to treat, up to the conclusion 
of the affair, he has always acted in good faith/' * 

In the negotiations which ensued, Cavalier stipu- 
lated for liberty of conscience and freedom of worship, 

1 The war against the Cami- France, after tJie Revocation of 
sards is treated at much greater tlie Edict of Nantes. 
length in The HuQuenots in 


to which, it is said, Villars assented, though the Roman 
Catholics subsequently denied this. The result, how- 
ever, was that Cavalier capitulated, accepted a colonel's 
commission, and went to Versailles to meet Louis XIV.; 
his fellow-leader, Roland, refusing the terms of capitu- 
lation, and determining to continue the struggle. At 
Paris, the mob, eager to behold the Cevennol rebel, 
thi'onged the streets he rode through, and his reception 
was tantamount to a triumph. At Versailles Louis 
exhorted him in vain to be converted, Cavalier even 
daring in his presence to justify the revolt in the 
Cevennes. He was offered the rank of major-general 
in the French army, and a pension of 1500 livres for 
his father; but he refused, and was dismissed from 
court as " an obstinate Huguenot." 

Though treated with apparent kindness, Cavalier 
felt that he was under constant surveillance ; and he 
seized the earliest opportunity of flying from France 
and taking refuge in Switzerland. From thence he 
passed into Holland, and entered the service of Wil- 
liam of Orange, who gave him the rank of colonel. 
The Blouses, or Camisards, who had fled from the 
Cevennes in large numbers, flocked to his standard, 
and his regiment was soon full. But a serious diffi- 
culty occurred. Cavalier insisted on selecting his own 
officers, while the royal commissioners required that 
the companies should be commanded by refugee gen- 
tlemen. The matter was compromised by Cavalier 
selecting half his officers, and the commissioners ap- 
pointing the other half, Cavalier selecting only such 
as had thoroughly proved their valour in the battles 
of the Cevennes. The regiment, when complete, pro- 
ceeded to England, and was despatched to Spain with 
other reinforcements towards the end of 1706. 

Almost the only battle in which Cavalier and his 
Huguenots took part, was at the field of Almanza, 
where they distinguished themselves in a remarkable 
manner. Cavalier found himself opposed to one of 
the French regiments, in whom he recognised his 


former persecutors in the Cevennes. The soldiers on 
both sides, animated by a common fury, rushed upon 
each other with the bayonet, disdaining to fire. The 
carnage which followed was dreadful. The Papist 
regiment was almost annihilated, whilst of Cavalier's 
regiment, 700 strong, not more than 300 survived. 
Marshal Berwick, though familiar with fierce encoun- 
ters, never spoke of this tragical event without deep 
emotion. Cavalier himself was severely wounded, and 
lay for some time among the slain. He afterwards 
escaped through the assistance of an English officer. 
His lieutenant-colonel, five captains, six lieutenants, 
and five ensigns were killed, and most of the other 
officers were wounded or taken prisoners. 

Cavalier returned to England, where he retired 
upon a small pension, which barely supported him. 1 
He entreated to be employed in active service; but 
it was not until after the lapse of many years that 
his application was successful. He was eventually 
appointed governor of Jersey, and held that office for 
some time ; after which he was made brigadier in 1735, 
and further promoted to be major-general in 1739. He 
died at Chelsea in the following year ; and his remains 
were conveyed to Dublin for interment in the French 
refugee cemetery. 

Another illustrious name amongst the Huguenot re- 
fugees is that of Paul de Rapin-Thoyras, better known 
as the historian of England than as a soldier, though 
he bore arms with the English in many a hard-fought 
field. He belonged to a French noble family, and was 
lord of Thoyras, near Castres. The persecution drove 
him and his family into England ; but finding nothing 
to do there, he went over to Holland and joined the 
army of William as a cadet. He accompanied the 

1 While lie resided in London, memoirs of his early adventures, 

Cavalier employed part of his which were published under the 

leisure in dictating to another title of Memoirs of the Wars of 

refugee, Galli of Nismes, the the Cevennes : London, 1726. 


expedition to Torbay, and took part in the transac- 
tions which followed. Rapin was afterwards sent 
into Ireland with his regiment; and, distinguishing 
himself by his gallantry at the siege of Carrickfergus, 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. He after- 
wards fought at the Boyne, and was wounded at the 
assault of Limerick. At Athlone he was one of the 
first to enter the place at the head of the assailing 
force. He was there promoted to a company; and he 
remained at Athlone doing garrison duty for about 
two years. His intelligence and high culture being 
well known, Rapin was selected by the King, on the 
recommendation of the Earl of Galway, as tutor to 
the Earl of Portland's eldest son, Viscount Woodstock. 
He accordingly took leave of the anny with regret, 
making over his company to his brother, who after- 
wards attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 

From this time, Rapin lived principally abroad, 
in company with his pupil. Whilst residing at the 
Hague, he resumed his favourite study of history and 
jurisprudence, which had been interrupted by his 
flight from France at the Revocation. After com- 
pleting Lord Woodstock's education, Rapin settled 
at Wesel, where a number of retired refugee officers 
resided and formed a very agreeable society. There 
he wrote his Dissertation on Whigs and Torie, and 
his well-known History of England, founded on 
Rhymer's Fcedera, the result of much labour and 
research, and long regarded as a standard work. 
Rapin died in 1725, at the age of sixty-four, almost 
pen in hand, worn out by hard study and sedentary 

Among the many able Huguenot officers in William's 
service, John de Bodt was one of the most distin- 
guished. He had fled from France when only in his 
fifteenth year, and shortly after joined the Dutch 
artillery. He accompanied William to England, and 
was made captain in 1690. He fought at the Boyne 
and at Anghrim, and eventually rose to the command ot 


the Huguenot corps of Engineers. In that capacity he 
served at the battles of Steinkirk and Ne'erwinden, 
and at the siege of Namur he directed the operations 
which ended in the surrender of the castle to the allied 
army. The fort into which Boufflers had thrown him- 
self was assaulted and captured a few days later by La 
Cave at the head of 2000 volunteers ; and William III. 
generously acknowledged that it was mainly to the 
brave refugees that he owed the capture of that impor- 
tant fortress. 

All through the wars in the Low Countries, under 
William III., Eugene, and the Duke of Marlborough, 
the refugees bore themselves bravely. Wherever the 
fighting was hardest, they were there. Henry de 
Chesnoi led the assault which gave Landau to the 
allies. At the battles of Hochstedt, Oudenarde, and 
Malplacquet, and at the siege of Mons, they were 
conspicuous for their valour. Le Roche, the Huguenot 
engineer, conducted the operations at Lisle, " doing 
more execution," says Luttrell, " in three days than 
De Meer, the German, in six weeks." 

The refugee Ligoniers served with peculiar distinc- 
tion in the British army. The most eminent was Jean 
Louis, afterwards Field Marshal Earl Ligonier. who 
had fled from France into England in 1697. He ac- 
companied the army to Flanders as a volunteer in 
1702, where his extraordinary bravery at the storming 
of Liege attracted the attention of Marlborough. At 
Blenheim, where he next fought, he was the only 
captain of his regiment who survived. At Menin he 
led the grenadiers who stormed the counterscarp. He 
fought at Malplacquet, where he was major of brigade, 
and in all Marlborough's great battles. At Dettingen, 
as lieutenant-general, he earned still higher distinction. 
At Fontenoy the chief honour was due to him for the 
intrepidity and skill with which he led the British 
infantry. In 1746 he was placed in command of the 
British forces in Flanders, but was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Lawfield. Restored to England, he was 


appointed commander- in-chief and colonel of the First 
Foot Guards ; and in 1770 the Huguenot hero died full 
of honours at the ripe age of ninety-two. 

Of the thousands of Protestant sailors who left 
France at the Revocation, many settled in the ports 
along the south and south-east coast of England ; but 
the greater number entered the Dutch fleet, while some 
of them took service, in the navy of the Elector of Bran- 
denburg. Louis XIV. took the same steps to enforce 
conversion upon his sailors, that he adopted to convert 
the other classes of his subjects. So soon, however, as 
the sailors arrived in foreign ports, they usually took 
the opportunity of deserting their ships and reasserting 
their liberty. In 1686, three French vessels which had 
put into Dutch ports were entirely deserted by their 
crews; and in the same year more than 800 experi- 
enced mariners, trained under Duquesne, entered the 
navy of the United Provinces. When William sailed 
for England in 1688, the island of Zealand alone sent 
him 150 excellent French sailors, who were placed, as 
picked men, on board the admiral and vice-admiral's 
ships. Like their Huguenot fellow-countrymen on 
land, the Huguenot sailors fought valiantly at sea 
under the flag of their adopted country ; and they 
emulated the bravery of the English at the great naval 
battle of La Hogue, which occurred a few years later. 

Many descendants of the refugees subsequently at- 
tained high rank in the naval service, and acquired 
distinction by their valour on that element which 
England has been accustomed to regard as peculiarly 
her own. Amongst them may be mentioned "the 
gallant, good Riou," who was killed while commanding 
the Amazon frigate at Copenhagen in 1801, and the 
Gambiers, descended from a refugee family long set- 
tled at Canterbury, one of whom rose to be a vice- 
admiral, and another an admiral, the latter having also 
been raised to the peerage for his distinguished public 




OF the half- million of French subjects who were driven 
into exile by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
more than 120,000 are believed to have taken refuge 
in England. The refugees were men of all i*anks and 
conditions, landed gentry, ministers of religion, sol- 
diers and sailors, professional men, merchants, students, 
mechanics, artizans, and labourers. The greater num- 
ber were Calvinists, and continued such ; others were 
Lutherans, who conformed to the English Church ; but 
many were Protestants merely in name, principally 
because they belonged to families of that persuasion. 
But however lightly their family religion might sit 
upon them, these last offered as strenuous a resistance 
as the most extreme Calvinists to being dragooned 
into popery. This was especially the case with men 
of science, professional men, and students of law and 
medicine. Hence the large proportion of physicians 
and surgeons to be found in the ranks of the refu- 

It was not merely free religious thought that Louis 
XIV. sought to stifle in France, but free thought of all 
kinds. The blow struck by him at the conscience of 
France, struck also at its mind. Individualism was 
crushed wherever it asserted itself. An entire abnega- 
tion of the will was demanded. Men must abjure their 
faith, and believe as they were ordered. They must 
become part of a stereotyped system profess adher- 
ence to a Church to whioh they were indifferent, if 


they did not actually detest it pretend to believe 
what they really did not believe, and in many cases 
deny their most deeply-rooted convictions. 

To indolent minds such a system would no doubt 
save an infinity of trouble. Only induce men to give 
up their individuality, to renounce the exercise of 
their judgment to cease to think and to entertain 
the idea that a certain set of men, and no other, hold in 
their hands the keys of heaven and hell, and conformity 
becomes easy. But many of the French King's sub- 
jects were of another temperament. They would think 
for themselves in matters of science as well as religion ; 
and the vigorous, the independent, and the self-reliant 
Protestant as well as non- Protestant revolted 
against the intellectual tyranny which Louis attempted 
to establish amongst them, and fled for liberty of 
thought and worship into other lands' 

We have already referred to such men as Huyghens 
and Bayle, who took refuge in Holland, where they 
found the freedom denied them in their own country. 
These men were not Protestants so much as philoso- 
phers. But they could not be hypocrites, and they 
would not conform. Hence their flight from France. 
Others of like stamp took refuge in England. Amongst 
the latter were some of the earliest speculators as to 
that wonderful motive power which eventually be- 
came embodied in the working steam-engine One of 
these fugitives was Solomon de Caus, a native of Caux 
in Normandy. He was a man of encyclopaedic know- 
ledge; he had studied architecture in Italy; he was 
an engineer, a mechanic, and a natural philosopher. 
Moreover, he was a Huguenot, which was fatal to his 
existence in France as a free man, and he took refuge 
in England, There he was employed about the court 
for a time, and amongst other works he designed and 
erected hydraulic works for the palace gardens at 
Richmond. Shortly after he accompanied the Princess 
Elizabeth to Heidelberg, in Germany, on her marriage 
to the Elector Palatine, and there he published several 

244 DR. DENIS PAPIN. CHAP. xiv. 

works descriptive of the progress he had made in his 
inquiries as to the marvellous powers of steam. 

But still more distinguished among the Huguenot 
refugees was Dr. Denis Papin, one of the early inven- 
tors of the steam-engine, and probably also the inven- 
tor of the steamboat. 1 He was born at Blois in 1650, 
and had studied medicine at the University of Paris, 
where he took his degree as physician. He began 
the practice of his profession, in which he met with 
considerable success. Being attracted to the study 
of mechanics, and having the advantage of the in- 
struction of the celebrated Huyghens, he made rapid 
progress, and promised to become one of the most 
eminent scientific men of his country. But Papin was 
a Protestant ; and when the practice of medicine by 
Protestant physicians came to be subjected to serious 
disabilities, finding the door to promotion or even to 
subsistence closed against him unless he abjured, he 
determined to leave France; and in 1681, the same year 
in which Huyghens took refuge in Holland, Papin 
took refuge in England. Arrived in London, he was 
cordially welcomed by men of science there, and espe- 
pecially by the Honourable Robert Boyle, under whose 
auspices he was introduced to the Royal Society. 

In 1684, Papin was appointed temporary curator 
of the Royal Society, with a salary of 30 a year. It 
formed part of his duty, in connection with his new 
office, to produce an experiment at each meeting of the 
society; and this led him to prosecute his inquiries 
into the powers of steam, and ultimately to invent 
his steam-engine. Papin 's reputation having extended 
abroad, he was invited to fill the office of professor of 
mathematics in the University of Marburg, which he 
accepted ; and he left England in the year 1687. But 
he continued until his death, many years later, to 
maintain a friendly correspondence with his scientific 

1 For an account of Solomon torical Memoir of the Invention 
de Caus, as well as of the life and of the Steam-Engine," in Lives of 
labours of Dr. Papin, see " His- Bmtlton and Watt pp. 8, 30-8. 


friends in England ; and one of the last things he did 
was to construct a model steam-engine fitted in a boat 
" une petite machine d'un vaisseau a roues " for the 
purpose of sending it over to England for trial on the 
Thames. But, unhappily for Papin, the little vessel 
never reached England. To his great grief, he found 
that when it reached Miinden on the Weser, it had 
been seized by the boatmen on the river and barba- 
rously destroyed. Three years later, the illustrious 
exile died, worn out by work and anxiety, leaving it 
to other inventors to realise the great ideas which he 
had conceived as to navigation by steam-power. 

Dr. Desaguliers was another refugee who achieved 
considerable distinction in England as a teacher of 
mechanical philosophy. His father, Jean des Aguliers, 
was pastor of a Protestant congregation at Aitre', near 
Rochelle, from which he fled about the period of the 
Revocation. His child, the future professor, is said 
to have been carried on board the ship by which he 
escaped, concealed in a barrel. 1 The pastor first took 
refuge in Guernsey, from whence he proceeded to 
England, took orders in the Established Church, and 
became minister of the French chapel in Swallow 
Street, London. This charge he subsequently re- 
signed, and established a school at Islington, at which 
his son received his first education. From thence the 
young man proceeded to Oxford, matriculating at 
Christ Church, where he obtained the degree of B.A., 
and took deacon's orders. Being drawn to the study 
of natural philosophy, he shortly after delivered lec- 
tures at Oxford on hydrostatics and optics, to which 
he afterwards added mechanics. 

His fame as a lecturer having reached London, 

1 This statement is made in the worth, one of the successors ta 

"House and Farm Accounts of Gawthorpe, having married Anne, 

the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe the second daughter of General 

Hall." Chetham Society 'sPapcrs, Desaguliers (son of the above 

18i>6-8. The Shuttleworths were Dr. Desaguliers), who was one 

related by marriage to the Des- of the equerries of George III. 
aguliers family ; Robert Shuttle- 


Desaguliers was pressingly invited thither; and he 
accordingly removed to the metropolis in 1713. His 
lectures were much admired, and he had so happy a 
knack of illustrating them by experiments, that he 
was invited by the Royal Society to be their demon- 
strator. He was afterwards appointed curator of the 
Society ; and in the course of his connection with it, 
he communicated a vast number of curious and valu- 
able papers, which were printed in the Transactions. 
The Duke of Chandos gave Desaguliers the church 
living of Edge ware ; and the king (before whom he 
gave lectures at Hampton Court) presented him with 
a benefice in Essex, besides appointing him chaplain to 
the Prince of Wales. 

In 1734 Desaguliers published his Course of Experi- 
mental Philosophy in two quarto volumes, the best 
book of the kind that had appeared in England. It 
would appear from this work that the Doctor also 
designed and superintended the erection of steam- 
engines. Referring to an improvement which he had 
made on Savary's engine, he says: "According to this 
improvement, I have caused seven of these fire-engines 
to be erected since the year 1717 or 1718. The first 
was for the late Czar Peter the Great, for his garden 
at Petersburg, where it was set up." Dr. Desaguliers 
died in 1749, leaving behind him three sons, one of 
whom, the eldest, published a translation of the 
Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy, by 
Gravesande, who had been a pupil of his father's ; 
the second was a beneficed clergyman in Norfolk ; and 
the third was a colonel of artillery and lieutenant 
general in the army, as well as equerry to George III. 

Among other learned refugees who were elected 
members of the Royal Society, were David Durand, 
the editor of Pliny's Natural History, The Philo- 
sophical Writings of Cicero, and other classical works, 
and the author of a Histot^y of the Sixteenth Century, 
as well as of the continuation of Rapin's History of 
England ; Peter des Maiseaux, the intimate friend of 


St. Evremonde, whose works he edited and translated 
into English ; and Abraham de Moivre, the celebrated 

De Moivre was the son of a surgeon at Vitry in 
Champagne, and received his principal education at 
the Protestant seminary of Sedan. From the first 
he displayed an extraordinary genius for arithmetic. 
His chief delight in his bye-hours was to shut himself 
up with Le Gendre's arithmetic and work out its prob- 
lems. This led one of his classical masters to ask on 
one occasion, " What that little rogue meant to do with 
all these cyphers ? " When the college of Sedan was 
suppressed in 1681, De Moivre went to Saumur to pur- 
sue his studies in philosophy, from whence he went to 
Paris to prosecute the study of physics. By this time 
his father, being prohibited practising as a surgeon 
because of his religion, left Vitry to join his son at 
Paris ; but they were not allowed to remain together. 
The agents of the government, acting on their power 
of separating children from their parents, and subject- 
ing them to the process of conversion, seized young 
De Moivre in his nineteenth year, and shut him up in 
the priory of St. Martin. There his Jesuit masters 
tried to drill him into the Roman Catholic faith ; but 
the young Protestant was staunch, and refused to 
be converted. Being pronounced an obstinate heretic, 
he was discharged after about two years' confine- 
ment, on which he was ordered forthwith to leave the 

De Moivre arrived in London with his father 1 in 
1687, at the age of twenty, and immediately bestirred 
himself to earn a living. He had no means but his 
knowledge and his industry. He first endeavoured to 
obtain pupils, to instruct them in mathematics ; and he 
also began, like others of the refugees, to give lectures 

1 We find, from the List of Moivre obtained letters of natu- 

Foreign Protestants, published ralisation on the 16th of Decem- 

by the Camden Society (1862), ber, 1687. 
that Abraham and Daniel de 


on natural philosophy. But his knowledge of English 
was as yet too imperfect to enable him to lecture with 
success, and he was, besides, an indifferent manipu- 
lator, so that his lectures were shortly discontinued. It 
happened that the Principia of Newton was published 
about the time that De Moivre arrived in England. 
The subject offering great attractions to a mind such 
as his, he entered upon the study of the book with 
much zest, and succeeded before long in mastering its 
contents, and arriving at a clear understanding of the 
views of the author. Indeed, so complete was his 
knowledge of Newton's principles, that it is said, when 
Sir Isaac was asked for explanations of his writings, 
he would say : " Go to De Moivre ; he knows better 
than I do." 

Thus De Moivre acquired the friendship and respect 
of Newton, of Halley, and other distinguished scientific 
men of the time ; and one of the best illustrations of 
the esteem in which his intellectual qualifications were 
held, is afforded by the fact that in the contention 
which arose between Leibnitz and Newton as to their 
respective priority in the invention of the method of 
fluxions, the Royal Society appointed De Moivre to 
report upon their rival claims. 

De Moivre published many original works on his 
favourite subject, more particularly on analytical ma- 
thematics. Professor De Morgan has observed of them, 
that "they abound with consummate contrivance 
and skill; and one, at least, of his investigations 
has had the effect of completely changing the whole 
character of trigonometrical science in its higher 
departments." l One of the works published by him, 
entitled The Doctrine of Chances, is curious, as leading, 
in a measure, to the development of the science of life 
assurance. the first edition, it does not appear 
that De Moivre intended to do more than illustrate his 
favourite theory of probabilities. He showed in a 

1 Art. " De Moivre " in Penny Cyclopaedia. 


variety of ways the probable results of throwing dice 
in certain numbers of throws. From dice throwing he 
proceeded to lotteries, and showed how many tickets 
ought to be taken to secure the probability of drawing 
a prize. A few years later he applied his views to a 
more practical purpose the valuation of annuities on 
lives; and though the data on which he based his 
calculations were incorrect, and his valuations conse- 
quently unreliable, the publication of his Doctrine of 
Chances applied to the valuation of annuities on lives, 
was of much use at the time it appeared; and it 
formed the basis of other and more accurate calcula- 

De Moivre's books were on too abstruse subjects to 
yield him much profit, and during the later years of 
his life he had to contend with poverty. It is said 
that he derived a precarious subsistence from fees 
paid to him for solving questions relative to games of 
chance and other matters connected with the value of 
probabilities. He frequented a coffee-house in St. 
Martin's Lane, of which he was one of the attractions ; 
and there his customers sought him to work out their 
problems. The occupation could not have been very 
tolerable to such a man ; but he was growing old and 
helpless in body, and his powers of calculation formed 
his only capital. He survived to the age of eighty- 
seven, but during the last month of his life he sank 
into a state of total lethargy. Shortly before his 
decease, the Academy of Berlin elected him a member. 
The French Academy of Sciences also elected him a 
foreign associate ; and on the news of his death reach- 
ing Paris, M. de Fouchy drew up an eloquent eloge of 
the exiled Huguenot, which was duly inserted in the 
records of the Academy. 

For the reasons above stated, the number of refugee 
physicians and surgeons who sought the asylum of 
England was very considerable. Many of them settled 
to practise in London and various towns in the south, 
while others obtained appointments in the army and 


navy. Weiss says it was to the French surgeons 
especially, that England was in a great measure in- 
debted for the remarkable perfection to which English 
surgical instruments arrived. The College of Physi- 
cians in London generously opened their doors to the 
admission of their foreign brethren. Between the 
years 1681 and 1689 we find nine French physicians 
admitted, amongst whom we observe the name of the 
eminent Sebastian le Fevre. 1 

Among the literary men of the emigration were the 
brothers Du Moulin Louis, for some time Camden 
professor of history at Oxford, and Peter, prebendary 
of Canterbury both authors of numerous works ; 
Henry Justel (secretary to Louis XIV.), who sold off 
his valuable library and fled to England some years 
before the Revocation, when he was appointed King's 
librarian ; Peter Anthony Motteaux, an excellent 
linguist, whose translations of Cervantes and Rabelais 
first popularised the works of those writers in this 
country ; Maximilian Misson, author of A New Voyage 
to Italy, Theatre Sacre* des Cevennes, and other works; 
Michel de la Roche, author of Memoirs of Literature, 
and A Literary Journal, which filled up a consider- 
able gap in literary history; 2 Michel Mattaire, M.A. 

1 The family were of long and vantage that can never be too 
eminent standing in Anjou as much valued. Being a studious 
medical men. Joshua le Fevre man, it was veiy natural to me 
obtained letters of naturalisation to write some books, which I 
in 1681; but before that date have done, partly in English and 
Nicasius le Fevre, a member of partly in French, for the space of 
the same family, was appointed twenty years. The only advan- 
chemist to Charles II., with a tage I have got by them is that 
fee of 150 a year. DURRANI they have not been unacceptable, 
COOPER List of Foreign Pro- and I hope I have done no dis- 
testants, p. xxvi. honour to the English nation by 

2 In his Literary Journal, De those French books printed be- 
la Roche says : ' I was very yond sea, in which I undertook 
young when I took refuge in to make our English learning 
England, so that most of the better known to foreigners than 
little learning I have got is of an it was before. I have said just 
English growth. . . . 'Tis in this now that I took refuge in Eng- 
country I have learned to have a land. When I consider the con- 
right notion of religion, an ad- tinual fear I was in for a whole 


Oxon, one of the masters of Westminster School, an 
able philologist, the author of several learned works 
on typography as well as theology; De Souligne, 
grandson of Du Plessis Mornay (the Huguenot leader), 
author of The Desolation of France demonstrated, The 
Political Mischiefs of Popery, and other works ; John 
Gagnier, the able Orientalist, professor of Oriental 
languages at Oxford University, and the author of 
many learned treatises on Rabbinical lore and kindred 
subjects; John Cornaud de la Croze, author of The 
Bibliotheque Universelle, The Works of the Learned, 
and The History of Learning ; Abel Boyer, the an- 
nalist, author of the well-known French and English 
Dictionary, who pursued a successful literary career 
in England for nearly forty years ; Mark Anthony de 
la Bastide, author of several highly-esteemed contro- 
versial works; and Graverol of Nismes, one of the 
founders of the academy of that city, a poet and juris- 
consult, who published in London a history of his 
native place, addressed to " Messieurs les Refugie's de 
Nismes qui sont dtablis dans Londres." 

The last pages of Graverol's book contain a touching 
narrative of the sufferings of the Protestants of Lan- 
guedoc, and conclude as follows: "We, who are in a 
country so remote from our own only for the sake of 
God's word, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ, let 
us study to render our confession and our faith glorious 
by discreet and modest conduct, by an exemplary life, 
and by entire devotion to the service of God. Let us 
ever bear in mind that we are the sons and the fathers 
of martyrs. Let us never forget this glory, but strive 
to transmit it to our posterity." 

But the most eminent of the refugees were the 
Huguenot Pastors, some of whom were men highly 
distinguished for their piety, learning, and eloquence. 
Such were Abbadie, considered one of the ablest de- 
year, of being discovered and great difficulties I met with to 
imprisoned to force me to abjure make my escape, I wonder I have 
the Protestant religion, and the not been a stupid man ever since." 


fenders of Christianity in his day ; Saurin, one of the 
most eloquent of preachers; Allix, the learned phi- 
lologist and historian, and Delange, his colleague; 
Pineton, author of Les Larmes de Chanibrun, charac- 
terised by Michelet as " that beautiful but terrible 
recital " ; Drelincourt, Marmet, and many more. 

Jacques Abbadie was the scion of a distinguished 
Bearnese family. After completing his studies at 
Sedan and Saumur, he took his doctor's degree at the 
age of seventeen. While still a young man, he was 
invited to take charge of the French church in Berlin, 
which he accepted ; and his reputation served to at- 
tract large numbers of refugees to that city. His 
Treatise on the Truth of the Christian Religion greatly 
increased his fame, not only at Berlin, but in France, 
and throughout Europe. Madame de SeVigne, though 
rejoicing at the banishment of the Huguenots, spoke 
of it in a high strain of panegyric, as the most divine 
of all books : " I do not believe," she said, " that any 
one ever spoke of religion like this man !" Even Bussy 
Rabutin, who did not pass for a believer, said of the 
book : " We are reading it now, and we think it the 
only book in the world worth reading." A few years 
later, Abbadie published his Treatise on the Divinity 
of Jesus Christ. It is so entirely free from contro- 
versial animus, that even the Roman Catholics of 
France endeavoured to win him over to their faith. 
But they deceived themselves. For, on the death of 
the Elector, Abbadie, instead of returning to France, 
accompanied his friend Marshal Schomberg to Holland, 
and afterwards to England, in the capacity of chaplain. 
He was with the marshal during his campaigns in 
Ireland, and suffered the grief of seeing his benefactor 
fall mortally wounded at the battle of the Boyne. 

Returning to London, Abbadie became attached as 
minister to the church of the Savoy, where crowds 
flocked to hear him preach. While holding tins po- 
sition, he wrote his Art of Knowing Ones-self, in 
which he powerfully illustrated the relations of the 


human conscience to the duties inculcated by the 
Gospel. He also devoted his pen to the cause of 
William III., and published his Defence of the British 
Nation, in which he justified the deposition of James 
II., and the Revolution of 1688, on the ground of 
right and morality. In 1694 he was selected to 
pronounce the funeral oration of Queen Mary, wife of 
William III., a sermon containing many passages of 
great eloquence ; shortly after which he entered the 
English Church, and was appointed to the deanery of 
Killaloe, in which office he ended his days. 

Jacques Saurin was the greatest of the Protestant 
preachers. He was the son of an advocate at Nismes, 
whose three sons all took refuge in England Jacques, 
the pulpit-orator ; Captain Saurin, an officer in 
William's army ; and Louis, some time minister of 
the French church in the Savoy, and afterwards Dean 
of St. Patrick's, Ardagh. 1 Jacques Saurin was, in the 
early part of his life, tempted to the profession of 
arms ; and when only seventeen years of age he served 
as an ensign in the army of Savoy, under the Marquis 
de Ruvigny, Earl of Gal way. Returning to his studies 
at Geneva, he prepared himself for the ministry ; and 
having proceeded to England in 1701, he was ap- 
pointed one of the ministers of the French church in 
Threadneedle Street. He held that office for four 
years, after which he was called to the Hague, and 
there developed that talent as a preacher for which 
he became so distinguished. He was made minister- 
extraordinary to the French community of nobles, and 
held that office until his death. 

Scarcely less distinguished was Peter Allix, for some 
time pastor of the great Protestant church at Charen- 
ton, near Paris, and afterwards of the Temple of the 
French Hospital in Spitalfields, London. His style of 

1 From him were lineally de- able William Saurin, Attorney - 

scended the Right Reverend General for Ireland from 1807 

James ISaurin, Bishop of Dro- to 1821. 
more, and the Right Honour- 


preaching was less ornate, but not less forcible, than 
that of Saurin. His discourses were simple, clear, and 
persuasive. The great object which he aimed at, was 
the enforcement of union among Protestants. Louis 
XIV. tried every means to induce him to enter the 
Roman Catholic Church, and a pension was offered 
him if, in that case, he would return to France. But 
Allix resisted all such persuasions, and died in exile. 
His erudition was recognised by the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, who conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity; and, on the recom- 
mendation of Bishop Burnet, he was made canon and 
treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral. Allix left behind 
him many published works, which in their time were 
highly esteemed. 

Jacques Pineton was another of the refugee pastors 
who illustrated his faith by his life, which was pure 
and beautiful. He had personally suffered more than 
most of his brethren, and he lived to relate the story 
of his trials in his touching narrative entitled Les 
Larmes de Chambrun. He was pastor of a Protestant 
church in the village of that name, situated near 
Avignon, in the principality of Orange, when the 
district was overrun by the troops of Louis XIV. The 
dragonnade was even more furiously conducted there 
than elsewhere, because of the hatred entertained by 
the King towards the Protestant prince who took his 
title from the little principality. The troops were 
under the command of the Count of Tessd, a ferocious 
and profane officer. Pineton was laid up at the time 
by an attack of gout, the suffering from which was 
aggravated by the recent fracture of a rib which he 
had sustained. As he lay helpless on his couch, a 
party of forty-two dragoons burst into his house, 
entered his chamber, lit a number of candles, beat 
their drums round his bed, and filled the room with 
tobacco-smoke, so as almost to stifle him. They then 
drank until they fell asleep and snored ; but theii 
officers entering, roused them from their stupor by 


laying about amongst them with their canes. While 
the men were asleep, Pinetou urged his wife to fly, 
which she attempted to do ; but she was taken in the 
act and brought before Tesse', who brutally told her 
that she must regard herself as the property of the 
regiment. She fell at his feet distracted, and would 
have been lost, but that a priest to whom Pineton had 
rendered some service, offered himself as surety for 
her. The priest, however, made it a condition that 
she and her husband should abjure their religion ; and 
in a moment of agony and despair, both succumbed, 
and agreed to conform to popery. 

Remorse immediately followed, and they determined 
to take the first opportunity to fly. Upon the plea 
that Pineton, still in great pain, required surgical aid, 
he obtained leave to proceed to Lyons. He was placed 
in a litter, the slightest movement of which caused 
him indescribable pain. When the people saw him 
carried away, they wept, Catholic as well as Protes- 
tant. Even the dragoons were moved. The sufferer 
reached Lyons, where he was soon cured and declared 
convalescent. It appears that the frontier was less 
stiictly guarded near Lyons ; and with the assistance 
of a friend, Pineton shortly after contrived to escape 
in the disguise of a general officer. He set out in 
a carriage with four horses, attended by a train 
of servants in handsome liveries. At the bridge of 
Beauvoisin, where a picket of dragoons was posted, he 
was allowed to cross without interruption, the soldiers 
having previously been informed that " my lord " was 
a great officer travelling express into Switzerland. 
There was, however, still the frontier guard of the 
Duke of Savoy to pass. It commanded the great road 
across the Alps, and was maintained for the express 
purpose of preventing the escape of Huguenots. By 
the same bold address, and feigning great indignation 
at the guard attempting to obstruct his passage, 
Pineton was allowed to proceed, and shortly after he 
reached Chambery. Next morning he entered the 


French gate of Geneva, giving expression to bis feel- 
ings by singing the eighth verse of the twenty-sixth 

" Que j'aime ce saint lieu 
Oil Tu parois, mon Dieu," etc. 

Madame Pineton was less fortunate in her flight. 
She set out for the Swiss frontier accompanied by 
three ladies belonging to Lyons. The guides whom 
they had hired and paid to conduct them, had the 
barbarity to desert them in the mountains. It was 
winter. They wandered and lost their way. They 
were nine hours in the snow. They were driven away 
from Cardon, and pursued along the Rhone. The 
Lyons ladies, vanquished by cold, fatigue, and hunger, 
wished to return to Lyons and give themselves up; 
they could endure no longer. But Madame Pineton 
hoped that by this time her husband had reached 
Geneva; and she found courage for them all. She 
would not listen to the proposal to go back ; she must 
go forward ; arid the contest ended in their proceed- 
ing, and arriving at last at Geneva, and there finding 
safety and liberty. The pastor Pineton, after remain- 
ing for a short time in that city, proceeded towards 
Holland, where he was graciously received by the 
Prince of Orange. Having been appointed one of the 
Princess's chaplains, he accompanied Mary to London, 
and was appointed a canon of Windsor. He did not, 
however, live long to enjoy his dignity, for he died 
in 1689, the year after his arrival in England ; though 
he lived to give to the world the touching narrative 
of his adventures and sufferings. 

Many of the most distinguished of the French 
pastors were admitted to degrees in the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge ; and several, besides the 
above, held benefices in the English Church. In 1682, 
when the learned Samuel de 1' Angle was created D.D. 
of Oxford without payment of the customary fees, he 
was conducted into the House of Convocation by the 
King's professor of divinity, and all the masters stood 


up to receive him. De 1'Angle had been the chief 
preacher in the temple of Charenton, near Paris ; and 
after thirty-five years of zealous work there, he fled 
from France with his family, to end his days in 
England. He was afterwards made prebendary of 
Canterbury and Westminster. Peter Drelincourt, son 
of the famous French divine, whose work on Death, l 
has been translated into nearly all the languages of 
Europe, was another refugee who entered the Church, 
and became Dean of Armagh. Dr. Hans de Veille, 
a man of great learning, having also entered the 
Church, was made library-keeper at Lambeth Palace 
by Dr. Tillotson. then Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Though many of the most eminent French ministers 
joined the Established Church of England, others 
equally learned and able became preachers and pro- 
fessors among the Dissenters. While Pierre du Moulin 
was a prebendary of Canterbury, his brother Louis 
was a stout Presbyterian. Charles Marie du Veil, 
originally a Jew, was first converted to Roman Catho- 
licism, next to Protestantism, and ended by becoming a 
Baptist minister. But the most eminent of the refugees 
who joined the Dissenters was the Reverend James 
Capell, who had held the professorship of Hebrew in 
the University of Saumur at the early age of nineteen. 
He fled into England shortly after the Revocation, and 
in 1708 he accepted a professor's chair at the Dissenters' 
College in Hoxton Square. There he long continued 
to teach the Oriental languages and their critical ap- 
plication in the study of the Scriptures ; and he per- 
formed his duties with such distinguished ability that 
the institution came to enjoy a very high repute. 
Many of the ablest ministers of the next generation, 
Churchmen as well as Dissenters, studied under Mr. 
Capell, and received from him their best education. 

1 Les Consolations de I'Amt than forty times in France, and 
fiddle centre les Frayeurs de la many times in England in its 
Mart has been reprinted more translated form. 



He held the office for fourteen years, and died at 
eighty-three, the last of his family. 

Of the ministersof the French churches in London, be- 
sides those already named, the most distinguished were 
the Reverend Charles Bertheau, minister of the French 
church in Threadneedle Street, who officiated in that 
capacity with great ability for a period of forty-six 
years ; the Reverend Henri Chatelain, 1 minister of the 
French church in St. Martin's Lane ; the Reverend 
Csesar Pegorier, minister of the Artillery and Taber- 
nacle churches, and author of numerous controversial 
works ; the Reverend Henri Rochblave, minister of the 
refugee church at Greenwich, and afterwards of the 
French Chapel-Royal, St. James's; the Reverend Daniel 
Chamier, minister of the French church in Leicester- 
fields ; and the Reverend Jean Graver ol, minister of 
the French churches of Swallow Street and the Quarrd 
a voluminous and eloquent writer. The Reverend 
Antoine Peres (formerly professor of Oriental languages 
in the University of Montauban) and Ezekiel Marmet, 
were ministers of other French churches, and were 
greatly beloved, Marmet's book of meditations on the 
words of Job, " I know that my Redeemer liveth," 
being prized by devout readers of all persuasions. 

The Reverend Claude de la Mothe and Jean Armand 
du Bourdieu were ministers of the French church in the 
Savoy, the principal West-end congregation, frequented 
by the most distinguished of the refugees. Both these 
ministers were eminent for their learning and their 
eloquence. The former was of a noble Huguenot family 
named Grostete. He studied law when a youth at 

1 Henri Chatelain was the great- was zealous from the fifteenth 

grandson of Simon Chatelain, of year of his age to the eighty-fifth, 

Paris, the famous Protestant which was his last. He died in 

manufacturer of gold and silver 1675, leaving more than eighty 

lace. This lace was a much descendants, who all paid fines 

prized article. It procured for for openly attending his funeral, 

the steadfast Huguenot the tole- AGNEW French Protestant 

ration of his religion, in which he Exile. 237. 


Orleans, his native city, where he took the degree of Doc- 
tor of Civil Law. He was also a member of the Royal 
Society of Berlin. He practised for some time at Paris 
as an advocate, but subsequently left law for divinity, 
and was appointed pastor of the church at Lisy in 1675. 
At the Revocation he fled to England with his wife, 
and was selected one of the ministers of the church in 
the Savoy. He was the author of numerous works, 
which enjoyed a high reputation in his day. He also 
devoted much of his time to correspondence, with the 
object of obtaining the release of Protestant martyrs 
from the French galleys. 

Jean Armand du Bourdieu, the colleague of De la 
Mothe, though celebrated as a preacher, was still 
more distinguished as an author. Like himself, his 
father was a refugee divine, and preached in London 
until his ninety-fifth year. Jean. Armand had been 
pastor of a church at Montpelier, which he left at the 
Revocation, and came over to England, followed by a 
large number of his flock. He was chaplain to the 
three dukes of Schomberg in succession, and was by 
the old duke's side when he fell at the Boyne. In 
1707 he preached a sermon in London, which was 
afterwards published, wherein he alluded to Louis XIV. 
as a Pharaoh to the oppressed Protestants of France. 
The French king singled him out from the many 
refugee preachers in England, and demanded, through 
his minister, that he should be punished. Louis' com- 
plaint was formally referred to the Bishao of London 
the French church in the Savoy being under his 
jurisdiction, and Du Bourdieu was summoned before 
his Grace at Fulham Palace to answer the charge. 
After reading and considering the memorial of the 
French ambassador, the pastor was asked what he had 
to say to it. He replied that " during the war he had, 
after the example of several prelates and clergymen 
of the Church of England, preached freely against the 
common enemy and persecutor of the Church ; and the 
greatest part of his sermons being printed with his 


name affixed, he was far from disowning them ; but 
since the proclamation of the peace [of Utrecht], he had 
not said anything that did in the least regard the 
French king." No further steps were taken in the 

Du Bourdieu continued indefatigably active on behalf 
of his oppressed brethren in France during the re- 
mainder of his life. His pen was seldom idle, and his 
winged words flew abroad and kept alive the indig- 
nation of the Protestant north against the persecutors 
of his countrymen. In 1717 he published two works, 
one " A Vindication of our Martyrs at the Galleys ; " 
another, " A Comparison of the Penal Laws of France 
against Protestants with those of England against 
Papists ! " and, in the following year, " An Appeal to 
the English Nation." He was now an old man of 
seventy ; but his fire burned to the last. Two years 
later he died, beloved and lamented by all who knew 
him. 1 

There is little reason to doubt that the earnestness, 
eloquence, and learning of this distinguished band of 
exiles for conscience' sake exercised an influence, not 
only on English religion and politics, but also on 
English literature, which continues to operate to this 

1 A great-grandson of Du the French commandant, who 

Bourdieu, Captain Saumarez Du- said, on presenting it : " My mis- 

bourdieu, was an officer in the fortune is the lighter, as I am 

British army at the capture of conquered by a Dubourdieu, a 

Martinique from the French in beloved relative. My name is 

.762. He received the sword of Dubourdieu 1 " 



WE now come to the immigration and settlement in 
England of Huguenot merchants, manufacturers, and 
artizans, which exercised a still greater influence on 
English industry than the immigration of French 
literati and divines did upon English literature. 

It is computed that about 100,000 French manu- 
facturers and workmen fled into England in conse- 
quence of the Revocation, besides those who took 
refuge in Switzerland, Germany, and Holland. When 
the Huguenot employers of labour shut up their works in 
France and prepared to emigrate, their workmen usually 
arranged to follow them. Protestant masters and men 
converted what they could into money, and made for 
the coast, accompanied by their families. The paper- 
makers of Angoumois left their mills ; the silk-makers 
of Touraine left their looms ; the tanners of Normandy 
left their pits ; the vine-dressers and farmers of Saint- 
onge, Poitou, and La Rochelle, left their vineyards, 
their farms, and their gardens, and looked into the 
wide world, seawards, for a new home and refuge, 
where they might work and worship in peace. 

The principal immigration into England was from 
Normandy and Brittany. 1 Upwards of 10,000 of the 

1 FLOQUET, the accredited his- vicinity of the sea, and of their 

torian of Normandy (Histoircdu connection with England and 

Parlement de Normandic), cal- Holland, to abandon their coun- 

culates that not less than 184,000 try. 
Protestants took advantage of the 


industrial class left Rouen; and several thousand 
persons, principally engaged in the maritime trade, 
set out from Caen, leaving that city to solitude and 
poverty. The whole Protestant population of Cou- 
tances emigrated, and the fine linen manufactures of 
the place were at once extinguished. There was a 
similar flight of masters and men from Elboeuf, 
Alenc.on, Caudebec, Havre, and other northern towns. 
The makers of noyal and white linen cloths, for which 
a ready market had been obtained abroad, left Nantes, 
Rennes, and Morlaix in Brittany, and Le Mans and 
Laval in Maine, and went over to England to carry 
on their manufactures there. The provinces further 
north, also largely contributed to swell the stream of 
emigration into England : the cloth-makers departed 
from Amiens, Abbeville, and Doullens; the gauze- 
makers and lace-makers from Lille and Valenciennes ; 
and artizans of all kinds from the various towns and 
cities of the interior. 

Notwithstanding the precautions taken by the 
French government, and the penalty of death or 
condemnation to the galleys for life, to which people 
were subject who were taken in the act of flight, the 
emigration could not be stopped. The fugitives were 
helped on their way by their fellow-Protestants, and 
often by Roman Catholics themselves, who pitied their 
sad fate. The fugitives lay concealed in barns and 
farmyards by day, and travelled by night towards the 
coast. There the maritime population, many of whom 
were Protestants like themselves, actively connived at 
their escape. France presented too wide a reach ot 
sea-frontier, extending from Bayonne to Calais, to be 
effectively watched by any coast-guards ; and not only 
the French, but the English and Dutch merchant- 
ships, which hovered about the coast waiting for the 
agreed signal to put in and take on board their freight 
of fugitives, had comparatively little difficulty in 
carrying them off in safety. 

Of those fugitives who succeeded in making good 


their escape, the richest took refuge in Holland ; while 
the bulk of those who settled in England were persons 
of comparatively small means. Yet a considerable 
sum of ready-money must have been brought over by 
the refugees, as we find the French ambassador writing 
to Louis XIV. in 1687, that as much as 960,000 louis 
dor had already been sent to the Mint for conversion 
into English money. 1 This was, however, the property 
of a comparatively small number of wealthy families ; 
fo: the greater proportion of those who landed in 
England were all but destitute. 

Prompt steps were taken for the relief of the poorer 
immigrants. Collections were made in the churches ; 
public subscriptions were raised ; and Parliament voted 
2onsiderable sums from the public purse. Thus a fund 
of nearly 200,000 was collected and invested for the 
benefit of the refugees, the annual interest, about 
15,000, being intrusted to a committee for distribu- 
tion among the most necessitous ; while about 2000 
a year was applied towards the support of the poor 
French ministers and their respective churches. The 
pressure on the relief fund was of course greatest in 
those years immediately following the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, before the destitute foreigners had 
been able to maintain themselves by their respective 
callings. There was also a large number of destitute 
landed gentry, professional men, and pastors, to whom 
the earning of a livelihood was extremely difficult; 
and these also had to be relieved out of the fund. 

From the first report of the French Relief Committee, 
dated December, 1687 that is, only fourteen months 
after the Revocation it appears that 15,500 refugees 
had been relieved in the course of the year. "Of 
these," says Weiss, "13,050 were settled in London, 

1 MACPHERSON says, " I have another, they brought 60 each 

seen a computation, at the low- in money or effects, whereby 

est supposition, of only 50,000 of they added three millions ster- 

those people coming to Great ling to the wealth of Britain." 

Britain, and that, one with Annals of Commerce, ii. 617. 


and 2000 in the different seaport towns where they 
had disembarked. Amongst them the committee dis- 
tinguishes 140 persons of quality with their families ; 
143 ministers; 144 lawyers, physicians, traders, and 
burghers. It designates the others under the general 
denomination of artizans and workmen. The persois 
of quality received weekly assistance in money through- 
out the whole of that year. Their sons were placed in 
the best commercial houses. About 150 of them aa- 
tered the army, and were provided, at the cost of the 
committee, with a complete outfit. The ministers ob- 
tained for themselves and their families pensions whiih 
were regularly paid. Their sons found employment In 
the houses of rich merchants or of persons of quality. 
Weekly assistance was 'granted to the sick, and tc 
those whose great age prevented them earning their 
living by labour. The greater part of the artizans and 
workmen were employed in the English manufactories. 
The committee supplied them with the necessary im- 
plements and tools, and provided, at the same time, for 
their other wants. Six hundred of them, for whom it 
could not find employment in England, were sent at its 
cost to America. Fifteen French churches were also 
erected out of the proceeds of the national subscription, 
three in London, and twelve in the vaiious counties 
where the greater number of the refugees had settled." 1 
The help thus generously given to the distressed 
refugees by the nation, was very shortly rendered 
unnecessary through the vigorous efforts which they 
made to help themselves. They sought about in all 
directions for employment; and being ingenious, in- 
telligent, and industrious, they gradually succeeded in 
obtaining it. French workpeople are better econo- 
mists than the English, and less sufficed for their 
wants. They were satisfied if they could keep a roof 
over their heads, a clean fireside, and the pot-au-feu 
going. What English artizans despised as food they 

1 WEISS History of the French Protestant Refugees, p. 224. 


could make a meal of. For they brought with them 
from France the art of cooking the art of economising 
nutriment and at the same time presenting it in the 
most savoury forms an art almost entirely unknown 
even at this day in the homes of English workmen, 
and the want of which occasions enormous national 
loss. Before the arrival of the refugees, the London 
butchers sold their bullocks' hides to the fellmongers 
always with the tails on. The tails were thrown 
away and wasted. Who could ever dream of eating 
oxen's tails ? The refugees profited by the delusion. 
They obtained the tails, enriched their pots-au-feu 
with them, and revelled in the now well-known deli- 
cacy of ox-tail soup. 

The refugees were also very helpful of one another. 
The richer helped the poorer, and the poorer helped 
each other. The Marquis de Ruvigny kept almost open 
house, and was equally ready to open his purse to his 
distressed countrymen. Those who had the means of 
starting manufactories and workshops, employed as 
many hands as they could; and such of the men as 
earned wages, helped to support those who remained 
unemployed. Being of foreign birth, and having no 
claim upon the poor-rates, the French artizans formed 
themselves into societies for mutual relief in sick- 
ness and old age. These were the first societies of 
the kind established by workmen in England, though 
they have since been largely imitated; 1 and the Odd- 
fellows, Foresters, and numerous other benefit societies 
of the labouring class, though they may not know it, 

1 One of the oldest of the French mostly bearing French names; 

benefit societies was the " Nor- but at length the foreign element 

man Society " of Bethnal Green, became so mixed with the English 

which only ceased to exist in that it almost ceased to be recog- 

1863, after a life of upwards of nisable, and the society may be 

150 years. Down to the year said to have died out with the 

1800, the whole of the society's absorption of the distinctive class 

accounts were kept in French, for whose benefit it was originally 

the members being the descen- instituted, 
dants of French Protestants, 


are but following in the path long since chalked out for 
them by the French refugees. 

The working-class immigrants very soon settled 
down to the practice of their respective callings in 
different parts of the country. A large proportion of 
them settled in London, and several districts of the 
metropolis were almost entirely occupied by them. 
Spitalfields, Bethnal Green, and Soho were the princi- 
pal French quarters, where French was spoken in the 
workshops, in the schools and churches, and in the 
streets. But the immigrants also distributed them- 
selves in other districts: many of them settled in 
Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Shoreditch, and the quarters ad- 
joining Thames Street. A little colony of them settled 
in one of the streets leading from Broad Street to the 
Guildhall, which came to be called " Petty France," 
from the number of French who inhabited it. Others 
settled in Long Acre, the Seven Dials, and the 
neighbourhood of Temple Bar. Le Mann, the famous 
biscuit maker, opened his shop and flourished near the 
Royal Exchange. Some opened shops for the manu- 
facture and sale of cutlery and mathematical and sur- 
gical instruments, in the Strand; while others began 
the making of watches, the fabrication of articles in 
gold and silver, and the cutting and mounting of 
jewellery, in which the French artizans were then 
admitted to be the most expert in Europe. 

France had long been the leader of fashion, and all 
the world bought dress and articles of virtu at Paris. 
Colbert was accustomed to say that the Fashions were 
worth more to France than the mines of Peru were to 
Spain. Only articles of French manufacture, with a 
French name, could find purchasers amongst people of 
fashion in London. " The fondness of the nation for 
French Commodities was such," says Joshua Gee, "that 
it was a very hard matter to bring them into love with 
those made at home." 1 Goods to the amount of above 

1 JOSHUA GEE The Trade and Navigation of Great Britain con- 


two and a half millions sterling were annually im- 
ported from France, whereas the value of English goods 
exported thither did not amount to a million. 

The principal articles imported from France previous 
to the Revocation, were velvets and satins from Lyons; 
silks and taffetas from Tours ; silk ribands, galloons, 
laces, gloves, and buttons from Paris and Rouen ; serges 
from Chalons, Rheims, Amiens, and various towns in 
Picardy ; beaver and felt hats from Paris, Rouen, and 
Lyons ; paper of all sorts from Auvergne, Poitou, 
Limousin, Champagne, Normandy ; ironmongery and 
cutlery from Forrests, Auvergne ; linen cloth from 
Brittany and Normandy; salt from Rochelle and Oleron, 
Isle of Rhe'; wines from Gascony, Nantes, and Bordeaux; 
and feathers, fans, girdles, pins, needles, combs, soap, 
aqua-vitie, vinegar, and various sorts of household 
stuffs, from different parts of France. 

So soon, however, as the French artizans had settled 
in London, they proceeded to establish and carry on 
the same manufactures which they had worked at 
abroad ; and a large portion of the stream of gold which 
before had flowed into France, now flowed into Eng- 
land. They introduced all the manufactures connected 
with the fashions, so that English customers became 
supplied with French-made articles, without requiring 
to send abroad money to buy them ; while the refugees 
obtained a ready sale for all the goods which they could 
make, at remunerative prices. " Nay," says a writer of 
the time, " the English have now so great an esteem 
for the workmanship of the French refugees, that 
hardly anything vends without a Gallic name." 1 The 
French beavers, which had before been imported from 
Caudebec in France, were now made in the borough of 
Southwark and at Wandsworth, where several hat- 
makers began their operations on a considerable scale. 2 

1 History of the Trade in Eng- brought into England by the re- 
land ' : London, 1702. fugees. In France it had been 

2 Hat-making was one of the almost entirely in the haitds of 
most important manufactures the Protestants. They alone 


Others introduced the manufacture of buttons, of wool, 
silk, and metal, which before had been made almost 
exclusively in France. The printing of calicoes was 
introduced by a refugee, who established a manufac- 
tory for the purpose near Richmond. Other print- 
works were started at Bromley in Essex, from whence 
the manufacture was afterwards removed into Lanca- 
shire. A French refugee, named Passavant, purchased 
the tapestry-manufactory at Fulham, originally estab- 
lished by the Walloons, which had fallen into decay. 
His first attempts at reviving the manufacture not 
having proved successful, he removed the works to 
Exeter, where he established them prosperously, with 
the assistance of some workmen whom he obtained from 
the Gobelins at Paris. 

But the most important branch of manufacture to 
which the refugees devoted themselves, and in which 
they achieved both fame and wealth, was the silk 
manufacture in all its branches. The silk fabrics of 
France its satins, brocades, velvets, paduasoys, figured 
and plain were celebrated throughout the world, and 
were eagerly purchased. As much as 200,000 livres 
worth of black lustrings were annually bought by the 
English. They were made expressly for their market, 
and were known as " English tafFeties." Shortly after 
the Revocation, not only was the whole of this fabric 
made in England, but large quantities were manufac- 
tured for foreign exportation. 

The English government had long envied France 
her possession of the silk manufacture, which gave em- 
ployment to a large number of people, and was a source 

possessed the secret of the liquid which was lost to France for 

composition which serves to pre- about forty years. During this 

pare rabbit, hare, and beaver period, the French nobility, and 

skins. They alone supplied Eng- all persons making pretensions 

land and Holland with fine hats, to dress, wore none but English 

principally from Caudebec. After hats. Even the Roman cardinals 

the Revocation, most of the hat- got their hats from the celebrated 

makers went to London, and took manufactory at Wandsworth, es- 

with them the secret of their art, tablished by the refugees I 


of much wealth to the country. An attempt was 
made in the reign of Elizabeth to introduce the manu- 
facture in England, and it was repeated in the reign of 
James I. The corporation of the city of London also 
encouraged the manufacture. We find from their re- 
cords, that, in 1609, they admitted to the freedom of 
the city one Robert Therie or Thierry, on account of 
his skill and invention ; and as " being the first in 
England who hath made stuffes of silk, the which was 
made by the silkworm nourished here in England." 
One M. Brumelach was also invited over from France, 
with sundry silk throwsters, weavers, and dyers, and 
a beginning was made in the manufacture ; but it 
was not until the influx of Protestant refugees after 
the Revocation, that the silk manufacture took root 
and began to flourish. 

The workmen of Tours and Lyons brought with 
them the arts which had raised the manufactures of 
France to such a height of prosperity. They erected 
their looms in Spitalfields, and there practised their 
modes of weaving, turning out large quantities of 
lustrings, velvets, and mingled stuffs of silk and wool, 
of such excellence as to insure for them a ready sale 
everywhere. Weiss says that the figured silks which 
proceeded from the London manufactories were due 
almost exclusively to the skill and industry of three 
refugees Lanson, Mariscot, and Monceaux. The artist 
who supplied the designs was another refugee, named 
Beaudoin. A common workman named Mongeorge 
brought them the secret, recently discovered at Lyons, 
of giving lustre to silk taffety ; and Spitalfields 
thenceforward enjoyed a large share of the trade for 
which Lyons had been so famous. 

To protect the English manufactures, the import 
duties on French silks were at first trebled. In 1692, 
five years after the Revocation, the manufacturers of 
lustrings and alamode silks were incorporated by 
charter under the name of the Royal Lustring Com- 
pany; shortly after which they obtained from Parlia- 


ment an Act entirely prohibiting the importation of 
foreign goods of like sorts. Strange to say, one of the 
grounds on which they claimed this degree of protec- 
tion was, that the manufacture of these articles in 
England had now reached a greater degree of per- 
fection than was attained by foreigners, a reason 
which ought to have rendered them independent of 
all legislative interference in their favour. Certain 
it is, however, that by the end of the century the 
French manufacturers in England were not only able 
to supply the whole of the English demand, but to 
export considerable quantities of their goods to those 
countries which France had formerly supplied. 

One of the most remunerative branches of business 
was the manufacture of silk stockings, which the Eng- 
lish then shared with the French artizans. This trade 
was due to the invention of the stocking-frame by 
William Lee, M.A., about the year 1600. Not being 
able to find any encouragement for his invention in 
England, he went over to Rouen in 1605, on the invi- 
tation of the French minister Sully, to instruct the 
French operatives in the construction and working of 
the machine. Nine of the frames were in full work, 
and Lee enjoyed a prospect of honour and competency, 
when, unhappily for him, his protector, Henry IV., was 
assassinated by the fanatic Ravaillac. The patronage 
which had been extended to him was at once with- 
drawn, on which Lee proceeded to Paris to press his 
claims upon the government. But he had the misfor- 
tune to be a foreigner, and, worst of all, a Protestant. 
His claims were therefore disregarded, and he shortly 
after died at Paris in extreme distress. 

Two of Lee's machines were left at Rouen ; the rest 
were brought over to England ; and in course of time, 
considerable improvements were made in the inven- 
tion. The stocking-trade became so considerable a 
branch of business, that in 1654 we find the frame- 
work-knitters petitioning Oliver Cromwell to grant 
them a charter of incorporation. The Protector did 


not confer upon them the monopoly of manufacture 
which they sought. Accordingly, when the French 
refugees settled amongst us, they were as free to make 
use of Lee's invention as the English themselves were. 
Hence the manufacture of silk hosiery by the stocking- 
frame, soon became a leading branch of trade in 
Spitalfields, and English hose were in demand all 
over Europe. Keysler, the traveller, writing as late as 
1730, remarks that "at Naples, when a tradesman 
would highly recommend his silk stockings, he in- 
variably protests that they are right English." 

In a petition presented to Parliament by the 
weavers' company in 1713, it was stated that owing 
to the encouragement afforded by the Crown and by 
divers Acts of the legislature, the silk manufacture at 
that time was twenty times greater in amount than it 
had been in 16G4 ; that all sorts of black and coloured 
silks, gold and silver stuffs, and ribands were made 
here as good as those of French fabric ; that black silk 
for hoods and scarfs, which, twenty-five years before, 
was all imported, was now made here to the annual 
value of 300,000, whereby a great increase had been 
occasioned in the exportation of woollen and other 
manufactured goods to Turkey and Italy, whence the 
raw silk was imported. Such, amongst others, were 
the effects of the settlement in London of the French 
refugee artizans. 

Although the manufacture of glass had been intro- 
duced into England before the arrival of the French 
artizans, it made comparatively small progress until 
they took it in hand. Mr. Pellatt, in his lecture on 
the manufacture of glass, delivered before the Royal 
Institution, attributed the establishment of the manu- 
facture to the Huguenot refugees, most of the technical 
terms still used in glass-making being derived from 
the French. Thus, the " found " is the melting of the 
materials into glass, from the French word fondre. 
The " siege " is the place or seat in which the crucible 
stands. The " kinney " is the corner of the furnace, 

272 PAPER-VAKIXti. CHAP. xv. 

probably from coin or chemintfe. The "journey," 
denoting the time of making glass from the beginning 
of the "found," is obviously fromjourntfe. The "fou- 
shart," or fork used to move the sheet of glass into the 
annealing-kiln, is from fourchette, The " marmre " is 
the slab, formerly of marble, but now of iron, on which 
the ball of hot glass is rolled. And so on with " cullet " 
(coule glass run off, or broken glass), " pontil " 
(pointfo) ; and other words obviously of French and 
Flemish origin. 

The Parisian glass-makers were especially celebrated 
for the skill with which they cast large plates for 
mirrors ; and, shortly after the Revocation, when a 
large number of these valuable workmen took refuge 
in England, a branch of that manufacture was estab- 
lished by Abraham Thavenart, which proved highly 
successful. Other works were started for the making 
of crystal, in which the French greatly excelled ; and 
before long, not only were they able to supply the 
home market, but to export large quantities of glass of 
the best sorts to Holland and other European countries. 

For the improvement of English paper, also, we 
are largely indebted to the refugees to the master 
manufacturers and their artizans who swarmed over to 
England from the paper-mills of Angoumois. Before 
the Revocation, the paper made in this country was 
of the common " whitey-brown " sort coarse and 
inelegant. All the best sorts were imported from 
abroad, mostly from France. But soon after the 
Revocation, the import of paper ceased, and the refu- 
gees were able to supply us with as good an article 
as could be bought elsewhere. The first manufactory 
for fine paper was established by the refugees in 
London in 1685 ; but other mills were shortly after 
begun by them in Kent, at Maidstone and along the 
Darent, as well as in other parts of England. 1 That 

1 The Patent Office Records French exiles in the province of 
clearly show the activity of the invention, by the numerous p.i- 


the leading workmen employed in the first fine-paper 
mills were French and Flemish is shown by the dis- 
tinctive terms of the trade still in use. Thus, in 
Kent, the man who lays the sheets on the felts is the 
coucher ; the fateman, or vatman, is the Flemish f ass- 
man ; and the room where the finishing operations are 
performed is still called the satte. 

One of the most distinguished of the refugee paper- 
manufacturers, was Henry de Portal. The Portals 
were an ancient and noble family in the South of 
France, of Albigeois descent, who stood firm by the 
faith of their fathers. Several of them suffered 
death rather than recant. Toulouse was for many 
generations the home of the Portals, where they held 
and exercised the highest local authority. Several 
of them in succession were elected "Capitoul," a 
position of great dignity and power in that city. 
When the persecution of the Albigeois set in, the De 
Portals put themselves at their head ; but they were 
unable to stand against the tremendous power of the 
Inquisition. They fled from Toulouse in different 
directions some to Nismes, and others into the neigh- 
bourhood of Bordeaux. Some of them perished in the 
massacres which occurred throughout France subse- 
quent to the night of Saint Bartholomew at Paris; 
and they continued to suffer during the century that 
ended in the Revocation; yet still they remained 
constant to their faith. 

When the reign of terror began in the South of 
France, under Louis XVI., Louis de Portal was residing 

tents taken out by them for de Grouchy, J. de May, and R. 

printing, spinning, weaving, Shales, taking out a patent for 

paper-making, and other arts. making writing and printing 

Such names as Blondeau, Dupin, paper, having " lately brought 

De Cardonels, Le Blon, Ducleu, out of France excellent workmen 

Pousset, Gastineau, Couran, Paul, and already set up several new- 

etc., are found constantly re- invented mills and engines for 

curring in the lists of patentees making thereof, not heretofore 

for many years subsequent to the used in England." [See Abridg- 

Revocation. In 1686 we find M. ment of Specifications relating to 

Dupin, A. de Cardonels, C. R. M. Printing, p. 82.] 



at his Chateau de la Portalerie, seven leagues from 
Bordeaux. To escape the horrors of the dragonnades, 
he set out with his wife and five children to take 
refuge on his estate in the Cevennes. The dragoons 
pursued the family to their retreat, overtook them, and 
cut down the father, mother, and one of the children. 
They also burnt to the ground the house in which 
they had taken refuge. The remaining four children 
concealed themselves in an oven outside the building, 
and were thus saved. 

The four orphans three boys and a girl immedi- 
ately determined to make for the coast and escape 
from France by sea. After a long and perilous journey 
on foot exhausted by fatigue and wanting food they 
at length reached Montauban, where little Pierre, the 
youngest, fell down fainting with hunger at the door of 
a baker's shop. The humane baker took up the child, 
carried him into the house, and fed and cherished 
him. The other three Henry, William, and Mary de 
Portal though grieving to leave their brother behind 
them, again set out on foot, and pressed onward to 

They were so fortunate as to secure a passage by a 
merchant- vessel, on board of which they were shipped, 
concealed in barrels. They were among the last of 
the refugees who escaped, previous to the issue of the 
infamous order to fumigate all departing vessels, so as to 
stifle any Protestant fugitives who might be concealed 
in the cargo. The youthful refugees reached Holland, 
where they found friends and foster-parents, and were 
shortly in a position to assert the dignity of their 
birth. Miss Portal succeeded in obtaining a situation 
as governess in the family of the Countess of Finken- 
stein. She afterwards married M. Lenormant, a refugee 
settled at Amsterdam ; while Henry and William fol- 
lowed the fortunes of the Prince of Orange, accom- 
panied him into England, and established the family of 
De Portal in this country. l 

1 William entered the church late in life. He was nominated 


Henry, the elder brother, having learnt the art of 
paper-making, started a mill of his own at Laverstoke 
on the Itchin, near Whitchurch in Hampshire, where 
he achieved high reputation as a paper-manufacturer. 
He carried on his business with great spirit, gather- 
ing round him the best French and Dutch workmen. 
He shortly brought his work to so high a degree of 
perfection, that the Bank of England gave him the 
privilege, which a descendant of the family still enjoys, 
of supplying them with the paper for bank-notes. 
Henry de Portal had resolved to rebuild the fortunes 
of his house on English ground ; and he did it nobly 
by his skill, his integrity, and his industry. 

The De Portals of Freefolk Priors re-established 
themselves among the aristocratic order to which 
they originally belonged ; and their sons and daughters 
formed alliances with some of the noblest families in 
England. The youngest brother, Pierre de Portal, 
who had been left fainting at the door of the baker 
at Montauban, was brought up to manhood by the 
baker, held to his Protestantism, and eventually set 
up as a cloth-manufacturer in France. He prospered, 
married, and his sons grew up around him, one of them 
eventually becoming lord of Penardieres. His grandson 
Alberedes, also faithful to the creed of his fathers, rose 
to high office, having been appointed minister of 
marine and the colonies, councillor of state, and a peer 
of France, at the restoration of the Bourbons. The 
present baron, Pierre Paul Frederick de Portal, main- 
tains the ancient reputation of the family; and to his 
highly interesting work, entitled Les Descendants des 
Albigeois et des Huguenots, ou Mrfmoires de la Famille 
de Portal (Paris 18GO), we are mainly indebted for the 
above facts relating to the family. 

"Various other branches of manufacture were either 

tutor to Prince George, after- ham Portal, whose poetical works 

wards George III., and held the were published in 1781, was hia 

livings of Clowne in Derbyshire, grandson, 
and Farnbridge in Essex. Abra- 


established or greatly improved by the refugees. At 
Canterbury they swelled the ranks of the silk-manu- 
facturers; so much so, that in 1694 they possessed 
1000 looms, giving employment to nearly 3000 work- 
men, though, for the convenience of the trade, the 
greater number of them subsequently removed to 
Spitalfields. Many of the immigrants also found their 
way to Norwich, where they carried on with great 
success the manufacture of lustrings, brocades, padua- 
soys, tabinets, and velvets ; while others carried on the 
making of cutlery, clocks, and watches. The fifty 
years that followed the settlement of the French 
refugees in Norwich, formed the most prosperous 
period in the history of that city. Another body of 
refugees settled at Ipswich in 1681, where they began 
the manufacture of fine linen, before then imported 
from France. The elders and deacons of the French 
church in Threadneedle Street raised the necessary 
funds for their support until they could maintain 
themselves by their industry. They were organised 
and superintended by a refugee from Paris named 
Bonhomme, 1 one of the most skilled manufacturers in 
France. To the manufacture of linen, another of sail- 
cloth was added, and England was enabled entirely to 
dispense with any further supply of the foreign-made 

The lace-manufacture, introduced originally by the 
Walloon refugees, was also increased and improved by 
the influx of Huguenot lace-makers, principally from 
Burgundy and Normandy. Some established them- 
selves in London, while others betook themselves to the 
adjoining counties settling at Buckingham, Newport- 
Pagnel, and Stony Stratford, from whence the manu- 

1 In 1681, Savil wrote from " This man will be able to give 

Paris to Jenkins, then Secretary you some lights into the method 

of State, to announce the ap- of bringing the manufacture of 

preaching departure of Bon- sail-cloth in England." 
homme and all his family, adding, 


facture extended into Oxford, Northampton, Cambridge, 
and the adjoining counties. 

Some of the exiles went as far north as Scotland, 
and settled there. Thus, a colony of weavers from 
Picardy, in France, began the manufacture of linen in 
a suburb of Edinburgh near the head of Leith Walk, 
long after known as " Little Picardy," the name still 
surviving in Picardy Place. Others of them built a 
silk-factory, and laid out a mulberry plantation on the 
slope of Moultrie Hill, then an open common. The 
refugees were sufficiently numerous in Edinburgh to 
form a church, of which the Rev. Mr. Dupont was 
appointed minister; and William III., in 1693, granted 
to the city a duty of two pennies on each pint of ale, 
out of which 2000 marks were to be paid yearly to- 
wards the maintenance of the ministers of the French 
congregation. At Glasgow, one of the refugees succeeded 
in establishing a paper-mill, the first in that part of 
Scotland. The Huguenot who erected it escaped from 
France accompanied only by his little daughter. For 
some time after his arrival in Glasgow, he maintained 
himself by picking up rags in the streets. But, by 
dint of thrift and diligence, he eventually contrived to 
accumulate sufficient means to enable him to start his 
paper-mill, and thus to lay the foundation of an impor- 
tant branch of Scottish industry. 

In short, there was scarcely a branch of trade in 
Great Britain, but at once felt the beneficial effects of 
the large influx of experienced workmen from France. 
Besides improving those manufactures which had al- 
ready been established, they introduced many entirely 
new branches of industry; and by their skill, their 
intelligence, and their laboriousness, they richly repaid 
England for the hospitality and the asylum which had 
been so generously extended to them in their time of 



THE vast number of French Protestants who fled into 
England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, led 
to a large increase in the number of French churches. 
This was especially the case in London, which was the 
principal seat of the immigration. It may serve to 
give the reader an idea of the large admixture of 
Huguenot blood in the London population, when we 
state that about the beginning of last century, at which 
time the population of the metropolis was not one- 
fourth of what it is now, there were no fewer than 
thirty-five French churches in London and the sub- 
urbs. Of these, eleven were in Spitalfields, showing 
the preponderance of the French settlers in that 

The French church in Threadneedle Street, the 
oldest in London, was in a measure the cathedral 
church of the Huguenots. Thither the refugees usually 
repaired on their arrival in London, and such of them 
as had been compelled to abj ure their faith, in order to 
avoid the penalty of death or condemnation to the gal- 
leys, there made acknowledgment of their repentance, 
and were again received into membership. During 
the years immediately following the Revocation, the 
consistory of the French church met at least once 
every week in Threadneedle Street chapel, for the 
purpose of receiving such acknowledgments or " re- 
connaissances." The ministers heard the narratives of 
the trials of the refugees, examined their testimony, 


and, when judged worthy, received them into com- 
munion. At the sitting of the 5th of March, 1686, 
tifty fugitives from various provinces of France ab- 
jured the Roman Catholic religion, to which they had 
pretended to be converted ; and at one of the sittings 
in May, 1687, not fewer than 497 members were again 
received into the church which they had, under the 
force of terror, pretended to abandon. 

While the church in Threadneedle Street was thus 
resorted to by the Huguenot Calvinists, the French 
Episcopal church in the Savoy, opened about the year 
1641, was similarly resorted to by the foreign Protes- 
tants of the Lutheran persuasion. This was the 
fashionable French church of the West-end, and was 
resorted to by many of the nobility, who were attracted 
by the eloquence of the preachers who usually minis- 
tered there ; amongst whom we recognise the great 
names of Durrel, Severin, Abbadie, Saurin, Dubourdieu, 
Majendie, and Durand. There were also the following 
French churches in the western parts of London : The 
chapel of Marylebone, founded about the year 1656; 
the chapel in Somerset House, originally granted by 
Charles I. to his queen Henrietta as a Roman Catholic 
place of worship, but which was afterwards appropri- 
ated by Parliament, in 1653, for the use of the French 
Protestants ; Castle Street Chapel in Leicester Square, 
erected at the expense of the government in 1672 as a 
place of worship for the refugees; the Little Savoy 
Chapel in the Strand, granted for the same purpose in 
1675 ; and Hungerford Chapel in Hungerford Market, 
which was opened as a French church in 1687. 

After the Re volution of 1688, a considerable addition 
was made to the French churches at the West-end. 
Thus, three new congregations were formed in the 
year 1689, those of La Patente, in Soho, first opened 
in Berwick Street, from whence it was afterwards 
removed to Little Chapel Street, Wardour Street; 
Glasshouse Street Chapel, Golden Square, from whence 
it was afterwards removed to Leicester Fields ; and La 


Quarre' (episcopal) Chapel, originally of Berwick Street, 
and afterwards of Little Dean Street, Westminster. 

Another important French church at the West-end 
was that of Swallow Street, Piccadilly. 1 The congre- 
gation had originally worshipped in the French am- 
bassador's chapel in Monmouth House, Soho Square; 
from whence they removed to Swallow Street in 1690. 
From the records of the church, which are preserved at 
Somerset House, it would appear that Swallow Street 
was in the west, what Threadneedle Street Church was 
in the east of London, the place first resorted to by 
the refugee Protestants to make acknowledgment of 
their blackslidings, and to claim re-admission to church 
membership. Hence the numerous " reconnaissances " 
found recorded in the Swallow Street register. 

About the year 1700, there was another large in- 
crease in the number of French churches in London, 
six more being added to those already specified 
namely, L'Eglise du Tabernacle, afterwards removed to 
Leicester Fields Chapel ; the French Chapel Royal, St. 
James's ; Les Grecs, in Hog Lane, now Crown Street, 
Soho; Spring Gardens Chapel, or the Little Savoy; 
La Charenton, in Grafton Street, Newport Market; 
and La Tremblade, or West Street Chapel, St Giles's. 
About the same date, additional church accommodation 
was provided for the refugees in the city ; one chapel 
having been opened in Blackfriars, and another in St. 
Martin's Lane, of which the celebrated Dr. Allix was 
pastor. With the latter chapel, known as the church 
of St. Martin Ongars, that of Threadneedle Street was 
eventually united. 

But the principal increase in the French churches 
about that time was in the eastern parts of London, 
where the refugees of the manufacturing class had 
for the most part settled. The large influx of foreign 
Protestants is strikingly shown by the amount of new 

1 The chapel was sold to Dr. James Anderson in 1710, and is now 
used as a Scotch church. 


chapels required for their accommodation. Thus, in 
Spitalfields and the adjoining districts, wo find the 
following : L'Eglise de St. Jean, Swan Fields, Shore- 
ditch (1687); La Nouvelle Patente, Crispin Street, 
Spitalfields (1689); L'Eglise de 1'Artillerie, Artillery 
Street, Bishopsgate (1691) ; L'Eglise de Crispin Street, 
Spitalfields (1693) ; Petticoat Lane Chapel, Spitaltields 
(1694) ; L'Eglise de Perle Street, Spitalfields (1697), 
afterwards incorporated with Crispin Street Chapel; 
the French Church of Wapping (1700) ; L'Eglise de 
Bell Lane, Spitalfields (1700); L'Eglise de Wheler 
Street, Spitalfields (1703), afterwards incorporated with 
La Nouvelle Patente ; L'Eglise de Swan Fields, Slaugh- 
ter Street, Shoreditch (1721); L'Eglise de l'H6pital, 
afterwards L'Eglise Neuve, Church Street, Spitalfields 
(1742). Here we have no fewer than eleven French 
churches opened east of Bishopsgate Street, providing 
accommodation for a very large number of worship- 
pers. The church last named, L'Eglise Neuve, was 
probably the largest of the French places of worship 
in London, being capable of accommodating about 
1500 persons. It is now used as a chapel by the 
Wesleyan Methodists ; while the adjoining church of 
the Artillery is used as a poor Jews' synagogue. 

In addition to the French churches in the city, at 
the West-end, and in the Spitalfields district, there 
were several thriving congregations in the suburban 
districts of London in which the refugees had settled. 
One of the oldest of these was that of Wands worth, 
where a colony of Protestant Walloons settled about 
the year 1570. Having formed themselves into a con- 
gregation, they erected a chapel, for worship, which is 
still standing, nearly opposite the parish church. The 
building bears this inscription on its front : " Erected 
1573 enlarged 1685 repaired 1809, 1831." Like the 
other refugee churches, it has ceased to retain its 
distinctive character, being now used as a Congrega- 
tional chapel. The Huguenots had also a special 
burying-ground at Wandsworth, called " Mount Nod " 


It is situated on East Hill ; and contains the remains 
of many distinguished refugees amongst others, of 
David Montolieu, Baron de St. Hyppolite. 

Several other French churches were established in 
the suburbs after the Revocation. At Chelsea, the 
refugees had two chapels one in Cook's Grounds (now 
used by the Congregationalists), and another in Little 
Chelsea. There were French churches also at Ham- 
mersmith, at Hoxton, 1 at Bow, and at Greenwich. 
The last named was erected through the influence of 
the Marquis de Ruvigny, who formed the centre of a 
select circle of refugee Protestants who long continued 
to inhabit the neighbou rhood . Before their little church 
was ready for use, the refugees were allowed the use of 
the parish church, at the conclusion of the forenoon 
service on Sundays. Evelyn, in his Diary, makes men- 
tion of his attending the French service there in 1687, 
as well as the sermon which followed, in which he 
says : " The preacher pathetically exhorted to patience, 
constancy, and reliance on God, amidst all their suf- 
ferings." The French church, which was afterwards 
erected in London Street, not far from the Greenwich 
parish church, was recently used as a Baptist chapel. 

The other French chapels throughout the kingdom, 
like those of London, received a large accession of 
members after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and in many cases became too small for their accom- 
modation. Hence a second French church was opened 
at Canterbury in a place called "The Malt-house," 
situated within the Cathedral precincts. It consisted 
at first of about 300 persons; but the Canterbury 
silk trade having been removed to Spitalfields, the 
greater number of the French weavers followed it 
thither; on which the Malthouse Chapel rapidly fell 
off, and at length became extinct about the middle of 
last century. 

1 Of this church Jacob Bour- Register are those of Romilly, 
dillon was the last pastor. Among Cossart, Faure, Durand, Hankey, 
the names appearing in the Vidal, and Fargues. 


The old French church of "God's House" at 
Southampton also received a considerable accession 
of members, chiefly fugitives from the provinces of 
the opposite sea-board. The oi'ginal Walloon element 
had by this time almost entirely disappeared, the 
immigrants of a century before having become gra- 
dually absorbed into the native population. Hence 
nearly all the entries in the registers of the church, 
subsequent to the year 1685, describe the members 
as " Francois refugiez " ; some being from " Basse 
Normandie," others from " Haute Languedoc," but the 
greater number from the province of Poitou. 

Numerous refugee military officers, retired from 
active service, seem to have settled in the neighbour- 
hood of Southampton about the beginning of last 
century. Henry de Ruvigny, the venerable Earl of 
Galway, lived at Rookley, and formed the centre of 
a distinguished circle of refugee gentry. The Baron 
de Huningue also lived in the town, and was so much 
respected and beloved, that at his death he was 
honoured with a public funeral. We also find the 
families of the De Chavernoys and De Cosnes settled 
in the place. The register of " God's House " contains 
frequent entries relating to officers in " Colonel Mor- 
dant's regiment." On one occasion we find Brigadier 
Mordant standing sponsor for the twin sons of Major 
Fran9ois du Chesne de Ruffanes, major of infantry; 
and on another, the Earl of Galway standing sponsor 
for the infant son of Pierre de Cosne, a refugee 
gentleman of La Beauce. From the circumstance of 
Gerard de Vaux, the owner of a paper-mill in South 
Stoneham, being a member of the congregation, we 
also infer that several of the settlers in the neigh- 
bourhood of Southampton were engaged in that 
branch of manufacture. 

Among the new French churches formed in places 
where there had been none before, and which mark 
the new settlements that followed the fresh influx of 
refugees, may be mentioned those of Bristol, Exeter, 


Plymouth, Stonehouse, Dartmouth, Barnstaple, and 
Thorpe-le-Soken in Essex. 

The French Episcopal Church at Bristol seems at 
one time to have been of considerable importance. It 
was instituted in 1687, 1 and was first held in what is 
called the Mayor's Chapel of St. Mark the Gaunt ; but 
in 1726 a chapel was built for the special use of the 
French congregation on the ground of Queen Eliza- 
beth's Hospital for the Red Maids, situated in Orchard 
Street. The chapel, at its first opening, was so crowded 
with worshippers, that the aisles, as well as the altar- 
place, had to be fitted with benches for their accom- 
modation. From the register of the church, it would 
appear that the Bristol refugees consisted principally 
of seafaring people captains, masters, and sailors 
from Nantes, Saumur, Saintonge, La Rochelle, and the 
Isle of Rhd 

The congregations formed at Plymouth and Stone- 
house, as well as Dartmouth, were in like manner, for 
the most part composed of sailors; whilst those at 
Exeter were, on the other hand, principally trades- 
people and artizans employed in the tapestry manu- 
facture carried on in the city. M. Majendie, grand- 
father of Dr. Majendie, Bishop of Chester, was one of 
the ministers of the Exeter congregation; and Tom 
D'Urfey, the song-writer, was the son of one of the 
refugees settled in the place. 

The settlement at Thorpe-le-Soken in Essex seems 
to have been a comparatively small one, consisting 
principally of refugee gentry and farmers ; but they 
were in sufficient numbers to constitute a church, of 

1 The refugees had begun to from the Corporation of Bristol, 

settle at Bristol in considerable proposing that the fines then 

numbers before this time. The levied on Dissenters in the city 

reviewer of the first edition of should be appropriated to the 

this book in the Evangelical relief of French Protestants just 

Magazine for January, says : settled there. Many readers will 

" We have noticed among the regard this as an illustration of 

documents at the Record Office the old saying of robbing Peter 

a curious paper, sent up in 1682 to pay Paul." 


which M. Severin, who afterwards removed to Green- 
wich, was the first minister. The church was closed 
" for want of members " about the year 1726. As was 
the case at many other places, the Thorpe-le-Soken 
refugees gradually ceased to be French. 

There was also a French church at Thorney Abbey, 
of the origin of which nothing is known ; but it is sup- 
posed to have been formed shortly after the breaking 
up of the Walloon colony at Sandtoft, Hatfield Chace, 
Yorkshire, in the time of the Commonwealth, when 
the settlers removed southward. The names of the 
colonists are in many instances the same, though there 
are others which do not occur in the Sandtoft register, 
probably those of new immigrants from the Walloon 
provinces and from the northern parts of France. But 
it does not appear that the congregation received any 
accession of members in consequence of the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes. Like the other churches of 
the same kind, the members gradually became absorbed 
in the general population, and the church ceased to 
exist in the year 1727. 

Year by year the foreign churches declined, even 
when they were fed by fresh immigrations from abroad. 
It was in the very nature of things that the rising 
generation should fall away from them, and desire to 
become completedly identified with the nation which 
nad admitted them to citizenship. Hence the growing 
defections in country places, as well as in the towns 
and cities where the refugees had settled ; and hence 
the growing complaints of the falling off in the num- 
bers of their congregations which we find in the 
sermons and addresses of the refugee pastors. 

About the middle of last century, the thirty-five 
French churches in London and its suburbs had be- 
come reduced to a comparatively small number ; and the 
sermons of the French pastors were full of lamenta- 
tions as to the approaching decadence of those that re- 
mained. This feeling was given eloquent utterance to 
by the Rev. Jacob Bourdillon, minister of the Artillery 


Church in Spitalfields, on the occasion of the jubilee 
sermon which he preached there in 1782, in com- 
memoration of his fifty years' pastorate. 1 He had been 
appointed minister of the congregation when it was a 
large and thriving one in 1731, and he now addressed 
but a feeble remnant of what it had been. The 
old members had died off; but their places had not 
been supplied by the young, who had gone in search 
of other pastures. It was the same with all the 
other French churches. When M. Bourdillon was 
appointed minister of " The Artillery," fifty years 
before, there had, he said, been twenty flourishing 
French churches in London, nine of which had since 
been altogether closed ; while of the remaining eleven, 
some were fast drawing to their end, others were 
scarcely able to exist even with extraneous help, and 
very few were in a position to support themselves. 

The causes of this decadence of the churches of the 
refugees, were not far to seek. The preacher found 

1 Men of great eloquence had Barbauld,Couvenant,LaDouespe, 
been ministers of the Artillery Du Boulay. 
Church. Amongst these were Leicester Fields, Artillery, 
Caesar Pegorier (the first minister), and La Patentc. Blanc, Bar- 
succeeded by Daniel Chamier, bauld, Stehelin, Micy, Barnauin. 
Pierre Eival, Joseph de la Mothe, La Tremblade. Gillet, Yver. 
and Bzekiel Barbauld. During Castle Street and La Quarre. 
the fifty years of M. Bourdillon's Laval, Bernard, Cautier, Kober 
pastorate, fifty -two ministers of Coderc. 

the London refugee churches had La Patente, Spitalfields. 

died, of whom six had been his Fourestier, Manuel, Balgnari6 

own colleagues. The deceased Masson. 

pastors, whose names he men- Brown's Lane. La Moyne. 
tioned, as well as the churches St. John's Street. Vincent 

where they ministered, were as Palairet, Beuzeville. 
follows: Wapping. Sally de Gaujae, 

Chapel Royal, St. James's. Le Beaupin Bay, Guizot, Prel- 

The Revs. M. Menard, Aufrere, leur. 
Series. Eocheblanc, De Missy, Swan Fields. Briel. 
Barbauld, Muissotu Pastors of other French 

The Savoy. Olivier, Du Cros, churches, who had died in Lon- 

Durand, Deschamps. don. Forent, Majendie, Ester- 

The Walloon Church, Thread- nod, Montignac, Du Plessis. 

needle Street. Bertheau, Bes- Villette, Duval. 
combes, De St. Colombe, Bonyer, 


them in " the lack of zeal and faithfulness in the heads 
of families, in encouraging their children to maintain 
them churches which their ancestors had reared, a 
glorious monument of the generous sacrifice which they 
had made, of their country, their possessions, and their 
employments, in the sacred cause of conscience, for the 
open profession of the truth ; whereas now," said he, 
" through the growing aversion of the young for the 
language of their fathers, from whom they seem almost 
ashamed to be descended; shall I say more? because 
of inconstancy in the principles of the faith, which 
induces so many by a sort of infatuation to forsake 
the ancient assemblies in order to follow novelties 
unknown to our fathers, and listen to pretended 
teachers whose only gifts are rapture and babble, and 
whose sole inspiration consists in self-sufficiency and 
pride. Alas ! what ravages have been made here, as 
elsewhere, during this jubilee of fifty years ! " 

But there were other causes besides these, to account 
for the decadence of the refugee churches. Nature 
itself was working against them. Year by year the 
children of the refugees were becoming less and less 
Erench, and more and more English. They lived and 
worked amongst the English, and spoke their lan- 
guage. They intermarried with them ; their children 
played together ; and the idea of remaining foreigners 
in the country in which they had been born and bred, 
became year by year more distasteful to them. They 
were not a " peculiar people," like the Jews ; but 
Protestants, like the nation which had given them 
refuge, and into which they naturally desired to be- 
come merged. Hence it was that, by the end of the 
eighteenth century, nearly all the French churches, as 
such, had disappeared ; and the places of the French 
ministers became occupied in many cases by clergymen 
of the Established Church, and in others by ministers 
of the different dissenting persuasions. 

The Church of the Artillery, in which the Rev. J. 
Bourdillon preached the above sermon, so full of 


lamentations, is now occupied as a poor Jews' syna- 
gogue L'Eglise Neuve is a chapel of the Wesleyan 
Methodists. L'Eglise de St. Jean, Swan Fields, Shore- 
ditch, has become one of the ten new churches of St. 
Matthew, Bethnal Green. Swallow Street Chapel is 
used as a Scotch Church. Leicester Fields, now called 
Orange Street Chapel, is occupied by a congregation 
of Independents. Whereas Castle Street Chapel, 
Leicester Square, was, until quite recently, used as a 
Court of Requests. 

The French churches at Wands worth and Chelsea 
are occupied by the Independents ; and those at 
Greenwich and Plymouth by the Baptists. The Dutch 
church at Maidstone is used as a school ; while the 
Walloon church at Yarmouth was first converted into 
a theatre, and has since done duty as a warehouse. 

A.mong the charitable institutions founded by the re- 
fugees for the succour of their distressed fellow-country- 
men in England, the French Hospital was the most 
important. This establishment owes its origin to M. 
De Gastigny, a French gentleman who had been mas- 
ter of the buckhounds to William III. while Prince of 
Orange. At his death in 1708, he bequeathed a sum 
of 1000 towards founding an hospital in London 
for the relief of distressed French Protestants. The 
money was placed at interest for eight years, during 
which successive benefactions were added to the fund. 
In 1716, a piece of ground in Old Street, St. Luke's, 
was purchased of the Ironmongers' Company, and a 
lease was taken from the city of London of some ad- 
joining land, forming altogether an area of about four 
acres, on which a building was erected and fitted up 
for the reception of eighty poor Protestants of the 
French nation. In 1718, George I. granted a charter 
of incorporation to the governor and directors of the 
hospital, under which the Earl of Galway was ap- 
pointed the first governor. Shortly after, in November, 
1718, the opening of the institution was celebrated by 
a solemn act of religion ; and the chapel was conse- 


crated amidst a great concourse of refugees and their 
descendants, the Rev. Philip Menard, minister of the 
French chapel of St James's, conducting the service on 
the occasion. 

From that time the funds of the institution have 
steadily increased. The French merchants of London, 
who had been so prosperous in trade, liberally con- 
tributed towards its support ; and legacies and dona- 
tions multiplied. Lord Galway bequeathed 1000 to 
the hospital at his death in 1720 ; and, in the follow- 
ing year, Baron Hervart de Huningue gave a donation 
of 4000. The corporation were thus placed in the 
posssesion of ample means : and they proceeded to 
erect additional buildings, in which they were enabled, 
by the year 1760, to give asylum to 234 poor people. 1 

Among the distinguished noblemen and gentlemen 
of French Protestant descent, who have officiated as 
governors of the institution since the date of its 
foundation, may be mentioned the Earl of Galway, the 
Baron de Huningue, Robethon (privy councillor), the 
Baron de la Court, Lord Ligonier, and several successive 
Earls of Radnor; whilst among the lists of directors 
we recognise the names of Montolieu, Baron de St. 
Hippolite, Gambier, Bosanquet, Columbies, Magendie 
(D.D.), Colonel de Cosne', Dalbiac, Gaussen, Dargent, 
Blaquiere, General Ruffane, Lefevre, Boileau (Bart.), 
Colonel Vignoles, Romilly, Turquand, Pechel (Bart.), 
Travers, Lieut.-General de Villetes, Major-General 
Montressor, Devisme, Chamier (M.P.), Major-General 
Layard, Bouverie, Captain Dumaresq (R.N.), Duval, 
the Hon. Philip Pusey, Andre' (Bart.), De Hochepied 
Larpent (Bart.), Jean Sylvestre (Bart.), Cazenove, 
Dolland, Petit (M.D.), Le Mesurier, Landon, Martineau, 

1 The French hospital has re- of Mr. Kobert Lewis Koumieu, 

cently been removed from its architect, one of the directors ; 

original site to Victoria Park, Mr. Roumieu being himself de- 

where a handsome building has scended from an illustrious Hu- 

been erected as an hospital for guenot family the Roumieus of 

the accommodation of 40 men Languedoc. 
and 20 women, after the designs 



Baron Maseres, Chevalier, Durand, Hanbury, Labou- 
chere, De la Rue (F.R.S.) ; and many other names well 
known and highly distinguished in the commerce, 
politics, literature,, and science of England. 

One of the most interesting relics of the Huguenot 
immigration, which has survived the absorption of 
the refugees into the general population, is the French 
church which still continues to exist in the Under Croft 
of Canterbury Cathedral. Three hundred years have 
passed since the first body of exiled Walloons met to 
worship there, three hundred years, during which 
generations have come and gone, and revolutions have 
swept over Europe ; and still that eloquent memorial 
of the religious history of the middle ages survives, 
bearing testimony alike to the rancour of the persecu- 
tions abroad, the steadfastness of the foreign Protes- 
tants, the liberal spirit of the English Church, and the 
free asylum which England has provided in past times 
for fugitives from foreign oppression and tyranny. 

The visitor to the cathedral, in passing through 
the Under Croft, has usually pointed out to him the 
apartment still used as "the French Church." It is 
walled off from the crypt in the south side-aisle ; and 
through the windows which overlook the interior 
the arrangements of the place can easily be observed. 
It is plainly fitted up with pews, a pulpit, and pre- 
centor's desk, like a dissenting place of worship ; and 
indeed it is a dissenting place of worship, though 
forming part of the High Cathedral of Canterbury. 
The place also contains a long table, at which the 
communicants it when receiving the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper, after the manner of the Geneva 

And here the worship still continues to be conducted 
in French, and the psalms are sung to the old Huguenot 
tunes, almost within sound of the high choral service 
of the Established Church of England overhead. 
" Here," says the German Dr. Pauli, " the eaiiy 
refugees celebrated the services of their Church; and 


here their descendants, who are now reduced to a very 
small number, still carry on their Presbyterian mode 
of worship in their own tongue, immediately below 
the south aisle of the high choir, where the Anglican 
ritual is observed in all its prescribed form a noble 
and touching concurrence, the parallel to which 
cannot be met with in any other cathedral church in 
England." 1 

The French church at Canterbury would doubtlesn 
long since have become altogether extinct, like the 
other churches of the refugees, but for an endowment 
of about 200 a year, which has served to keep it 
alive. The members do not now amount to more than 
twenty, of whom two are elders and four deacons. 

The Dutch congregation at Norwich has also con- 
tinued to exist in name, for the same reason. There is 
an endowment belonging to it of some 70 a year; and 
to preserve this, an annual service is held in the choir of 
the Black Friars' Church, still called the Dutch Church, 
the nave of the building being known as St. Andrew's 
Hall, and used for holding public meetings and festivals. 
The annual sermon, preached in Dutch, is a mere form, 
and the congregation has become a shadow without 

But though these ancient churches are now the 
mere vestiges and remnants of what they once were, 
they are nevertheless of genuine interest, and serve 
to mark an epoch of memorable importance in the 
history of England. 

1 PAULI, Pictures of Old England, 29. 



IT was long the favourite policy of the English mon- 
archs to induce foreign artizans to settle in Ireland 
and establish new branches of trade. It was hoped 
that the Irish people, inhabiting so rich a land, and 
needing only peace and industry to make it prosper, 
might be induced to follow their example ; and that 
the abundant population of the country, instead of being 
a source of poverty and idleness, might be rendered a 
source of national wealth and strength. 

Elizabeth encouraged such settlements in Ireland, 
though the disturbed state of the country prevented 
her intentions being carried into effect. While many 
Flemish settlements were established in England 
during her reign, almost the only one of a similar kind 
established in Ireland, of which we have any account, 
was that of Swords, near Dublin. 

It was not until the early part of the reign of 
James I. that any considerable progress was made in the 
settlement of foreign artizans and merchants in Ireland. 
In 1605, John Vertroven and John Van Dale of Brabant, 
Gabriel Behaes and Matthew Derenzie of Antwerp, 
in 1607, William Baell of Antwerp, in 1608, James 
Marcus of Amsterdam, and Derrick Varveer of Dort, 
and in 1613, Wybrant Olferston and John Olferston 
of Holland, obtained grants of naturalisation, and 
settled in Ireland, mostly at Dublin and Waterford, 
where they carried on business as merchants. It is 
supposed that the Vanhomrigh and Vandeleur families 


entered Ireland about the same period. The strangers 
made good their footing, and eventually established 
themselves as landed proprietors in the country. 

When the Earl of Strafford was appointed chief 
deputy in the reign of Charles I., he applied himself 
with much zeal to the establishment of the linen- 
manufacture ; sending to Holland for flax-seed, and 
inviting Flemish and French artizans to settle in 
Ireland. In order to stimulate the new industry, the 
earl himself embarked in it, and expended not less 
than 30,000 of his private fortune in the enterprise. 
It was afterwards made one of the grounds of his 
impeachment that " he had obstructed the industry of 
the country by introducing new and unknown pro- 
cesses into the manufacture of flax." It was neverthe- 
less greatly to the credit of the earl that he should 
have endeavoured to improve the industry of Ireland 
by introducing the superior processes employed by the 
foreign artizans ; and had he not attempted to turn 
the improved flax-manufacture to his own advantage 
by erecting it into a personal monopoly, he would 
have been entitled to great regard as a genuine bene- 
factor of Ireland. 

The Duke of Ormond followed the example of 
Strafford in endeavouring to induce foreigners to settle 
in Ireland. Only two years after the Restoration, he 
had a bill carried through the Irish Parliament en- 
titled " An Act for encouraging Protestant strangers 
and others to inhabit Ireland," which duly received 
the royal assent. The Duke actively encouraged the 
settlement of the foreigners, establishing about four 
hundred Flemish artizans at Chapel Izod, in Kilkenny, 
under Colonel Richard Lawrence. He there built 
houses for the weavers, supplying them with looms 
and raw material ; and a considerable trade in cordage, 
sail-cloth, and linen shortly grew up. The Duke also 
settled Walloon colonies at Clonmel, Kilkenny, and 

FOSTER, Lives of Eminent British Statesmen, ii, 385. 


Carrick-on-Suir, where they established, and for some 
time successfully carried on, the making of woollen 
cloths and other branches of manufacture. 

The refugees were prosperously pursuing their 
respective trades when the English Revolution of 1688 
occurred, and again Ireland was thrown into a state 
of civil war, which continued for three years, but 
was at length concluded by the peace of Limerick in 

No sooner was the war at an end, than William III. 
took active steps to restore the prostrate industry of 
the country. The Irish Parliament again revived 
their bill of 1674 (which the Parliament of James II. 
had suspended), granting naturalisation to such Pro- 
testant refugees as should settle in Ireland, and 
guaranteeing them the free exercise of their religion. 
A large number of William's foreign officers at once 
availed themselves of the privilege, and settled at 
Youghal, Waterford, and Portarlington ; whilst colonies 
of foreign manufacturers at the same time planted 
themselves at Dublin, Cork, Lisburn, and othei 

The refugees who settled at Dublin established 
themselves for the most part in " The Liberties," where 
they began the manufacture of tabinet, since more 
generally known as " Irish Poplin." ] The demand 
for the article became such, that a number of French 
masters and workmen left Spitalfields, and migrated 
to Dublin, where they largely extended the manufac- 
ture. The Combe, Pimlico, Spitalfields, and other 
streets in Dublin, named after corresponding streets 
in London, were built for their accommodation; and 
Weaver's Square became a principal quarter in the 

1 There are no certain records ing of tabinets or poplins and 

for fixing the precise date when tabbareas, in the liberties of 

silk-weaving was commenced in Dublin, about the year 1693. 

Dublin ; but it is generally be- Dr. W. COKE TAYLOB, in Statis- 

lieved that an ancestor of the ticalJourital for December, 1843, 

present respected family of the p. 354. 
Lateuches commenced the \veav- 


city. For a time the trade was very prosperous, 
and gave employment to a large number of persons ; 
but about the beginning of the present century, the 
frequent recurrence of strikes among the workmen 
paralysed the employers of labour. The manufacture 
became almost entirely lost, and "The Liberties," 
instead of the richest, became one of the poorest quarters 
of Dublin. So long as the French colony prospered, 
the refugees had three congregations in the city. One 
of these was an Episcopal congregation, attached to 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, which worshipped at St. Mary's 
Chapel, granted them by the dean and chapter ; and it 
continued in existence until the year 1816. The other 
two were Calvinistic congregations, one of which had a 
chapel in Peter Street, 1 and the other in Lucas Lane. 
The refugees had special burying-places assigned to 
them ; the principal one adjoined St. Stephen's Green, 
the other was situated on the southern outskirts of 
the city. 

But the northern counties of Down and Antrim 
were, more than any other parts of Ireland, regarded 
as the sanctuary of the refugees. There they found 
themselves amongst men of their own religion, 
mostly Scotch Calvinists, who had fled from the Stuart 
persecutions in Scotland to take refuge in the com- 
paratively unmolested districts of Ulster. Lisburn, 
formerly called Lisnagarvey, about ten miles south- 
west of Belfast, was one of their favourite settle- 
ments. The place had been burnt to the ground in 
the civil war of 1641 ; but with the help of the re- 
fugees, it was before long restored to more than its 
former importance, and became one of the most pros- 
perous towns in Ireland. 

The government of the day, while they discouraged 
the woollen-manufacture of Ireland because of its 
supposed injury to England, made every effort to en- 

1 The old French church in Peter Street is now used as the 
Molyneux asylum for the blind. 


courage the trade in linen. An Act was passed with 
the latter object in 1697, containing various enact- 
ments calculated to foster the growth of flax and the 
manufacture of linen cloth. Before the passing of 
this Act, William III. invited Louis Crommelin, a 
Huguenot refugee, then temporarily settled in Holland, 
to coine over into Ireland and undertake the super- 
intendence of the new branch of industry. 

Crommelin belonged to a family that had carriec 
en the linen-manufacture in its various branches in 
France for upwards of 400 years. He had himself 
been engaged in the business for more than thirty 
years at Arinancourt, near Saint Quentin in Picardy, 
where he was born. He was singularly well fitted for 
the office to which the King called him. He was a 
man of admirable business qualities, excellent good 
sense, and remarkable energy and perseverance. Being 
a Protestant, and a man of much foresight, he had 
quietly realised what he could of his large property 
in the neighbourhood of St. Quentin, shortly before 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes; and he had 
migrated across the frontier into Holland before the 
bursting of the storm. 

In 1698, Crommelin, having accepted the invitation 
of William, left Holland, accompanied by his son, and 
shortly after his arrival in England he proceeded into 
the north of Ireland to fix upon the site best adapted 
for his intended undertaking. After due deliberation, 
he pitched upon the ruined village of Lisnagarvey as 
the most suitable for his purpose. 1 The King approved 
of the selection, and authorised Crommelin to proceed 
with his operations, appointing him " Overseer of the 
Royal Linen Manufactory of Ireland." In considera- 
tion of Crommelin advancing 10,000 out of his own 
private fortune to commence the undertaking, a grant 
of 800 per annum was guaranteed to him for twelve 

1 Crommelin's first factory was Weacliing-ground was started at 
at the foot of the wooden bridge the place called Hiklen. 
over the Lagan, and his first 


years being at the rate of 8 per cent, on the capital 
invested. At the same time, an annuity of 200 was 
granted him for life, and 120 a year for two assist- 
ants, whose duty it was to travel from place to place 
and superintend the cultivation of the flax, as well as 
to visit the bleach ing-grounds and see to the proper 
finishing of the fabric. 

Crommelin sent invitations abroad to the Protestant 
artizans to come over and join him, and numbers of 
them responded to his call. A little colony of refugees 
of all ranks and of many trades was soon planted at 
Lisburn, and the place exhibited an appearance of 
returning prosperity. With a steadiness of purpose 
which distinguished Crommelin through life, he devoted 
himself with unceasing zeal to the promotion of the 
enterprise which he had taken in hand. He liberally 
rewarded the toil of his brother exiles, and cheered them 
on the road to success. He imported from Holland a 
thousand looms and spinning-wheels of the best con- 
struction, and gave a premium of 5 for every loom that 
was kept going. Before long, he introduced improve- 
ments of his own in the looms and spinning- wheels, as 
well as in the implements and in the preparation of the 
material. Every branch of the operations made rapid 
progress under the Huguenot chief from the sowing, 
cultivating, and preparing of the flax through the 
vai'ious stages of its manipulation, to the finishing of 
the cloth at the bleach-field. And thus by painstaking, 
skill, and industry, zealously supported as he was by 
his artizans, Crommelin was shortly enabled to produce 
finer sorts of fabrics than had ever before been made 
in Britain. 

Crommelin, amongst his other labours for the estabt 
lishment of the linen trade, wrote and published a- 
Dublin, in 1705, An Essay towards tlte Improving of 
the Hempen and Flaxen Manufactures of Hie, Kingdom 
of Ireland, so that all might be made acquainted with 
the secret of his success, and enabled to follow his 
example. The treatise contained many useful instruc- 


tions for the cultivation of flax, in the various stages 
of its planting and growth, together with directions for 
the preparation of the material, in the several processes 
of spinning, weaving, and bleaching. 

Though a foreigner, Crornmelin continued through- 
out his life to take a warm interest in the prosperity 
of his adopted country ; and his services were recog- 
nised, not only by King William, who continued his 
firm friend to the last, but by the Irish Parliament, 
who from time to time voted grants of money to him- 
self, his assistants, and his artizans, to enable him to 
prosecute his enterprise ; and in 1707, they voted him 
the public thanks for his patriotic efforts towards the 
establishment of the linen trade in Ireland, of which 
he was the founder. Orommelin died in 1727, and 
was buried beside other members of his family, in the 
churchyard at Lisburn. 

The French refugees long continued a distinct 
people in the neighbourhood. They clung together, 
associated and worshipped together, frequenting their 
own Huguenot church, in which they had a long suc- 
cession of French pastors. 1 They carefully educated 
their children in the French language, and in the 
Huguenot faith ; cherishing the hope of being enabled 
some day to return to their native land. But that 
hope at length died out, and the descendants of the 
Crommelins eventually mingled with the families of 
the Irish, and became part and parcel of the British 

1 The Rev. Saumarez Dubour- by deaths as well as intermar- 

dieu, grandson of the celebrated riages with Irish families, the 

French Pastor of the Savoy chapel was at length closed. It 

Church in London, was minister is now used as the court-house of 

of the French church at Lisburn Lisburn. The pastor Dubourdieu 

for forty-five years, and was so joined the Established Church, 

beloved in the neighbourhood and was presented with the 

that, at the insurrection of 1798, living of Lambeg. His son, 

he was the only person in Lisburn rector of Annahelt, County Down, 

whom the insurgents agreed to was the author of A Statistical 

spare. The French congregation Survey of the County Antrim, 

having become greatly decreased, published in 1812. 

CHAP. xvil. PETER GOYER. 299 

Among the other Freech settlers at Lisburn, was 
Peter Goyer, a native of Picardy. He owned a large 
farm there, and also carried on an extensive business 
as a manufacturer of cambric and silk, at the time of 
the Revocation. When the Dragonnades began, he 
left his property behind him, and fled across the 
frontier. The record is still preserved in the family, of 
the cruelties practised upon Peter's martyred brother 
by the ruthless French soldiery, who tore a leaf from 
his Bible, and forced it into his mouth before he died. 
From Holland, Goyer proceeded to England, and from 
thence to Lisburn, where he began the manufacture of 
the articles for which he had acquired so much reputa- 
tion in his own country. After a short time, he re- 
solved on returning to France, in the hope of being able 
to recover some of his property. But the persecution was 
raging more fiercely than before, and he found that, if 
captured, he would probably be condemned to the gal- 
leys for life. He again contrived to make his escape, 
having been carried on board an outward-bound ship 
concealed in a wine-cask. Returned to Lisburn, he 
resumed the manufacture of silk and cambric, in which 
he employed a considerable number of workmen. His 
silk manufacture was destroyed by the rebellion of 
1798, which dispersed the workpeople ; but that of 
cambric survived, and became firmly founded at 
Lurgan, which now enjoys a high reputation for the 
perfection of its manufactures. 

Other colonies of the refugees were established in 
the south of Ireland, where they carried on various 
branches of manufacture. William Crommelin, a 
brother of Louis, having been appointed one of his 
assistants, superintended the branch of the linen trade 
which was established at Kilkenny through the instru- 
mentality of the Marquis of Ormonde. At Limerick, 
the refugees established the lace and glove trades, 
which still flourish. At Bandon, they carried on 
cloth-manufacturing, the names of the colonists indi- 
cating a mixture of Walloons and Huguenots, the 


GaiTetts, De Ruyters, and Minhears being Flemish, 
and the Beaumonts, Willises, and Baxters, being French 
immigrants, from the banks of the Loire. 

Another settlement of French refugees was formed 
at Cork, where they congregated in a quarter of the 
town forming part of the parish of St. Paul, the prin- 
cipal street in which is French Church Street, so called 
from the place of worship belonging to them, where 
the service w r as performed in French down to the be- 
ginning of the present century. 1 Though the principal 
refugees in Cork were merchants and traders, there 
was a sufficient number of them to begin the manufac- 
ture of woollen cloth, ginghams, and other fabrics, 
which they carried on for a time with considerable 
success. Another body of Huguenot refugees en- 
deavoured to introduce the silk manufacture at Inne- 
shannon, about three miles below Bandon, where they 
built houses recognisable by their ornamental brick- 
work and lozenge-shaped windows, and which is still 
known as "the colony." But their efforts to rear 
silkworms failed; the colonists migrated to Spital- 
fields ; and all that remains of their enterprise is " The 
Mulberry Field," which still retains its name. 

The woollen-manufacture at Cork was begun by 
James Fontaine, a member of the noble family of De 
la Fontaine in France, a branch of which embraced 
Protestantism in the sixteenth century, and continued 
to adhere to it down to the period of the Revocation. 
The career of James Fontaine was singularly illustra- 
tive of the times in which he lived. His case was only 
one amongst thousands of others, in which persons of 

1 A. Cork correspondent says : Post* Office Directory, Coach- 

"The Irish could never pro- and- Six Lane.' A Huguenot of 

nounce the French names, and the name of Couchancex having 

some curious misnomers have resided here more than a century 

been the consequence, now iden- ago, when it was a fashionable 

tified with the topography of the quarter, the place was called after 

city. For example, there is a him, and has thus become meta- 

wretched cul-de-sac off the north morphosed into ' Coach-and- 

main street, now called in the Six.' " 


rank, wealth, and learning, were suddenly stripped of 
their all, and compelled to become wanderers over the 
earth for conscience' sake. His life further serves to 
show how a clever and agile Frenchman, thrown upon 
a foreign shore, a stranger to its people and its language, 
without any calling or resources, but full of energy and 
courage, could contrive to earn an honest living and 
achieve an honourable reputation. 

James Fontaine was the son of a Protestant pastor 
of the same name, and was born at Royan in Saintonge, 
a famous Huguenot district. His father was the first 
of the family to drop the aristocratic prefix of " de la," 
which he did from motives of modesty. When a child 
Fontaine met with an accident through the carelessness 
of a nurse, which rendered him lame for life. When 
only eight years old, his father died, so that little was 
done for his education until he arrived at about the 
age of seventeen, when he was placed under a com- 
petent tutor, and eventually took the degree of M.A., 
at the College of Guienne, in his twenty-second year. 
Shortly after, his mother died, and he became the 
possessor of her landed propert} 7 near Pons, in the 

Young Fontaine's sister, Marie, had married a 
Protestant pastor named Forestier, of St. Mesme 
in Angoumois. Jacques went to live with them for a 
time, and to study theology under the pastor. The 
persecutions having shortly set in, Forestier's church 
was closed and he himself compelled to fly to England. 
The congregation of St. Mesme was consequently left 
without a minister. Young Fontaine, though he well 
knew the risks he ran, nevertheless encouraged the 
Protestants to assemble in the open air, and occasion- 
ally conducted their devotions. On being informed 
against, he was cited to appear before the local 
tribunals. He was charged with the crime of at- 
tending a Protestant meeting in 1684, contrary to 
law ; and though he had not been present at the meet- 
ing specified, he was condemned and imprisoned. He 


appealed to the Parliament at Paris, V'hither he carried 
his plea of alibi, and was acquitted. 

When the intelligence reached him in the following 
year, that the Edict of Revocation was proclaimed, he 
at once determined to make his escape. A party of 
Protestant ladies had arranged to accompany him, 
consisting of Janette Forestier, the daughter of the 
pastor of St. Mesme (already in England) , his niece, 
and the two Mesdemoiselles Boursignot, to one of whom 
Fontaine was betrothed. 

At Marennes, the captain of an English ship was 
found, willing to give the party a passage to England. 
It was at first intended that they should rendezvous 
on the sands near Tremblade, and then proceed privily 
on shipboard. But the coast was strictly guarded, 
especially between Royan and La Rochelle, where the 
Protestants of the interior were constantly seeking out- 
lets for escape ; and this part of the plan was given up. 
The search of vessels leaving the ports had become so 
strict, that the English captain feared that even if 
Fontaine and his ladies succeeded in getting on board, 
it would not be possible for him to conceal them or 
prevent their falling into the hands of the King's 
detectives. He therefore proposed that his ship should 
set sail, and that the fugitives should put out to sea 
and wait for him, when he would take them on board. 
It proved fortunate that this plan was adopted ; for, 
scarcely had the English merchantman left Tremblade, 
than she was boarded and searched by a French frigate 
on the look-out for fugitive Protestants. No prisoners 
were found ; and the captain of the merchantman was 
ordered to proceed at once to his destination. 

Meanwhile, the boat containing the fugitives having 
put out to sea, as arranged, lay to, waiting the ap- 
proach of the English vessel. That they might not be 
descried from the frigate, which was close at hand, the 
boatman made them lie down in the bottom of the 
boat, covering them with an old sail. They all knew 
the penalties to which they were liable if detected in 


the attempt to escape Fontaine, the boatman, and 
his son, to condemnation to the galleys for life ; and 
the three ladies to imprisonment for life. The frigate 
bore down upon the boat and hailed the boatman, 
who feigned drunkenness so well that he completely 
deceived the captain, who, seeing nothing but the old 
sail in the bottom of the boat, ordered the frigate's 
head to be put about, when it sailed away in the direc- 
of Rochefort. Shortly after, while she was still in 
sight, though distant, the agreed signal was given by 
the boat to the merchantman (that of dropping the sail 
three times in the apparent attempt to hoist it), on 
which the English vessel lay to, and took the exiles on 
board. After a voyage of eleven days, they reached 
the welcome asylum of England, and Fontaine and 
his party landed at Barnstaple, North Devon, his sole 
property consisting of twenty pistoles and six silver 
spoons, which had belonged to his father, and bore upon 
them his infantine initials, I. D. L. F. Jacques de la 

Fontaine and the three ladies were hospitably re- 
ceived by Mr. Donne of Barnstaple, with whom they 
lived until a home could be provided for their recep- 
tion. One of the first things which occupied Fontaine's 
attention was, how to earn a living for their support. 
A cabin-biscuit, which he bought for a halfpenny, 
gave him his first hint. The biscuit would have cost 
twopence in France ; and it at once occurred to him 
that, such being the case, grain might be shipped from 
England to France at a profit. Mr. Donne agreed to 
advance the money requisite for the purpose, taking 
half the profits. The first cargo of corn exported 
proved very profitable ; but Fontaine's partner after- 
wards insisting on changing the consignee, who proved 
dishonest, the speculation eventually proved unsuc- 

Font nine had by this time married the Huguenot 
lady to whom he was betrothed, and who had accom- 
panied him in his flight to England. After the failure 


of the corn speculation, he removed to Taunton in 
Somerset, where he made a shift to live. He took 
pupils, dealt in provisions, sold brandy, groceries, stock- 
ings, leather, tin and copper wares, and carried on 
wool-combing, dyeing, and the making of calimancoes. 
In short, he was a "jack-of-all-trades." He followed 
so many callings, and occasioned so much jealousy in 
the place, that he was cited before the mayor and 
aldermen as an interloper, and required to give an 
account of himself. This and other circumstances 
determined him to give up business in Taunton not, 
however, before he had contrived to save about 1000 
by his industry and to enter upon the life of a pastor. 
He had already been admitted to holy orders by the 
French Protestant synod at Taunton, and in 1694 he 
left that town for Ireland, in search of a congregation. 

Fontaine's adventures in Ireland were even more 
remarkable than those which he had experienced in 
England. The French refugees established at Cork 
had formed themselves into a congregation, of which 
he was appointed pastor in January, 1695. They 
were, however, as yet too poor to pay him any stipend ; 
and, in order to support himself, as well as turn to 
account the money which he had saved by his industry 
and frugality at Taunton, he began a manufactory of 
broadcloth. This gave much welcome employment to 
the labouring poor of the city, besides contributing 
towards the increase of its general trade, in acknow- 
ledgment of which the corporation presented him 
with the freedom. He still continued to officiate as 
pastor ; but, one day, when expounding the text of 
" Thou shalt not steal," he preached so effectively as 
to make a personal enemy of a member of his congre- 
gation, who, unknown to him, had been engaged in a 
swindling transaction. The result was, that so much 
dissension was occasioned in the congregation, that he 
eventually gave up the charge. 

To occupy his spare time, for Fontaine was a man 
of an intensely active temperament, and most unhappy 


when unemployed, he took a farm at Bearhaven, 
situated at the entrance to Bantry Bay, nearly at the 
extreme south-west point of Munster, the very Land's 
End of Ireland, for the purpose of founding a fishery. 
The idea occurred to him, as it has since occurred to 
others, that there were many hungry people on land 
waiting to be fed, and shoals of fish at sea waiting to 
be caught, and that it would be a useful enterprise 
to form a fishing-company, and induce the idle people 
to put to sea and catch the fish, selling to others 
the surplus beyond what was necessary to feed them. 
Fontaine succeeded in inducing some of the French 
merchants settled in London to join him in the 
venture ; and he himself went to reside at Bearhaven 
to superintend the operations of the company. 

Fontaine failed, as other Irish fishing-companies 
have since failed. The people would rather starve 
than go to sea for Celts are by nature averse to salt 
water; and the consequence was, that the company 
made no progress. Fontaine had even to defend 
himself against the pillaging and plundering of the 
natives. He then induced some thirteen French re- 
fugee families to settle in the neighbourhood, having 
previously taken small farms for them, including 
Dursey Island ; but the Irish gave the foreigners 
no peace nor rest, and they left before the end of 
three years. The local court would not give Fon- 
taine any redress when an injury was done to him. 
If his property was stolen, and he appealed to the 
court, his complaint was referred to a jury of papists, 
who invariably decided against him ; whereas, if the 
natives made any claim upon him, they were sure 
to recover what they demanded. 

Notwithstanding these great discouragements, Fon- 
taine held to his purpose, and determined, if possible, 
to establish a fishing station. He believed that time 
would work in his favour, and that it might yet be 
possible to educate the people into habits of industry. 
He was well supported by the Government, who, ob- 



serving his zealous efforts to establish a new branch of 
industry, and desirous of giving him increased influ- 
ence in his neighbourhood, appointed him Justice of 
the Peace. In this capacity he was found very useful 
in keeping down the " Tories," and breaking up the 
connection between them and the French privateers 
who occasionally frequented the coast. Knowing his 
liability to attack, Fontaine converted his residence at 
Bearhaven into a sod fort ; and not without cause, as 
the result proved. 

In June, 1704, a French privateer entered Ban try 
Bay, and proceeded to storm the sod fort ; when the 
lame Fontaine, by the courage and ability of his 
defence, showed himself a commander of no mean 
skill. John Macliney, a Scotchman, and Paul Roussier, 
a French refugee, showed great bravery on the occa- 
sion ; while Madame Fontaine, who acted as aide-de- 
camp and surgeon, distinguished herself by her quiet 
courage. The engagement lasted from eight in the 
morning until four in the afternoon, when the French 
decamped with the loss of three killed and seven 
wounded, spreading abroad a very wholesome fear of 
Fontaine and his sod fort. When the refugee's gallant 
exploit was reported to the government, he was re- 
warded by a pension of five shillings a day for beating 
off the privateer, and supplied with five guns, which 
he was authorised to mount in his battery. 

Fontaine was not allowed to hold his post unmo- 
lested. It was at the remotest corner of the island, 
far from any town, and surrounded by a hostile popu- 
lation in league with the enemy, whose ships were 
constantly hovering about the coast. In the year suc- 
ceeding the above engagement, while Fontaine himself 
was absent in London, a French ship entered Bantry 
Bay, and cautiously approached Bearhaven. Fon- 
taine's wife was, however, on the look-out, and detected 
the foreigner. She had the guns loaded and one of 
them fired off to show that the little garrison was on 
the alert. The Frenchman then veered off and made 


for Bear Island, where a party of the crew landed, 
stole some cattle, which they put on board, and sailed 
away again. 

A more serious assault was made on the fort about 
two years later. A company of soldiers was then 
quartered at the Half Barony in the neighbourhood, 
the captain of which boarded with the refugee family 
On the 7th of October, 1708, during the temporary 
absence of Fontaine as well as the captain, a French 
privateer made his appearance in the haven, and 
hoisted English colours. The ensign residing in the 
fort at the time, deceived by the stratagem, went on 
board, when he was immediately made prisoner. He 
was plied with drink and became intoxicated, when 
he revealed the fact that there was no officer in 
command of the fort. The crew of the privateer were 
principally Irish, and they determined to attack the 
place at midnight, for which purpose a party of them 

Fontaine had by this time returned, and was on 
the alert. He hailed the advancing party through a 
speaking-trumpet, and, no answer being returned, he 
ordered fire to be opened on them. The assailants 
then divided into six detachments, one of which set 
fire to the offices and stables ; the household servants, 
under the direction of Madame Fontaine, protecting 
the dwelling-house from conflagration. The men 
within fired from the windows and loopholes, but the 
smoke was so thick that they could only fire at 
random. Some of the privateer's men succeeded in 
making a breach with a crowbar in the wall of the 
house, but they were saluted with so rapid a fire 
through the opening that they suspected there must 
be a party of soldiers in the house, and they retired. 
They advanced again, and summoned the besieged to 
surrender, offering fair terms. Fontaine approached 
the French for the purpose of parley, when one of the 
Irish lieutenants took aim and fired at him. This 
treachery made the Fontaines resume the defensive, 


which was continued without intermission for some 
hours ; when, no help arriving, Fontaine found himself 
under the necessity of surrendering, conditional upon 
himself and his two sons, with their two followers, 
marching out with the honours of war. No sooner, 
however, had the house been surrendered, than Fon- 
taine, his sons, and their followers, were at once made 
prisoners, and the dwelling was given up to plunder. 

Fontaine protested against this violation of the 
treaty, but it was of no use. The leader of the French 
party said to him, " Your name has become so noto- 
rious among the privateers of St. Malo, that I dare 
not return to the vessel without you. The captain's 
order was peremptory, to bring you on board, dead or 
alive." Fontaine and his sons were accordingly taken 
on board prisoners ; and when the Huguenot hero 
appeared on deck, the crew set up a shout of " Vive 
le Roi." On this, Fontaine called out, " Gentleman, 
how long is it since victories have become so rare in 
France, that you must needs make a triumph of such 
a poor affair as this ? A glorious feat indeed ! Eighty 
men, accustomed to war, have succeeded in compelling 
a lame pastor, four cowherds, and five children, to 
surrender upon terms ! " Fontaine again expostulated 
with the captain, and informed him that, being held a 
prisoner in breach of the treaty under which he had 
surrendered, he must be prepared for the retaliation of 
the English government upon French prisoners of war. 
The captain would not, however, give up Fontaine 
without a ransom, and demanded 100. Madame 
Fontaine contrived to borrow 30, and sent it to the 
captain, with a promise of the remainder. The cap- 
tain could not wait, but he liberated Fontaine, and 
carried off his son Pierre to St. Malo, as a hostage for 
the payment of the balance. 

When the news of this attack on the fort at Bear- 
haven reached the English Government, and they were 
informed of the violation of the conditions under 
which Fontaine had surrendered, they ordered the 


French officers at Kinsale and Plymouth to be put 
in irons until Fontaine's son was sent back. This 
produced an immediate effect. In the course of a few 
months Pierre Fontaine was set at liberty and returned 
to his parents, and the balance of the ransom was never 
claimed. The commander of the forces in Ireland 
made Fontaine an immediate grant of 100, to relieve 
him from the destitution to which he had been reduced 
by the plunder of his dwelling. The county of Cork 
afterwards paid him 800 as damages, on its being 
proved that Irishmen had been principally concerned 
in the attack and robbery; and Fontaine's two sons 
were awarded the position and rights of half-pay 
officers, while his own pension was continued. The 
fort at Bearhaven, having been completely desolated, 
was abandoned ; and Fontaine, with the grant made to 
him by government, and the sum awarded by the 
county, left the lawless neighbourhood which he had 
so long laboured to improve and to defend, and pro- 
ceeded to Dublin, where he settled for the remainder 
of his life as a teacher of langauges, mathematics, and 
fortification. His undertaking proved successful, and 
he ended his days there in peace. His noble wile died 
in 1721, and he himself followed her shortly after, 
respected and beloved by all who knew him. 1 

ail Jb'untaiuc's near Mauiy, Fredericksville Parish, 

relatives took refuge in England. Louisa County, Virginia, from 

His mother and three of his whom Mathew Fontaine Maury. 

brothers were refugees in Lon- LL.D., lately Captain in the 

don. One of them afterwards Confederate States Navy, and 

became a Protestant minister in author of The Physical Geo- 

Germany. One of his uncles, graphy of the Sea, is lineally de- 

Peter, was pastor of the Pest scended. The above particulars 

House Chapel in London. Two are for the most part taken from 

aunts one a widow, the other the ' ' Memoirs of a Huguenot 

married to a refugee merchant Family ; translated and compiled 

were also settled in London. from the original Autobiography 

Fontaine's sons and daughters of the Kev. James Fontaine, and 

mostly emigrated to Virginia, other family manuscripts, by 

where their descendants are still ANN MAURY " (another of the 

to be found. His daughter Mary descendants of Fontaine) : New 

Anne married the Kev. James York, 1853. 


We return to the subject of the settlements made by 
other refugees in the southern parts of Ireland. In 
1697, about fifty retired officers, who had served in the 
army of William III., settled with their families at 
Youghal, on the invitation of the mayor and corpora- 
tion, who offered them the freedom of the town on 
payment of the nominal sum of sixpence each. It 
does not appear that the refugees were sufficiently 
numerous to maintain a pastor, though the Rev. Arthur 
d'Anvers for some time privately ministered to them. 
Most probably, from the circumstance of their com- 
paratively small number, they speedily ceased to exist 
as a distinctive portion of the community, though 
names of French origin are still common in the 

The French refugee colony at Waterford was of 
considerably greater importance. Being favourably 
situated for trade near the mouth of the river Suir, 
with a rich agricultural country behind it, Waterford 
offered many inducements to the refugee merchants 
and traders to settle there. In the Act passed by the 
Irish Parliament in 1662, and re-enacted in 1672, "for 
encouraging Protestant strangers and others to inhabit 

o o t o 

Ireland," Waterford is specially named as one of the 
cities selected for the settlement of the refugees. Some 
twenty years later, in 1693, the corporation of Water- 
ford, being desirous not only that the disbanded 
Huguenot officers and soldiers should settle in the 
place, but also that persons skilled in the arts and 
manufactures should become citizens, ordered, " that 
the city and liberties do provide habitations for fifty 
families of the French Protestants to drive a trade of 
linen-manufacture, they bringing with them a stock 
of money and materials for their subsistence until flax 
can be sown and produced on the lands adjacent ; 
and that the freedom of the city be given them gratis." 
At the same time, the choir of the old Franciscan 
monastery was assigned to them, with the assent of 
the bishop, Dr. Nathaniel Foy, himself descended from 


a Protestant refugee, for the purposes of a French 
church, the corporation guaranteeing a stipend of 40 
a year towards the support of their pastor, the Rev. 
David Gervais, afterwards a prebendary of Lismore 

These liberal measures had the effect of inducing a 
considerable number of refugees to establish themselves 
at Waterford, and carry on various branches of trade 
and manufacture. Some of them became leading mer- 
chants in the place, and rose to wealth and distinction. 
Thus, John Espaignet was sheriff of the city in 1707; 
Jeremy Gayot in 1709 ; and the two brothers Vashon 
served, the one as mayor in 1726, the other as sheriff 
in 1735. James Henry Reynette afterwards held office 
both as sheriff and mayor. The foreign wine-trade of 
the south of Ireland was almost exclusively conducted 
through Waterford by the French wine -merchants, 
some of their principal stores being in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the French church. The refugees 
also made vigorous efforts to establish the linen-manu- 
facture in Waterford, in which they were materially 
assisted by Louis Crommelin and John Latrobe in the 
first instance, and by Bishop Chenevix in the next ; 
and for many years linen was one of the staple trades 
of the place, although it ceased shortly after the intro- 
duction of power-looms. 

Another colony of the refugees was established at 
Portarlington, which town they may almost be said to 
have founded. The first settlers consisted principally 
of retired French officers as well as privates, who had 
served in the army of King William. We have already 
referred to the circumstances connected with the for- 
mation of this colony by the Marquis de Ruvigny, 
created Earl of Galway, to whom William granted the 
estate of Portarlington, which had become forfeited to 
the crown by the treason and outlawry of Sir Patrick 
Grant, its former owner. Although the grant was 
revoked by the English Parliament, and the Earl 
ceased to own the Portarlington estate, he nevertheless 


continued to take the same warm interest as before in 
the prosperity of the refugee colony. 1 

Among the early settlers at Portarlington were the 
Marquis de Paray, the Sieur de Haute ville, Louis le 
Blanc, Sieur de Pierce, Charles de Ponthieu, Captain 
d' Alnuis and his brother, Abel Pelissier, David d' Arripe, 
Keuben de la Rochefoucauld, the Sieur de la Boissere, 
Guy de la Blachiere, De Bonneval, De Villier, Fleury, 
Champagne, De Bostaquet, Franquefort, Chatcauneuf, 
La Beaume, Montpeton du Languedoc, Vicomte de 
Laval, Pierre Goulin, Jean la Ferriere, De Gaudry, 
Jean Lafaurie, Abel de Ligonier, De Vignoles, Anthoine 
de Ligonier, and numerous others. 

The greater number of these noblemen and gentle- 
men had served with distinction under the Duke of 
Schomberg, La Melonniere, La Caillemotte, Carnbon, 
and other commanders, in the service of William III. 
They had been for the most part men of considerable 
estates in their own country, though they were now 
content to live as exiles on the half-pay granted them by 
the country of their adoption. When they first came in- 
to the neighbourhood, the town of Portarlington could 
scarcely be said to exist. The village of Cootletoodra, 
as it was formerly called, was only a collection of 
miserable huts unfit for human residence ; and until the 

1 The Bulletin de la Societt these families to the sea-board ; 
de VHistoire du Protestantisms after which, the means would be 
frangaig (1868, p. 69), contains provided for their embarkation for 
a letter addressed by the Earl Ireland. " The King," he says, "is 
of Galway to David Barbut, a so touched at the misery with 
refugee residing at Berne, in which these families are threat- 
January, 1693,wherein he informs ened where they are. and perceives 
him that King William is greatly so clear lyhow valuable their settle- 
concerned at the distress of the ment would be in his kingdom of 
French refugees in Switzerland, Ireland, that he is resolved to 
and desires that 600 families provide all the money that may 
should proceed to Ireland and be required for the purpose. We 
settle there. He adds that the must not lose any time on this 
KinghasrecommendedtheProtes- matter; and I hope that by the 
tant Princes of Germany, and the month of April, or May at the 
States-General of Holland, to pay latest, these families will be on 
the expense of the transport of their way to join us." 


dwellings designed for the reception of the exiles bj 
the Earl of Galway could be built, they resided in the 
adjoining villages of Doolough, Monasterevin, Cloney- 
gown, and the ancient village of Lea. 

Portarlington shortly became the model town of the 
province. The dwellings of the strangers were dis- 
tinguished for their neatness and comfort. Their farms 
and gardens were patterns of tidiness and good manage- 
ment. They introduced new fruit-trees from abroad ; 
amongst others the black Italian walnut and the jargo- 
nelle pear, specimens of which still flourish at Portar- 
lington in vigorous old age. The planter of these trees 
fought at the Boyne as an ensign in the regiment of La 
Melonniere. The immigrants also introduced the 
" espalier " with success ; and their fruit of all kinds be- 
came widely celebrated. Another favourite branch of 
cultivation was flowers, of which they imported many 
new sorts; while their vegetables were unmatched in 

The exiles formed a highly select society, composed, 
as it was, of ladies and gentlemen of high culture, of 
pure morals, and of gentle birth and manners, so dif- 
ferent from the roystering Irish gentry of the time. 
Though they had suffered grievous wrongs at the hands 
of their own countrymen, they were contented, cheer- 
ful, and even gay. 1 Traditions still exist of the mili- 
tary refugees, in their scarlet cloaks, sitting in groups 
under the old oaks in the market-place, sipping tea out 
of their small china cups. They had also their balls, 
and ordinaries, and "ridottos" (places of pleasant 
resort) ; and a great deal of pleasant visiting went on 
amongst them. They continued to enjoy their favourite 
wine of Bordeaux, which was imported for them in 

1 An Irish correspondent, how- choly, cast of countenance, the 

ever, extensively acquainted with same sort of sad expression which 

the descendants of the Huguenots, may be observed in the Polish 

says that. " so far as his observa- Jews, doubtless the result of long 

tion goes, they, for the most part, persecution and suffering." 
bear a pensive, not to say melan- 


considerable quantities by their fellow-exiles, the 
French wine-merchants of Waterford and Dublin. 

There were also numerous refugees of a humbler 
class settled in the place, who carried on various trades. 
Thus the Fouberts carried on a manufacture of linen. 
Many of the minor tradesmen were French bakers, 
butchers, masons, smiths, carpenters, tailors, and 
shoemakers. The Blancs, butchers, transmitted the 
business from father to son for more than 150 years; 
and they are still recognisable at Portarlington under 
the name of Blong. The Micheaus, farmers, had been 
tenants on the estates of the Robillard family in 
Champagne : they were now tenants of the same family 
at Portarlington. One of the Micheaus was sexton of 
the French church of the town, until within the last few 
years. La Borde the mason, Capel the blacksmith, and 
Gautier the carpenter, came from the neighbourhood of 
Bordeaux; and their handiwork, much of which still 
exists at Portarlington and the neighbourhood, bears 
indications of their foreign training and artistic culture. 

The refugees, as was their invariable practice where 
they settled in sufficient numbers, early formed them- 
selves into a congregation, and a church was erected 
for their accommodation, in which a long succession of 
able ministers officiated, the last of whom was Charles 
de Vignoles, afterwards Dean of Ossory. 1 The service 
was conducted in French down to the year 1817; since 

1 The Register of the French 5 Octr. 1696 Belagniere 

church is still preserved. The 1 Deer. 1696 98 Gillet 

entries begin in 1694. The 15 May 1698 Durassus 

Register contains the names, Ducasse 

families, and localities in France, 26 June 1698 1702 Daillon. 

from whence the exiles came. Anglicans. 

The first volume still wears the 3 Octr. 170229 De Bonneval 

coarse brown paper cover with 14 Aug. 1729 39 DesVoeux 

which it was originally invested 17 Feb. 1739 67 Caillard 

by its foreign guardians nearly 2 Sep. 1767 93 Des Vceux 

190 years ago. The following is Jan. 1793 18 17 Vignoles j^tf 

a list of the pastors of the Port- 1817 Charles Vig- 

arlington Church : nolesjilt. 

Depuis 169486 Gillet 


then it has been discontinued, the language having 
by that time ceased to be understood in the neighbour- 

Besides a church, the refugees also possessed a school, 
which long enjoyed a high reputation for the classical 
education which it provided for the rising generation. 
At an early period, the boys seem to have been clothed 
as well as educated, the memorandum-book of an old 
officer of the JBoyne containing an entry, April 20, 1727, 
" making six sutes of cloths for ye blewbois, at 18 pee. 
per sute, 00 : 09 : 00." M. Le Fevre, founder of the 
Charter Schools, was the first schoolmaster in Port- 
arlington. He is said to have been the father of Sterne's 
" poor sick lieutenant." 1 The Bonnevaux and Tersons 
were amongst the subsequent teachers, and many sons 
and daughters of the principal Protestants in Ireland 
passed under their hands. Among the more distin- 
guished men who received the best part of their educa- 
tion at Portarlington, may be mentioned the Marquis of 
Wellesley and his brother the Earl of Mornington, 
the Marquis of Westmeath, the Right Hon. John Wil- 
son Croker, Sir Henry Ellis (of the British Museum), 
Daniel W. Webber, and many others. 

Lady Morgan, referring in her Memoirs to the 
French colony at Portarlington, observes: "The dis- 
persion of the French Huguenots, who settled in great 
numbers in Ireland, was one of the greatest boons con- 
ferred by the misgovernment of other countries upon 
our own. Eminent preachers, eminent lawyers, and 
clever statesmen, whose names are not unknown to the 
literature and science of France, occupied high places 
in the professions in Dublin. Of these I may mention, 

1 The Portarlington Register Favre. Lieutenant a la pentioni 

contains the following record : dont 1'ame estait allee a Dieu, son 

" Sepulture du Dimanche 23 e corps a e~te enterr^ par Monsieur 

Mars, 1717-18. Le Samedy 22 e Bonneval, ministre de cette Eglise 

du present mois entre minuet et dans le cemitiere de ce lieu. A 

une heure. est mort en la foy du Lijronier Bonneval ip. Louis 

Seigneur et dans Tesp^ranre de la Buliod." 
glorieuse resurrection, Monsieur 


as personal acquaintances, the Saurins, the Lefanus, 
Espinasses, Favers, Corneilles, Le Bas, and many others 
whose families still remain in the Irish metropolis." 1 

It may here be noted that the social standard of the 
Huguenot immigration into Ireland was generally higher 
than that of the same immigration into England, prin- 
cipally because of the large number of retired French 
officers, most of them of noble and gentle blood, who 
settled at Portarlington, Waterford, and the other 
southern Irish towns, shortly after the conclusion of the 
peace of Utrecht. Some of these retired veterans bore 
the noblest historic names in France. Their sons and 
their daughters intermarried, and thus kept up the 
Huguenot line, usually to the second and third, and 
often to the fourth generation. Their martial instincts 
survived their separation from the country of their 
birth ; and to this day a large proportion of the de- 
scendants of the Huguenot settlers in Ireland are to be 
found serving as officers in the British army ; whilst 
many others belong to the Church and the learned pro- 
fessions. Thus, among the MSS 2 left by Dr. Letablere, 
Dean of Tuam son of Rend de la Douespe, representa- 
tive of the illustrious family of L'Establere in Picardy 
we find lists of persons descended from Huguenot 
refugees in Ireland; among whom there were two gene- 
rals, six colonels, five majors, and twenty-four captains, 
besides subaltern officers. At the same time there 
were then serving in the Irish Church, one bishop of 
Huguenot extraction (Dr. Chevenix), three deans 
(Brocas, Champagne, and Letablere), and thirty-three 
clergymen, besides nineteen ministers of French 
churches in different parts of Ireland. The Dean's 
papers also contain a list of about a hundred persons 
established in Dublin in 1763, carrying on business 
there as bankers, physicians, attorneys, merchants, 

1 LADY MORGAN Memoirs, i. by 11. W. Litton, Esq., one of the 
106. surviving representatives of Dr. 

2 These papers have been Letablere by the female line 
kindly submitted for our inspec- 


goldsmiths, manufacturers, and traders of various 

It is to be regretted that the industrial settlements 
of the refugee French and Flemings in Ireland, were 
generally so much smaller than those which they 
effected in different parts of England, otherwise the 
condition of that unfortunate country would probably 
have been very different from that in which we now find 
it. The only part of Ireland in which the Huguenots left 
a permanent impression was in the north, where the 
branches of industry which they planted took firm 
root, and continue to flourish with extraordinary 
vigour to this day. But in the south it was very 
different. Though the natural facilities for trade at 
Cork, Limerick, and Waterford, were much greater 
than those of the northern towns, the refugees never 
obtained any firm footing ir made any satisfactory 
progress in that quarter. TLeir colonies at first main- 
tained only a sickly existence, and they gradually fell 
into decay. The last blow was given to them by 

One has only to look at Belfast and the busy hives 
of industry in that neighbourhood, and to note the 
condition of the northern province of Ulster existing 
under precisely the same laws as govern the south, 
to find how -seriously the social progress of Ireland has 
been affected by the want of that remunerative employ- 
ment which the refugees were always so instrumental 
in providing in the districts in which they settled, 
wherever they found a population willing to be taught 
by them, and to follow in the path which they unde- 
viatingly pursued of peaceful, contented, and honour- 
able iridustrv. 



ALTHOUGH 300 years have passed since the first reli- 
gious persecutions in Flanders and France compelled 
so large a number of Protestants to fly from those 
countries and take refuge in England, and although 
nearly 200 years have passed since the second great 
emigration from France took place in the reign of 
Louis XIV., the descendants of the "gentle and profit- 
able strangers " are still recognisable amongst us. In 
the course of the generations which have come and 
gone since the dates of their original settlement, they 
have laboured skilfully and diligently, for the advance- 
ment of British trade, commerce, and manufactures ; 
while there is scarcely a branch of literature, science, or 
art, in which they have not honourably distinguished 

Three hundred years form a long period in the life 
of a nation. During that time many of the distinctive 
characteristics of the original refugees must necessarily 
have become effaced in the persons of their descend- 
ants. Indeed, by far the greater number of them 
before long became completely Anglicised, and ceased 
to be traceable except by their names; and even these 
have for the most part become converted into names of 
English sound. 

So long as the foreigners continued to cherish the 
hope of returning to their native country, on the pos- 
sible cessation of the persecutions there, they waited 
and worked on, with that end in view. But as the 


persecutions only waxed hotter, they at length gradu- 
ally gave up all hope of returning. They claimed and 
obtained letters of naturalisation ; and though many 
of them continued for several generations to worship 
in their native language, they were content to live 
and die as English subjects. Their children grew up 
amidst English associations, and they desired to forget 
that their fathers had been fugitives and foreigners in 
the land. They cared not to remember the language 
or to retain the names which marked them as distinct 
from the people amongst whom they lived ; and hence 
many of the descendants of the refugees, in the second 
or third generation, abandoned their foreign names, 
and gradually ceased to frequent the distinctive places 
of worship which their fathers had founded. 

Indeed, many of the early Flemings had no sooner 
settled in England and become naturalised, than they 
threw off their foreign names and assumed English 
ones. Thus, as we have seen, Hoek, the Flemish 
brewer in South wark, assumed the name of Leeke; 
while Haestricht, the Flemish manufacturer at Bow, 
took that of James. Mr. Pryme, formerly professor of 
political economy in the University of Cambridge, and 
representative of that town in Parliament, whose 
ancestors were refugees from Ypres in Flanders, has 
informed us that his grandfather dropped the " de la " 
originally prefixed to the family name, in consequence 
of the strong anti-Gallican feeling which prevailed in 
this country during the Seven Years' War of 1756-63, 
though his son has since assumed it ; and the same 
circumstance doubtless led many others to change 
their foreign names to those of an English sound. 

Nevertheless, a large number of purely Flemish 
names are still to be found in various parts of England 
and Ireland, where the foreigners originally settled. 
They have been on the whole better preserved in the 
rural districts than in London, where the social friction 
was greater, and rubbed off the foreign peculiarities 
more quickly. In the lace towns of the west of Eng- 


land such names as Raymond, Spiller, Brock, Stocker, 
Groot, Rochett, and Kettel, are still common ; and the 
same trades have continued in some of their families 
for generations. The Walloon Goupes, who settled in 
Wiltshire as clothmakers more than 300 years since, 
are still known there as the Guppys, and the Thun- 
guts as Dogoods and Toogoods. 

In the account of the early refugee Protestants 
given in the preceding pages, it has been pointed out 
that the first settlers in England came principally 
from Lille, Turcoing, and the towns situated along both 
.sides of the present French frontier the country of 
the French Walloons, though then subject to the crown 
of Spain. Among the first of these refugees was one 
Laurent des Bouveryes, 1 a native of Sainghin, near 
Lille. He first settled at Sandwich as a maker of 
serges, in 1567; after which, in the following year, he 
removed to Canterbury to join the Walloon settlement 
there. The Des Bouveryes family prospered greatly. 
In the third generation we find Edward, grandson of 
the refugee, a wealthy Turkey merchant in London, 
In the fourth generation the head of the family was 
created a baronet ; in the fifth, a viscount ; and in the 
sixth, an earl ; the original Laurent des Bouveryes 
being at this day represented in the House of Lords 
by the Earl of Radnor. 

About the same time that the Des Bouveryes came 
into England from Lille, the Hugessens arrived from 
Dunkirk, and settled at Dover. They afterwards 
removed to Sandwich, where they prospered ; and in 
the course of a few generations, we find them enrolled 
among the county aristocracy of Kent, and their name 
borne by the ancient family of the Knatchbulls. It is 
not the least remarkable circumstance connected with 
this family, that a member of it now represents the 

1 The Bouveryes were men of in 1664, it is stated, "Lafamille 

mark in their native country. de Bouverie est reconnu passer 

Thus, in the Histoire de Cain- plusieurs siecles entre les patrices 

bray ct du Cambrcmsis, published de Camhray." 


borough of Sandwich, one of the earliest seats of the 
refugees in England. 

Among other notable Flemish immigrants may be 
numbered the Houblons, who gave the Bank of 
England its first governor, and from one of whose 
daughters the late Lord Palmerston was lineally 
descended. 1 The Van Sittarts, Jansens, Courteens, 
Van Milderts, Vanlores, Corsellis, and Vannecks, 2 were 
widely and honourably known in their day as 
London bankers or merchants. Sir Matthew Decker, 
besides being eminent as a London merchant, was 
distinguished for the excellence of his writings on 
commercial subjects, then little understood. He made 
an excellent member of Parliament: he was elected 
for Bishop's Castle in 1719. 

Various members of the present landed gentry 
trace their descent from the Flemish refugees. Thus 
Jacques Hoste, the founder of the present family 
(represented by Sir W. L. S. Hoste, Bart.), fled from 
Bruges, of which his father was governor in 1569 ; 
the Tyssens (now represented by W. Q. Tyssen 
Amhurst, Esq., of Foulden) fled from Ghent ; and the 
Cruses of Norfolk fled from Hownescout in Flanders. 
All of them took refuge in England. 

Among artists, architects, and engineers of Flemish 
descent we find Grinling Gibbons, the wood-sculptor ; 
Mark Gerrard, the portrait-painter ; Sir John Van- 
brugh, the architect and play-writer; Richard Cos way, 
R.A., 3 the miniature-painter; and Vermuyden and 
Westerdyke, the engineers employed to reclaim the 
drowned lands in the Fens. The Tradescants, the 
celebrated antiquarians, were also of the same origin.* 

1 Anne, sister and heir of Sir * Cosway belonged to a family, 
Richard Houblon, was married originally Flemish, long settled 
to Henry Temple, created Lord at Tiverton, Devon. His father 
Palmerston in 1722. was master of the grammar- 

2 The Vanneck family is now school there. 

represented in the peerage by * The Tatler, vol. i., ed. 1786, 

Baron Huntingfield. p. 435, in a note, says : " John 



One of the most distinguished families of the 
Netherlands was that of the De Grotes or Groots, 
of which Hugo Grotius was an illustrious member. 
When the Spanish persecutions were at their height 
in the Low Countries, several of the Protestant De 
Grotes, who were eminent merchants at Antwerp, 
fled from that city, and took refuge, some in England 
and others in Germany. Several of the Flemish De 
Grotes had before then settled in England. Thus, 
among the letters of Denization mentioned in Mr. 
Brewer's Calendar of State Papers, Henry VIII., we 
find the following : 

" Ambrose de Grote, merchant of the Duchy of Brabant 
(Letters of Denization, Patent llth June, 1510, 2 Henry 

" 12 Feby., 1512-13. Protection for one year for Ambrose 
and Peter de Grote, merchants of Andwarp, in Brabant, going 
in the retinue of Sir Gilbert Talbot, Deputy of Calais." 

One of the refugee Grotes is supposed to have 
settled as a merchant at Bremen, from which city the 
grandfather of the late George Grote, the historian of 
Greece, came over to London early in last century, 
and established a mercantile house, and afterwards a 
banking house, both of which flourished. Mr. Grote 
was also of Huguenot blood through his mother, who 
was descended from Colonel Blosset, commander of 
"Blosset's Foot," the scion of an ancient Protestant 
family of Touraine. He was an officer in the army of 
Queen Anne, and the proprietor of a considerable estate 
in the county of Dublin. 

The great French immigration, which occurred at 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, having been 
the most recent, has left much more noticeable traces 

Tradescant, senior, is supposed to were very ingenious persons, and 

have been of Dutch or Flemish were held in esteem for their 

extraction, and to have settled in early promotion and culture of 

this kingdom probably about the botany and natural history. The 

end of Queen Elizabeth's reign. son formed the Tradescaut mu- 

or in the beginning of the reign seum at Oxford, 
of James I." Father and son 


in English family history and nomenclature, notwith- 
standing the large proportion of the refugees and their 
descendants who threw aside their French names, or, 
rather, translated them into English. Thus, L'Oiseau 
became Bird ; Le Jeune, Young ; Du Bois, Wood ; Le 
Blanc, White ; Le Noir, Black ; Le Maur, Brown ; Le 
Roy, King ; Lacroix, Cross ; Le Monnier, Miller ; Ton- 
nelier, Cooper; Le Maitre, Masters; Dulau, Waters; 
Sauvage, Savage and Wild. Some of the Lefevres 
changed their name to the English equivalent of 
Smith, as was the case with the ancestor of Sir Culling 
Eardley Smith, Bart., a French refugee whose original 
name was Le Fevre. Many names were strangely 
altered in their conversion from French into English. 
Jolifemme was freely translated into Pretyinan 1 a 
name well known in the Church; Momerie became 
Mummery, a common name at Dover; and Planche 
became Plank, of which there are still instances at 
Canterbury and Southampton. At Oxford, the name 
of Willamise was traced back to Villebois ; Taillebois 
became Talboys ; Le Coq, Laycock ; Bouchier, Butcher 
or Boxer ; Boyer, Bower ; Bois, Boys ; Mesurier, Mea- 
sure; Mahieu, Mayhew; Bourgeois, Burgess; Souverain, 
Suffren ; De Vere, Weir ; Coquerel, Cockerill ; Drouet, 
Drewitt; D'Aeth, Death; D'Orleans, Dorling. Other 
pure French names were dreadfully vulgarised. Thus 
Conde became Gundy ; Chapuis, Shoppee ; De Preux, 
Diprose ; De Moulins, Mullins ; Pelletier, Pelter ; 
Huyghens, Huggins or Higgins ; and Beaufoy, Boffy ! 2 

1 A correspondent informs us, was, in the orthography of hii 
that some years since he saw ancestors, a Despard. 

over a shop door at Dover the Among other conversions of 

words " Susanne Handsome- French into English names may 

bodie," probably a rough render- be mentioned the following : 

ing of the same name of " Joli- Letellier, converted into Taylour; 

femme. 1 ' Brasseur into Brassey ; Batchelier 

2 Mr. Lower, in his Patrony- into Bachelor ; Lenoir into Len- 
nica JSritannica, suggests that nard; De Lean into Dillon; Pigou 
Richard Despair, a poor man into Pigott; Breton into Britton; 
buried at East Grinstead in 1726, Dieudonn into Dudney ; Bau- 


Many pure French names have, however, been pre- 
served ; and one need only turn over the pages of a 
London Directory to recognise the large proportion 
which the descendants of the Huguenots continue to 
form, of the modern population of the metropolis. 
But a short time since, in reading the report of a 
meeting of the district board of works at Wandsworth 
where the refugees settled in such numbers as to 
form a considerable congregation we recognised the 
names of Lobjoit, Baringer, Fourdrinier, Poupart, and 
others, unmistakably French. Such names are con- 
stantly " cropping out " in modern literature, science, 
art, and manufactures. Thus we recognise those of 
Delaine and Fonblanque in the press; Rigaud and 
Roget in science ; Dargan (originally Dargent) in 
railway construction ; Pigou in gunpowder ; Gillot in 
steel pens ; Courage in beer ; and Courtauld in silk. 

That the descendants of the Huguenots have vindi- 
cated and continued to practise that liberty of thought 
and worship for which their fathers sacrificed so much, 
is sufficiently obvious from the fact that among them 
we find men holding such widely different views as 
the brothers Newman, Father Faber and James Mar- 
tineau, Dr. Pusey and the Rev. Hugh Stowell. Dr. 
Arnold's mother was a Delafield, and the Rev. Sidney 
Smith's a D'Olier. The latter was accustomed to at- 
tribute much of his constitutional gaiety to his mother, 
whom he characterised as a woman " of noble counte- 
nance and as noble a mind." 

From the peerage to the working classes, the de- 
scendants of the refugees pervade, to this day, the 
various ranks of English society. The Queen of 
England herself is related to them, through her 
descent from Sophia Dorothea, grand-daughter of the 

dorr into Baudry ; Guilbert into Savery ; Gebon into Gibbon ; 

Gilbert ; Koch into Cox ; Re- Scardeville into Sharwell ; Leve- 

nalls into Reynolds ; Merineau reau into Lever ; and so on with 

into Meryon ; Petit into Pettit ; many more. 
Reveil into Revill ; Saveloy into 


Marquis d'Olbreuse, a Protestant nobleman of Poitou. 
The Marquis was one of the numerous French exiles 
who took refuge in Brandenburg on the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. The Duke of Zell married his 
only daughter, whose issue was Sophia Dorothea, the 
wife of George Louis, Elector of Hanover, afterwards 
George I. of England. The son of Sophia Dorothea 
succeeded to the English throne as George II, and 
her daughter married Frederick William, afterwards 
King of Prussia; and thus the Huguenot blood con- 
tinues to run in the royal families of the two great 
Protestant states of the north. 

Several descendants of French Huguenots have 
become elevated to the British peerage. Of these the 
most ancient is the family of Trench, originally De la 
Tranche, the head of which is the Earl of Clancarty. 
Frederick, Lord of La Tranche in Poitou, took refuge 
in England about the year 1574, shortly after the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew. He settled for a time 
in Northumberland, from whence he passed over into 
Ireland. Of his descendants, one branch founded the 
peerage of Clancarty, and another that of Ashtown. 
Several members of the family have held high offices 
in church and state ; among whom may be mentioned 
Power le Poer Trench, the last Archbishop of Tuam, 
and the present Archbishop of Dublin, in whom the 
two Huguenot names of Trench and Chenevix are 
honourably united. 

Among other peers of Huguenot origin are Lord 
North wick, descended from John Rushout, a French 
refugee established in London in the reign of Charles 
I. ; Lord de Blaquiere, descended from John de 
Blacquire, a scion of a noble French family, who 
settled as a merchant in London shortly after the 
Revocation; and Lord Rendlesham, descended from 
Peter Thelusson, grandson of a French refugee who 
about the same time took refuge in Switzerland. 

Besides these elevations to the peerage of descend- 
ants of Huguenots in the direct male line, many of the 


daughters of distinguished refugees and their offspring 
formed unions with noble families, and led to a further 
intermingling of the blood of the Huguenots with 
that of the English aristocracy. Thus the blood of the 
noble family of Ruviguy mingles with that of Russell ' 
(Duke of Bedford) and Cavendish (Duke of Devon- 
shire) ; of Schomberg with that of Osborne (Duke of 
Leeds) ; of Champagne' (ne De la R-ochefoucauld) 
with that of Forbes (Earl of Granard) ; of Portal and 
Boileau with that of Elliott (Earl of Minto) ; of Auriol 
with that of Hay Drummond (Earl of Kinnoul) ; of 
D'Albiac with that of Innes-Ker (Duke of Rox- 
burghe) ; of La Touche with that of Butler-Danvers 
(Earl of Lanesborough) ; of Montolieu with that of 
Murray (Lord Elibank) ; and so on in numerous other 

Among recent peerages are those of Taunton, 
Eversley, and Romilly, all direct descendants of Hu- 
guenots. The first Labouchere who settled in England 
was Peter Caesar Labouchere. He had originally taken 
refuge from the persecution of Louis XIV. in Holland, 
where he joined the celebrated house of Hope at 
Amsterdam ; and he came over to London as the 
representative of that firm. He eventually acquired 
wealth and distinction; and the head of the family now 
sits in the House of Lords as Baron Taunton. 

The Lefevre family came originally from Normandy, 
where they held considerable landed property. Peter 
Lefevre, born in 1650, had scarcely succeeded to his 
paternal estates, when he was forced to fly with his 

1 Rachel, daughter of Daniel William Lord Russell, known as 

de Massue, Seigneur de Ruvigny, " patriot." Every one has heard 

married Thomas Wriothesley, of his celebrated wife, the daugh- 

Earl of Southampton, in 1634. ter of a Ruvigny, whose son 

The- Countess died in 1637, leav- afterwards became second Duke 

ing two daughters, one of whom, of Bedford, and whose two 

Elizabeth, afterwards married daughters married, one the Duke 

the Earl of Gainsborough, and of Devonshire, and the other the 

the other, Rachel, married, first Marquis of Granby. 
Lord Vaughan, and secondly 


family into England, rather than renounce his faith. 
He first settled at Canterbury, and there embarked in 
trade with the capital he had brought with him. One 
of his sons, John, entered the army, and rose to the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, serving under Marlborough 
through his campaigns in the Low Countries. He 
afterwards resided at Walthamstow, and held the office 
of High Sheriff of Essex. The younger brother, Isaac 
(from whom Lord Eversley, late Speaker of the House 
of Commons, is lineally descended), was put apprentice 
to trade at Canterbury ; and, after his father's death, 
he removed to Spitalfields, where he set up for himself 
as a scarlet dyer, and was very successful. His son 
John possessed considerable property at Old Ford and 
Bromley, which is still in the family; and his only 
daughter Helena having married Charles Shaw of 
Lincoln's Inn, in 1789, their descendants have since 
borne the name and arms of the Lefevres. 

The story of the Romilly family is well known 
through the autobiography left by the late Sir Samuel 
Romilly and published by his sons. 1 The great-grand- 
father of Sir Samuel was a considerable landed pro- 
prietor in the neighbourhood of Montpellier. Though 
a Protestant by conviction, he conformed to Roman 
Catholicism, with the object of saving the family pro- 
perty for the benefit of his only son. Yet he secretly 
worshipped after his own principles, as well as brought 
up his son in them. The youth indeed imbibed Protes- 
tantism so deeply, that in the year 1701, when only 
seventeen, he went to Geneva for the sole purpose of 
receiving the sacrament, the administration of the 
office by Protestant ministers in France still rendering 
them liable, if detected, to death or condemnation to 
the galleys for life. At Geneva, young Romilly met 
the celebrated preacher Saurin, then in the height of 
his fame, who happened to be there on a visit. The 

1 Memmrs of tlie Life of Sir Samuel Romilly written by himself. 
F.'lited by his Sons. 3 Vols. London. 1840. 


result of his conversations with Saurin was the for- 
mation in his mind of a fixed determation to leave for 
ever his native country, his parents, and the inheritance 
which awaited him, and trust to his own industry 
for a subsistence in some foreign land, where he might 
be free to worship God according to conscience. 

Young Romilly accordingly set out for London ; and 
it was not until he had landed in England that he 
apprised his father of the resolution which he had formed. 
After a few 3 r ears' residence in London, where he 
married Judith de Monsallier, the daughter of another 
refugee, Mr. Romilly began the business of a wax- 
bleacher at Hoxton, his father supplying him from 
time to time with money. But a sad reverse of fortune 
ensued on the death of his father. A distant relative, 
who was a Catholic, took possession of the family estate, 
and further remittances from France were stopped. 
Then followed difficulty, bankruptcy, and distress; 
and the landowner's son, unable to bear up under his 
calamities, sank under them at an early age, leaving a 
widow and a family of eight children almost entirely 
unprovided for. 

The youngest son, Peter, father of the future Sir 
Samuel, was bound apprentice to a French refugee 
jeweller, named Lafosse, whose shop was in Broad 
Street. On arriving at manhood he went to Paris, 
where he worked as a journeyman, saving money 
enough to make an excursion as far south as Moutpellier, 
to view the family estate, now in the possession of 
strangers and irrecoverably lost, since it could only be 
redeemed, if at all, by apostasy. The jeweller eventu- 
ally returned to London, married a Miss Garnault, des- 
cended like himself from a Protestant refugee, and 
began business on his own account. He seems to have 
enjoyed a moderate degree of prosperity, living care- 
fully and frugally, bringing up his family virtuously 
and religiously, and giving them as good an education as 
his comparatively slender means would admit, until 
the death ot a rich relative of his wife, a Mr. de la 


Haize, who left considerable legacies to each member 
of the family, enabled Mr. Romilly to article his son 
Samuel to a clerk in chancery, and to enter upon the 
profession in which he acquired so much distinc- 
tion. It is unnecessary to describe his career, which 
has been so simply and beautifully related by himself, 
or to trace the further history of the family, the head 
of which now sits in the House of Lords, under the 
title of Baron Romilly. 

The baronetage, as well as the peerage, includes 
many descendants of the Huguenots. Jacques Boileau 
was Lord of Castlenau and St. Croix, near Nismes, in 
the neighbourhood of which the persecution long raged 
so furiously. He was the father of a family of twenty- 
two children, and could not readily leave France at the 
Revocation; but, being known as a Protestant, and 
refusing to be converted, he was arrested and placed 
under restraint, in which condition he died. His son 
Charles fled, first into Holland, and afterwards into 
England, where he entered the army, obtained the rank 
of captain, and commanded a corps of French gentle- 
men under Marlborough at the battle of Blenheim. 
He afterwards settled as a wine-merchant at Dublin, 
and was succeeded by his son. The family prospered ; 
and the great-grandson of Marlborough's captain was 
promoted to a baronetcy, the present wearer of the 
title being Sir John Boileau. 

The Crespignys also belonged to a noble family in 
Lower Normandy. Claude Champion, Lord of Cres- 
pigny, was an officer in the French army ; but at the 
Revocation he fled into England, accompanied by his 
wife, the Comtesse de Vierville, and a family of eight 
children, two of whom were carried on board the 
ship in which they sailed, in baskets. De Crespigny 
entered the British army, and served as colonel under 
Marlborough. The present head of the family is Sir 
C. W. Champion Crespigny, Bart. 

Elias Bouhe'rau, M.D., an eminent physician in 
Rochelle, being debarred the practice of his profession 


by the edict of Louis XIV.. fled into England with his 
wife and children, and settled in Ireland, where his 
descendants rose to fame and honour ; the present re- 
presentative of the family being Sir E. R. Borough, 

Anthony Vinchon de Bacquencourt, a man eminent 
for his learning, belonged to Rouen, of the parliament 
of which his father was President. He was originally 
a Roman Catholic, but being incensed at the pretended 
miracles wrought at the tomb of the Abbe' Paris, he 
embraced Protestantism, and fled from France. He 
settled in Dublin under the name of Des Voeux (the 
family surname), and became minister of the French 
church there. He afterwards joined the Rev. John 
Peter Droz, another French refugee, in starting the 
first literary journal that ever appeared in Ireland. 
The present representative of the famity is Sir C. 
Des Voeux, Bart. 

Among other baronets descended from French 
refugees, may be mentioned Sir John Lambert, de- 
scended from John Lambert of the Isle of Rhe'; Sir J. 
D. Legard, descended from John Legard, of ancient 
Norman lineage ; Sir A. J. de Hochepied Larpent, de- 
scended from John de Larpent of Caen ; and Sir G. S. 
Brooke Pechell, descended from the Pechells of Montau- 
ban in Languedoc. One of the members of the last- 
mentioned family having embraced Roman Catholicism, 
his descendants still hold the family estate in France. 

Many of the refugees and their descendants have 
also sat in Parliament, and done good service there. 
Probably the first Huguenot member of the House 
of Commons was Phillip Papiilon, who sat for the 
city of London in 1695. The Papillons had suffered 
much for their religion in France, one of them having 
lain in gaol at Avranches for three years. Various 
members of the family have since represented Dover, 
Romney, and Colchester. 

Of past members of Parliament, the Pechells have 
sat for Essex ; the Fonneraus for Aldborough ; the 


Durants for St. Ives and Evesham ; the Devagnes for 
Barnstaple ; the Maugers for Poole ; the La Roches for 
Bodmin ; and the Amyands for Tregony, Bodmin, and 
Camelford. The last member of the Amyand family 
was a baronet, who assumed the name of Cornewall on 
marrying Catherine, the heiress of Velters Cornewall, 
Esq., of Moccas Court, Herefordshire; and his only 
daughter having married Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis, 
became the mother of the late Sir George Comewall 
Lewis, Bart. 

Many descendants of the Huguenots who settled 
in Ireland, also represented constituencies in the Irish 
Parliament. Thus, the La Touches sat for Carlow ; 
the Chaigneaus for Gowran ; and the Right Hon. 
William Saurin, who filled the office of Irish Attorney- 
General for fourteen years, may be said to have repre- 
sented all Ireland. He was a man of great ability 
and distinguished patriotism ; and but for his lack of 
ambition, would have been made a judge and a peer, 
both of which dignities he refused. Colonel Barre', 
who belonged to the refugee family of that name settled 
in Ireland, is best known by his parliamentary career 
in England. He was celebrated as an orator and a 
patriot, resisting to the utmost the passing of the 
American Stamp Act, which severed the connection 
between England and her American colonies. In 1776 
he held the office of Vice- Treasurer of Ireland, and 
afterwards that ef Paymaster to the Forces for 

Among more recent members of Parliament may be 
mentioned the names of Dupre', Gaven, Hugessen, Jer- 
voise, Labouchere, Layard, Lefevre, Lefroy, Paget (of 
the Leicestershire family, formerly member for Notting- 
ham), Pusey, Tomline, Rebow, and Vandeleur. Mr. 
Chevalier Cobbold is descended by the female side 
from Samuel le Chevalier, minister of the French 
church in London in 1591 ; one of whose descendants 
introduced the well-known Chevalier barley. Mr. Du 
Cane is descended from the same family to which the 


great admiral belonged. The first Du Cane or Da 
Quesne who fled into England for refuge, settled at 
Canterbury, and afterwards in London. The head 
of this family was an Alderman of the City in 1666, 
and in the next century his grandson Richard sat for 
Colchester in Parliament; the present representative 
of the Du Canes being the member for North Essex. 

Of the descendants of refugees who were distin- 
guished as divines, may be mentioned the Majendies, 
one of whom John James, son of the pastor of the 
French church at Exeter was Prebendary of Sarum, 
and a well-known author; and another, son of the 
Prebendary, became Bishop of Chester, and afterwards 
of Bangor. The Saurins also rose to eminence in the 
Church, Louis Saurin, minister of the French church 
in the Savoy, having been raised to the Deanery of St. 
Patrick's, Ardagh ; whilst his son afterwards became 
Vicar of Belfast, and his grandson Bishop of Dromore. 
Roger Du Quesne, grandson of the Marquis Du Quesne, 
was Vicar of East Tuddenhani in Norfolk, and a Pre- 
bendary of Ely. 

One of the most eminent scholars of Huguenot origin 
was the Rev. Dr. Jortin, Archdeacon of London. He 
was the son of Rene' Jortin, a refugee from Brittany, 
who served as secretary to three British admirals suc- 
cessively, and went down with Sir Cloudesley Shovel 
in the ship in which he was wrecked off the Scilly 
Isles in 1707. The son of Rene* was entered a pupil 
at the Charter-House, and gave early indications of 
ability, which were justified by the distinction which 
he shortly after achieved at Cambridge. On the re- 
commendation of Dr. Thirlby, young Jortin furnished 
Pope with translations from the commentary of Eusta- 
thius on Homer, as well as with notes for his transla- 
tion of the Iliad ; but though Pope adapted them 
almost verbatim, he made no acknowledgment of tho 
assistance of his young helper. Shortly after, on a 
fellowship becoming vacant at Cambridge by the death 
>f William Rosen, the descendant of another refugee, 


Jortin was appointed to it. A few years later, he was 
appointed to the vicarage of Swavesey, in Cambridge- 
shire, from whence he removed to the living of Ken- 
sington near London. There he distinguished himself 
as the author of many learned works, of which the 
best known is his able and elaborate Life of Erasmus. 
He was eventually made Archdeacon of London, and 
died in 1770 at Kensington, where he was buried. 

Another celebrated divine was the Rev. George 
Lewis Fleury, Archdeacon of Waterford " the good 
old archdeacon," as he was called widely known for 
his piety, his charity, and his goodness. He was 
descended from Louis Fleury, pastor of Tours, who fled 
into England with his wife and family at the Revoca- 
tion. Several of the Fleurys are still clergymen in 

The Maturins also have produced some illustrious 
men. The pastor Gabriel Maturin, from whom they 
are descended, lay a prisoner in the Bastile for twenty- 
six years on account of his religion. But he tena- 
ciously refused to be converted, and he was at length, 
discharged, a cripple for life, having lost the use of 
his limbs during his confinement. He contrived, 
however, to reach Ireland with some members of his 
former flock, and there he unexpectedly found his wife 
and two sons, of whom he had heard nothing during 
the long period of his imprisonment. His son Peter 
arrived at some distinction in the Church, having be- 
come Dean of Killala ; and his grandson Gabriel James 
became Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin. From him 
descended several clergymen of eminence, one of them 
an eloquent preacher, who is perhaps more widely 
known as the author of two remarkable works 
Melmoth the Wanderer, and the tragedy of Bertram,. 

There were numerous other descendants of the refu- 
gees, clergymen and others, besides those already 
named, who distinguished themselves by their literary 
productions. Louis Dutens, who held the living of 
Elsdon in Northumberland, produced a successful 


tragedy, The Return of Ulysses, when only about 
eighteen years of age. In his later years, he was the 
author of numerous works of a more solid character, of 
which one of the best known is his Researches on the 
Origin of Discoveries attributed to the Moderns a 
work full of learning and labour. He also wrote an 
Appeal to Good Sense, being a defence of Christianity 
against Voltaire and the Encyclopaedists, besides 
numerous other works. 

The Rev. William Romaine, Rector of St. Ann's, 
Blaokfriars, was the son of a French refugee who had 
settled at Hartlepool as a merchant and corn-dealer. 
Mr. Romaine was one of the most popular of London 
clergymen, and his Life, Walk, and Triumph of Faith 
is to this day a well-known and popular book among 
religious readers. Romaine has been compared to " a 
diamond rough often, but very pointed ; and the more 
he was broken by years, the more he appeared to 
shine." Much of his life was passed in polemical 
controversy, and in maintaining the Calvinistic views 
which he so strongly held. He was a most diligent 
improver of time ; and besides being exemplary and 
indefatigable in performing the duties of his office, he 
left behind him a large number of able works, which 
were collected and published in 1796 in eight octavo 

We have already spoken of the distinction achieved 
by Saurin and Romilly at the Irish and English bar. 
But they did not stand alone. Of the numerous law- 
yers descended from the refugees, several have achieved 
no less eminence as judges than as pleaders. Of these, 
Baron Mazeres, appointed Curzitor Baron of the Ex- 
chequer in 1773, was one of the most illustrious. He was 
not less distinguished as a man of science and an anti- 
quarian, than as a lawyer. Justice Le Blanc, Sir John 
Bayley, and Sir John Bosanquet, were also of French 
extraction, the latter being descended from Pierre 
Bosanquet, of Lunel in Languedoc. Chief Justice 
Lefroy and Justice Perrin, of the Irish bench, were in 


like manner descended from Huguenot families long 
settled in Ireland. 

A long list might be given, in addition to those 
already mentioned, of persons illustrious in literature, 
science, and the arts, who sprang from the same stock ; 
but we must be content with mentioning only a few. 
Peter Anthony Motteaux was not less distinguished for 
his enterprise as an East India merchant, than for his 
ability as a writer; and Sir John Charden, the traveller 
and author, afterwards jeweller to the court, was es- 
teemed in his time as a man of great parts and of 
noble character. Garrick, the great English actor, was 
of Huguenot origin, his real name being Garrigue. 
The French D'Aubigne's have given us several eminent 
men, bearing the name of Daubeny, celebrated in 
natural history. Among other men of science, we note 
the names of Rigaud, Sivilian professor of astronomy 
at Oxford, and Roget, the physiologist, author of one 
of the Bridgewater treatises. The Martineaus, so well 
known in English literature, are descended from 
Gaston Martineau, a surgeon of Dieppe, who settled at 
Norwich in 1685 ; and the Barbaulds are sprung from 
a minister of the French church of La Patente in 
London. Some of our best novelists have also been of 
French extraction. Captain Marryatfc and Captain 
Chamier, whose nautical tales have charmed so many 
readers, were both descended from Huguenots, as was 
also Tom D'Urfey, the English song- writer. It has also 
been supposed that the family of De Foe (or Vaux) 
was of Huguenot origin. 

Several men of considerable distinction in science 
and invention emanated from the Huguenot settlers in 
Spitalfields, which long continued to be the great 
French quarter of London. The French handloom 
weavers were in many respects a superior class of 
workmen, though their earnings were comparatively 
small in amount. Their employment was sedentary, 
and entirely of a domestic character, the workshop 
being almost invariably situated over the dwelling, 


and approached through it. All the members of 
the family took part in the work, which was of such 
a nature as not to prevent conversation; and when 
several looms were worked on the same floor, this was 
generally of an intellectual character. One of the 
young people was usually appointed to read to those 
at work it might be a book on history, or frequently a 
controversial work, the refugee divines being among 
the most prolific authors of their time. Nor were the 
sufferings of the Huguenots at the galleys and in the 
prisons throughout France forgotten in the dwellings of 
the exiles, who often spoke of them to their children, 
and earnestly enjoined them to keep steadfast in the 
faith for which their fathers had suffered so much. 

The circumstances in which the children of the 
Huguenot workmen were thus brought up their 
domestic training, their religious discipline, and their 
school culture rendered them for the most part 
intelligent and docile, while their industry was pro- 
verbial. The exiles indulged in simple pleasures, and 
were especially noted for their love of flowers. They 
vied with one another in the production of the finest 
plants ; and wherever they settled, they usually set 
up a floricultural society to exhibit their products. 
One of the first societies of the kind in England, 
was that established by the exiles in Spitalfields ; 
and when a body of them went over to Dublin to 
carry on the manufacture of poplins, they proceeded 
to set on foot the celebrated Flower Club which still 
exists in that city. Others of them, who settled in 
Manchester and Macclesfield, carried thither the same 
love of flowers and botany, which still continues to 
characterise their descendants. 

Among the handloom weavers of Spitalfields were 
also to be found occasional inquirers in physical science, 
as well as several distinguished mathematicians. They 
were encouraged in these studies by the societies which 
were established for their cultivation, a philosophical 
hall having been founded with that object in Crispin 

CHAP, xviil. THE DOLLONDS. 337 

Street, Spitalfields. 1 Though Simpson and Edwards, 
both professors of mathematics at Woolwich, were 
not of French extraction, they were both silk-weavers 
in Spitalfields, and taught mathematics there. The 
Dollonds, however, were of pure French origin. The 
parents of John Dollond were Protestant refugees from 
Normandy, from whence they came shortly after the 
Revocation. His father was a silk- weaver, to which 
trade John was also brought up. From an early 
age he displayed a genius for construction, and em- 
braced every opportunity of reading and studying 
books on geometry, mathematics, and general science. 
He was, however, unable to devote more than his 
spare moments to such objects ; and when he reached 
manhood and married, his increasing family com- 
pelled him to work at his loom more assiduously 
than ever. Nevertheless, he went on accumulating 
information, not only on mathematics, but on anatomy, 
natural history, astronomy, and optics, reading also 
extensively in divinity and ecclesiastical history. In 
order to read the New Testament in the original, he 
even learnt Greek ; and to extend his knowledge of 
foreign literature, he also learnt Latin, French, German, 
and Italian. 

John Dollond apprenticed his eldest son Peter to 
an optician ; and on the expiry of the young man's 
apprenticeship, at the age of twenty, he opened a shop 
in Vine Street, Spitalfields. The business proved so 
prosperous that, shortly after, the elder Dollond was 
induced to leave his loom at the age of forty-six, and 
enter into partnership with his son as an optician. 
He was now enabled to devote himself wholly to his 
favourite studies, and to pursue as a business the art 
which before had occupied him chiefly as an amuse- 

One of the first subjects to which Dollond devoted 
himself was the improvement of the refracting tele- 

' The biiildintr, which still exists, is now used as an earthenware-store. 



scope. He entered on a series of experiments which 
extended over several years, at first without results ; 
but at length, after " a resolute perseverance " (to use 
his own words), he made the decisive experiment which 
showed the error of Newton's conclusion as to the 
supposed law of refraction. The papers embodying 
Dollond's long succession of experiments were printed 
iu the Transactions of the Philosophical Society, and 
for the last of them he was awarded the Royal Society's 
Copley medal. The result of the discovery was an 
immediate great improvement in the powers and 
accuracy of the telescope and microscope, of which the 
Dollond firm reaped the result in a large increase of 
business, which still continues in the family. 

Many other descendants of the Huguenots distin- 
guished themselves by their inventions in connection 
wiith chronometry, paper-making (Fourdrinier for 
example), turning and tool-making, and spinning and 
carding machinery. Of the latter class, it may suffice 
to mention the name of Louis Paul, the original in- 
ventor of spinning by rollers, subsequently revised and 
successfully applied by Sir Richard Arkwright, an 
invention which has exercised an extraordinary in- 
fluence on the manufacturing system of England and 
the world at large. 

This invention, together with that of the steam- 
engine and the power-loom, gave almost the death- 
blow to hand -loom weaving. From that time, the 
manufactures of Spitalfields, Dublin, and the other 
places where the descendants of the refugee workmen 
had principally settled, fell into comparative decay. 
Many of the artizans, following the current of trade, 
left their looms in London, and migrated to Coventry, 
Macclesfield, Manchester, and other northern manufac- 
turing towns, then rising in importance. The stronger 
and more self-reliant pushed out into the world ; the 
more quiescent and feeble remained behind. The 
hand-loom trade could not be revived, and no amount 
of patient toil and industry could avert the distress 


that fell upon the poor silk-weavers, which, even to 
this day, from time to time sends up its wail in the 
eastern parts of London. 

Owing to these circumstances, as well as to the 
gradual intermingling of the foreign with the native 
population, the Erench element year by year became 
less marked in Spitalfields ; and in the course of a few 
generations the religious fervour which had distin- 
guished the original Huguenot refugees, entirely died 
out in their descendants. They might continue to 
frequent the French churches, but it was in con- 
stantly decreasing numbers. The foreign congregations 
which had been so flourishing about the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, towards the end of it became 
the mere vestiges of what they had been, and at length 
many of them were closed altogether, or turned over to 
other denominations. 

Sir Samuel Romilly, in his Autobiography, gives a 
touching account of the domestic life of his father's 
family, their simple pleasures, their reading, society, 
and conversation. Nearly all the visitors and friends 
of the family were of French descent. They associated 
together, worshipped together, and intermarried with 
each other. The children went to a school kept by a, 
refugee. On Sunday mornings, French was exclu- 
sively spoken in the family circle; and at least 
once in the day the family pew in the French 
Artillery Church was regularly filled. " My father t " 
says Sir Samuel, " had a pew in one of the French 
chapels, which had been established when the Protes- 
tant refugees first emigrated into England, and he 
required us to attend alternately there and at the 
parish church [this was about the year 1730]. It was 
a kind of homage which he paid to the faith of his 
ancestors, and it was a means of rendering the French 
language familiar to us ; but nothing was ever worse 
calculated to inspire the mind of a child with respect 
for religion than such a kind of religious worship, 
of the descendants of the refugees were born and 


bred in England, and desired nothing less than to 
preserve the memory of their origin ; and the chapels 
were therefore ill-attended. A large uncouth room, 
the avenues to which were crowded courts and dirty 
alleys, and which, when you entered it, presented to 
the view only irregular unpainted pews and dusty un- 
plastered walls ; a congregation consisting principally 
of some strange-looking old women, scattered here 
and there, two or three in a pew ; and a clergyman 
reading the service and preaching in a monotonous 
tone of voice, and in a language not familiar to me, 
was not likely either to impress my mind with much 
religious awe, or to attract my attention to the doc- 
trines which were delivered. In truth, I did not once 
attempt to attend to them ; my mind was wandering 
to other subjects, and disporting itself in much gayer 
scenes than those before me, and little of religion was 
mixed in my reveries." 1 

Very few of the refugees returned to France. They 
long continued to sigh after the land of their fathers, 
hoping that the religious persecutions abroad would 
abate, so that they might return to live and die there. 
But the persecutions did not abate. They flared up 
again from time to time with increased fury, even 
after religion had become almost prostrate throughout 
France. Protestantism, though proscribed, was not, 
however, dead; and meetings of the Huguenots con- 
tinued to be held in " the Desert," by night, in caves, 
in the woods, among the hills, by the sea-shore, where 
a body of faithful pastors ministered to them at the 
hourly peril of their lives. The "Church in the 
Desert " was even regularly organised, had its stated 
elders, deacons, and ministers, and appointed circuit 
meetings. Very rarely were their secrets betrayed ; 
yet they could not always escape the vigilance of the 
Jesuits, who continued to track them with the aid of 
the soldiery and police, and succeeded in sending fresh 

1 IAfe of Sir Samuel Ramilly, i., 16, 


victims to the galleys so long as they retained power 
in France. 

Down even to the middle of last century the per- 
secution of the Protestants continued unabated. Thus, 
at Grenoble, in the years 1745 and 1746, more than 
three hundred persons were condemned to death, the 
galleys, or perpetual imprisonment, because of their 
religion. Twenty-nine nobles were condemned to be 
deprived of their nobility; fourteen persons were 
banished ; four were condemned to be flogged by the 
common hangman ; six women were sentenced to have 
their heads shaved by the same functionary, and to be 
imprisoned, some for different periods, others for life ; 
two men were condemned to be placed in the pillory ; 
thirty-four were sent to the galleys for from three to 
five years, six for ten years, and a hundred and sixteen, 
amongst whom were forty-six gentlemen and two 
chevaliers of the order of Saint Louis, were sent to the 
galleys for life ; and four were sentenced to death. 1 
The only crime of which these persons had been guilty 
was, that they had been detected attending Protestant 
worship contrary to law. 

The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1750, which gave 
a brief repose to Europe, brought no peace to the 
Huguenots. There was even an increase in their perse- 
cutions for a time ; for a large body of soldiery had 
been thereby set at liberty, who were employed to 
hunt down the Protestants at their meetings in "the 
Desert." Between the years 1750 and 1762, fifty-eight 
persons were condemned to the galleys, many of them 
for life. In the latter year more than six hundred 
fugitives fled across the frontier into Switzerland, and 
passed down the Rhine, through Holland and Eng- 
land, into Ireland, where they settled. It is a some- 
what remarkable circumstance, that, according to M. 
Coquerel, one of the last women imprisoned for her 
religion was condemned by an Irish Roman Catholic, 

1 ASTOINE COUBT Memoires Hlstoriques, pp. 94 ct seq 


then in the service of France : " Marguerite Robert, 
wife of Joseph Vincent, of Valeirarques, in the diocese 
of Uzes, was arrested in her house, because of having 
been married by a Protestant pastor ; and condemned 
in 1759, by Honseigneur de ThomoTid . . . ce Lord 
Irlandois" x 

The punishment of the galleys was also drawing 
to an end. The mutterings of the coming revolution 
were already beginning to be heard. The long uncon- 
trolled rule of the Jesuits had paved the way for 
Voltaire and Rousseau, whose influence was about to 
penetrate French society. In 1764, the Jesuits were 
suppressed by Parliament, and the persecutions in a 
great measure ceased. In 1769, Alexander Ghambon, 
of Praules in the Viverais, the last galley-slave for the 
faith, was discharged from the convict-prison at Toulon, 
through the intervention of the Prince of Beauvau. 
Chambon was then eighty years old, and had passed 
twenty-seven years at the galleys, to which he had been 
condemned for attending a religious meeting. 

The last apprehension of a Protestant minister was 
that of M. Broca, of La Brie, as late as the year 1773 ; 
but the spirit of persecution had so much abated that 
he was only warned and required to change his 
residence. It began to be felt that, whilst materialism 
and atheism were being openly taught even by priests 
and dignitaries of the French Church by the Abbe' de 
Prades and others the persecution of the Protestants 
could no longer be consistently enforced; and they 
accordingly thenceforwards enjoyed a degree of liberty 
in the exercise of their worship, such as they had not 
experienced since the death of Mazarin. 

But this liberty came too late to be of any use to 
the exiled Huguenots and their descendants settled in 
England, who had long since given up all hope of re- 
turning to the land of their fathers. The revolutionary 
period shortly followed, after which came the wars of 

1 CHABLES COQUEBEL Uistoire des Eglisesdu Desert, ii., p. -1-8. 


the republic, and the revival of the old feud between 
France and England. Many of the descendants of the 
exiles, no longer desiring to remember their origin, 
adopted English names, and ceased to be French. 
Since that time the fusion of the exiles with the 
English people has become complete, even in Spital- 
fields. There are whole quarters of streets there, in 
which the glazed garrets indicate the dwellings of the 
French silk weavers. There are still some of their old 
mulberry-trees to be seen in the gardens near Spital 
Square. Many pure French names may still be ob- 
served over the shop-doors in that quarter of London ; 
and several descendants of the French manufacturers 
still continue to carry on the business of silk- weaving. 
Even the pot-au-feu is still known in Spitalfields, 
though the poor people who use it know not of its 
origin. And although there are many descendants 
of the French operatives still resident in the east of 
London, probably by far the largest proportion of them 
have long since migrated to the more prosperous manu- 
facturing districts of the north. 

Throughout the country there was the same efface- 
ment of the traces of foreign origin among the descend- 
ants of the exiles. Everywhere they gradually ceased 
to be French. 1 The foreign manners, customs, and lan- 
guage, probably held out the longest at Portarlington, 
in Ireland, where the old French of Louis Quartorze 
long continued to be spoken in society. The old French 
service was read in the Huguenot church down to the 
year!817,when it was finally supplanted by the English. 

Thus, the refugees of all classes at length ceased to 
exist as a distinctive body among the people who had 
given them refuge. They were eventually absorbed into, 
and became an integral part of the British nation. 

1 The French mercantile of Bosanquet, Puget, etc. The 

houses in England and Ireland, house of Puget and Co. in St. 

who did business in London, Paul's Churchyard, recently 

long continued to have their wound up, kept all their books 

special London bankers, amongst in French down to the beginning 

whom may be mentioned those of the present century. 



WHILE such were the results of the settlement of the 
Protestant refugees in England, let us briefly glance at 
the effect of their banishment upon the countries which 
drove them forth. 

The persecutions in Flanders and France succeeded, 
after a sort. Philip II. crushed Protestantism in 
Flanders, as had been done in Spain, to the temporary 
ruin of the one country and the debasement of the 
other. Flanders eventually became lost to the Spanish 
crown, though it has since entered upon a new and 
prosperous career under the constitutional government 
of Belgium ; but Spain sank until she reached the very 
lowest rank among the nations of Europe. The In- 
quisition flourished, but the life of the nation decayed. 
Spain lost her commerce, her colonies, her credit, her 
intellect, her character. She became a country of 
emeutes, revolutions, pronunciamentos, repudiations, 
and intrigues. We have only to look at Spain now. 
If it be true that in the long run the .collective 
character of a natien is fairly represented by its 
government and its rulers, the character of Spain 
must have fallen very low indeed. l 

1 Will Spain establish consti- he observed in a recent speech, 

tutional government, and thus " that our people are not instruc- 

vindicate her recent revolution ? ted ; and it is true. Yet, for 

It is doubtful. Why? Let fifteen centuries the Catholic 

Castelar, her greatest orator, Church has had the instructing 

supply the answer. " It is said," of them. There is not a single 


And how fared it with France after the banishment 
of her Huguenots ? So far as regarded the suppression 
of Protestantism, Louis XIV. may also be said to have 
succeeded. For more than a century, that form of 
religion visibly ceased to exist in France. The Protes- 
tants had neither rights nor privileges, nor any vestige 
of liberty. They were placed entirely beyond the 
pale of the law. Such of them as would not be dra- 
gooned into conformity to the Roman Catholic religion, 
were cast into prison or sent to the galleys. If the 
Protestants were not stamped wholly out of existence, 
they were at least stamped out of sight ; and if they 
continued to worship, it was in secret only in caves, 
among the hills, or in "the Desert." Indeed, no 
measure of suppression could have been more complete. 
But see with what results. 

One thing especially strikes the intelligent reader of 
French history subsequent to the Act of Revocation, 
and that is,, the almost total disappearance of great 
Frenchmen. After that date, we become conscious of 
a dull, dead level of subserviency and conformity to 
the despotic will of the King. Louis trampled under 
foot individuality, strength, and genius; there remained 
only mediocrity, feebleness, and flunkeyism. This 
feature of the time has been noted by writers so various 
as De Felice, Merivale, Michelet, and Buckle the last 
of whom goes so far as to say that Louis XIV. " sur- 
vived the entire intellect of the French nation." 

progressive principle but has given rise to that apathy 
been cursed by the Catholic which, in spite of our character, 
Church. Not a constitution has is felt respecting us through- 
been born, not a single progress out Europe. Oh, there is no- 
made, not a solitary reform thing more abominable than that 
effected, which has not been Spanish empire which extends 
under the terrible anathema itself like a winding-sheet all 
of the Church. We are a great over the planet ! " Though the 
charnel - house, which extends government of Spain may for 
from the Pyrenees to the sea of a time be changed, while the 
Cadiz, and we have been sacri- power of the priests remains as 
need on the altar of Catholicism. it is, there is comparatively little 
Our religious intolerance has hope for Spain. 


The Protestant universities of Saumur, Montauban, 
Nismes, and Sedan were suppressed, and their professors 
departed into other lands. All Protestant schools 
were closed, and the whole educational organization 
of the nation was placed in the hands of the Jesuits. 
War was declared against Books forbidden by the 
Church of Rome. Domiciliary visits were paid by the 
district commanders to eveiy person suspected of pos- 
sessing them ; and all devotional books of sermons and 
hymns, as well as Bibles and Testaments, that could 
be found, were ruthlessly burnt. 

There was an end for a time of political and religious 
liberty in France. Freedom of thought and freedom 
of worship were alike crushed ; and the new epoch be- 
gan, of mental stagnation, political depravity, religious 
hypocrisy, and moral decay. With the great men of 
the first half of Louis XIV.'s reign, the intellectual 
greatness of France disappeared for nearly a century. 
The Act of Revocation of 1685 cut the history of his 
reign in two : everything before, nothing after. There 
was no great statesman after Colbert. At his death in 
1683, the policy which he had so laboriously initiated 
was summarily overthrown. The military and naval 
genius of France seemed alike paralysed. The great 
victories of Conde and Turenne on land, and of 
Duquesne at sea, preceded the Revocation. After that, 
Louis' army was employed for years in hunting and 
dragonnading the Huguenots, which completely demo- 
ralised them ; so that his next campaign, that of 1688, 
began in disaster and ended in disgrace. 

The same barrenness fell upon literature. Moliere, 
the greatest of French comedians, died of melancholy 
in 1674. Racine, the greatest of French poets and 
dramatists, died in 1697; but his genius may be said 
to have culminated with the production of Phcedre in 
1676. Corneille died in 1684, but his last, though not 
his greatest work, Surena, was produced in 1676. La 
Fontaine published his last fables in 1679. 

With Pascal, a man as remarkable for his piety as 


for his genius, expired, in 1662, the last free utterance 
of the Roman Catholic Church in France. He died 
protesting to the last against the immorality and des- 
potism of the principles of the Jesuits. It is true, after 
the Revocation, there remained, of the great French 
clergy, Bo.ssuet, Bourdaloue, and Fene'lon. They were, 
however, the products of the first half of Louis' reign, 
and they were the last of their race. For we shall find 
that the effect of the King's policy was to strike with 
paralysis the very Church which he sought exclusively 
to establish and maintain. 

After this period, we seem to triad a dreary waste 
in French history. True loyalty became extinguished, 
and even patriotism seems to have expired. Litera- 
ture, science, and the arts almost died out, and there 
remained a silence almost as of the grave, broken only 
by the noise of the revelries at court, amidst which 
there rose up from time to time the ominous wailings of 
the gaunt and famishing multitude. 

The policy of Louis XIV. had succeeded, and France 
was at length " con verted "! Protestantism had been 
crushed, and the Jesuits were triumphant. Their 
power over the bodies and souls of the people was as 
absolute as law could make it. The whole education 
of the countiy was placed in their hands ; and what 
the character of the next generation was to be, de- 
pended in a great measure upon them. Not. only the 
churches and the schools, but even the national prisons, 
were controlled by them. They were the confessors of 
the bastiles, of which there were twenty in France, 
where persons could be incarcerated for life on the 
authority merely of lettres de cachet, which were given 
away or sold. Besides the bastiles and the galleys, 1 

1 In the reign of Louis XV., veritable slaves, and were occa- 
" The Well-Beloved," the galleys sionally sold ; the price of a gal- 
still contained many Protestants, ley-slave in The Well-Beloved's 
besides persons who had been reign being about 120. Vol- 
rictected aiding Protestants to taire was presented with a gal- 
escape. They were regarded as ley-slave by M. de Choiseul. 


over which the Jesuits presided, there were also the 
state prisons, of which Paris alone contained about 
thirty, besides convents, where persons might be 
immured without any sentence. " Surely never," says 
Michelet, "had man's dearest treasure, liberty, been 
more lavishly squandered." 

The Church in France had grown immensely rich 
by the property of the Protestants which was trans- 
ferred to it, as well as by royal grants and private 
benefactions. So far as regards money, it had in its 
hands the means and the power of doing all that it 
could, to mould the rnind and conscience of the French 
nation. The clergy held in their hands one-fifth of the 
whole landed property of the country, estimated to be 
worth about 160,000,000 ; and attached to these lands 
were the serfs whom they continued to hold until the 

And now, let us see what was the outcome of the 
action of this Church, so rich and so powerful, after 
enjoying a century of undisputed authority in France. 
All other faiths had been compelled to, make way for 
it. Protestantism had been put down with a strong 
hand. Free thought of all kinds had shrunk for a 
time out of sight. 

What was the result of this exclusive action on 
the mind and conscience of the French people ? The 
result was utter emptiness : to use the words of 
Carlyle, " emptiness of pocket, of stomach, of head, and 
of heart." The church which had claimed and ob- 
tained the sole control of the religious education of 
France, saw itself assailed by its own offspring, so 
desperate, ignorant, and ferocious, that in some places, 
they even seized the priests and indecently scourged 
them in front of their own altars. 

The nation that would not have the Bayles, and 
Claudes, and Saurins of a century before, now cast 
themselves at the feet of the Voltaires, Kousseaus, and 
Diderots. Though France would not have the God of 
the Huguenot's Bible, she now accepted the Evangel of 


Jean Jacques ! A poor bedizened creature, clad in 
tawdry, was led through the streets of Paris in the 
character of the Goddess of Reason ! 

Even the Roman Catholic clergy themselves had, to 
a large extent, ceased to believe in the truth of their 
doctrines. They had become utterly corrupted and 
demoralised. Their monasteries were the abodes of 
idleness and self-indulgence. Their pulpits were 
mute : their books were empty. The doctors of the 
Sorbonne still mumbled their accustomed jargon, 
but it was now powerless. Instead of the great 
churchmen of the past Bossuet, Bourdaloue, and 
Fe'nelon there were such blind leaders of the blind 
as the Cardinal de Rohan, the profligate confederate of 
Madame la Motte in the affair of the diamond neck- 
lace ; the Abb^ Sieyes, the constitution-monger ; the 
Abbd Raynal, the open assailant of Christianity in 
every form ; and Father Lomenie, the avowed atheist. 1 

The corrupt, self-condemned institution, became a 
target for the wit of Voltaire and the encyclopedic 
philosophy of Diderot. It was assailed by the clubs 
of Marat, Danton, and Robespierre. Then the unfed, 
untaught, victims of centuries of oppression and mis- 
guidance rose up as one man, and cried, "Away with 
it " Ecrasez Vlnfame. The churches were attacked 

1 At the Revolution, many of worthy of the Republic, because 

the priests openly abjured Chris- you have sacrificed at the altar of 

tianity, and were applauded ac- your country these Gothic bau- 

cordingly. The Bishop of Peri- bles." Gobel and the priests 

gaux presented the woman whom donned the bonnet rovge in 

he had married to the Convention, token of fraternisation with the 

saying, " I have taken her from ' Friends of Men." Numbers of 

amongst the sans-culottes." priests came daily and gave up 

His speech was hailed with im- to the Convention their letters of 

mense applause. Gobel, Arch- priesthood. Puaux says, " Those 

bishop of Paris, presented him- of their predecessors who distin- 

self at the bar of the Convention, guished themselves in the cru- 

with his vicars and many of his sades against the Huguenots, had 

curates, and desired to lay at the slipped their foot in blood ; but 

feet of the Assembly their sacer- these fell lower their foot 

dotal garments. " Citizens," said slipped in mud." 
the President in reply, '' you are 


and gutted, as those of the Huguenots had been a cen- 
tury before. The church-bells were cast into cannon ; 
the church-plate coined into money; and at length 
Christianity itself was abolished by the Convention, 
which declared the Supreme People to be the only 
Supreme God ! 

The Roman Catholic clergy, who had so long perse- 
cuted the Huguenots, were now persecuted in turn by 
their own flocks. Many of them were guillotined; 
others, chained together as the Huguenots had formerly 
been, were sent prisoners to Rochelle and the Isle of 
Aix. As a body of them passed through Limoges, on 
their way to the galleys, they encountered a procession 
of asses clothed in priests' dresses, a mitred sow march- 
ing at their head. Some 400 priests lay riding in Aix 
roads, where the Huguenot galley-slaves had been be- 
fore them " ragged, sordid, hungry, wasted to shadows, 
eating their unclean rations on deck, circularly, in par- 
ties of a dozen, with finger and thumb ; beating their 
scandalous clothes between two stones ; choked in hor- 
rible miasmata, under close hatches, seventy of them 
in a berth through the night, so that the aged priest is 
found lying dead in the morning in an attitude of 
prayer." l 

Such was the outcome of the Act of Revocation of 
Louis the Great Sans-culottism and the Reign of 
Terror ! There was no longer the massacre and ban- 
ishment of Huguenots, but there was the guillotining 
and banishment of the successors of the priests whom 
Louis had set up. There was one other point in 
which 1793 resembled 1685. The fugitive priests fled 
in precisely the same direction in which the Huguenot 
pastors had done ; and again the persecuted for reli- 
gion's sake made for the old free land of England, to 
join the descendants of the Huguenots, driven out ot 
France for altogether different reasons a century 

1 CABLTLB French Jtevolutiett, ii. 338. 


But the Roman Catholic priests did not fly alone. 
They were accompanied by the nobles, the descendants 
of those who had superintended the dragonnades. 
Never, since the flight of Huguenots which followed 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, had there been 
such an emigration of Frenchmen from France. But 
there was this difference between the emigrations of 
1685 and 1793 that whereas in the former period 
the people who emigrated consisted of the industrious 
classes, in the latter period they consisted for the most 
part of the idle classes. The men who now fled were 
the nobles and priests, who had so misguided and mis- 
taught the people entrusted to their charge, that in 
nearly all parts of France they rose up in rebellion 
against them. 

The great body of the people had become reduced 
to absolute destitution. They had no possession 
whatever but their misery. They were literally dying 
of hunger. The Bishop of Chartres told Louis XV. 
that in his diocese the men browsed like sheep. For 
want of food, they filled their stomachs with grass. 
The dragoons, who had before been employed to hunt 
down the Huguenots because of their attending re- 
ligious meetings, were now employed on a different 
duty. They were stationed in the market-places 
where meal was exposed for sale, to keep back the 
famishing people. 

In Paris alone, there were 200,000 beggars prowling 
about, with sallow faces, lank hair, and hung in rags. 
In 1789, crowds of them were seen hovering about 
the Palais Royal spectral-looking men and starving 
women, delirious from fasting. Some were said not 
to have eaten for three whole days. The women 
wandered about like hungry lionesses; for they had 
children. One Foulon, a member of the King's council, 
on being told of the famine endured by the people, 
said " Wait till I am minister : I will make them 
eat hay ; my horses eat it." The words were bitterly 
avenged. The hungry mob seized Foulon, hanged him 


a la lanterne, and carried his head about the streets, 
his mouth filled with hay. 

From the provinces, news came that the starving 
Helots were everywhere rising, burning down the 
chateaus of. the nobles, tearing up their title-deeds, 
and destroying their crops. On these occasions, the 
church-bells were rung by way of tocsin, and the 
population of the parish turned out to the work of 
destruction. Seventy-two chateaus were wrecked and 
burnt in the Maconnais and Beaujolais alone ; and the 
conflagration spread throughout Dauphiny, Alsace, 
and the Lyonnais, -the very quarters from which the 
Huguenots had been so ferociously driven out a cen- 
tury before. 

There was scarcely a district in which the Hugue- 
nots had pursued their branches of industry, now 
wholly suppressed, in which the starving and infu- 
riated peasantry were not working wild havoc, and 
taking revenge upon their lords. They had learned 
but too well the lessons of the sword, the dungeon, 
and the scaffold, which their rulers had taught them ; 
and the Reign of Terror which ensued, was but the 
natural outcome of the massacre of Saint Bartholomew, 
the wars of the dragonnades, and the ineffable cruelties 
which followed the Act of Revocation. But the vic- 
tims had now changed places. Now it was the nobles 
who were persecuted, burnt out, had their estates con- 
fiscated, and were compelled to fly for their lives. 

The dragonnades of the Huguenots were repeated in 
the noyades of the Royalists ; and again Nancy, Lyons, 
Rouen, Bordeaux, Montauban, and numerous other places 
witnessed a repetition of the cruelties of the preceding 
century. At Nantes, where the famous Edict of Tole- 
ration (afterwards revoked) was proclaimed, the guillo- 
tine was worked until the headsman sank exhausted ; 
and to hasten matters, a general fusillade in the plain 
of St. Mauve followed, of men, women, and children. 
At Paris, the hideous Marat called for " eight hundred 
gibbets," in convenient rows, to hang the enemies of 


the people. He would be satisfied with nothing short 
of " two hundred thousand aristocratic heads." 

It is unnecessary to pursue the dreadful story 
further. Suffice it to say that the nobles, like the 
priests, fled out of France to escape the fury of the 
people, and they too made for England, where they 
received the same asylum which had been given to 
their clergy. To prevent the flight of the noblesse, the 
same measures were adopted by the Convention which 
Louis XIV. had adopted to prevent the escape of 
the Huguenots. The frontiers were strictly guarded, 
and all the roads patrolled which led out of France. 
Severe laws were passed against emigration ; and the 
estates of fugitive aristocrats were declared to be con- 
fiscated to the state. Nevertheless, many succeeded in 
making their escape into Switzerland, Germany, and 

It fared still worse with Louis XVI. and his beautiful 
queen, Marie Antoinette. They were the most illus- 
trious victims of the barbarous policy of Louis XIV. 
That monarch had sowed the wind, and they were 
now reaping the whirlwind. A mob of starving men 
and women, the genuine offspring of the Great King, 
burst in upon Louis and his consort at Versailles, 
shouting " Bread ! bread ! " They were very different 
from the plumed and garlanded courtiers accustomed 
to worship in these gilded saloons. They insisted on 
the king and queen accompanying them to Paris, 
virtually as their prisoners. The royal family tried to 
escape, as the Huguenots had done before them, across 
the frontier into Germany. But in vain I The king's 
own highway was closed against him ; and the fugi- 
tives were led back to Paris and the guillotine. 

The last act of the unfortunate Louis was his attempt 
to address a few words to his subjects ; when the drums 
were ordered to be beaten, and his voice was drowned 
by the noise. It was remembered that the last occa- 
sion on which a like scene had occurred in France, was 
that of the execution of the young Huguenot pastor 



Fulcran Rey, at Beaucaire. When he opened his mouth 
publicly to confess his faith, the drummers posted 
round the scaffold were ordered to beat, and his 
dying speech remained unheard. The slaughter of 
the martyred preacher was thus terribly avenged. 

We think we are justified in saying, that but for 
the persecution and expulsion of the Huguenots at 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the 
Revolution of 1789 most probably never would have 
occurred. The Protestants supplied that enterprising 
and industrious middle class which gives stability to 
every state. They provided remunerative employment 
for the population, while at the same time they en- 
riched the kingdom by their enterprise and industry. 
Moreover, they furnished that virtuous and religious 
element in society without which a nation is but as 
so much chaff that is driven before the wind. When 
they were suppressed or banished, there was an end of 
their industrial undertakings. The further growth of 
a prosperous middle class was prevented ; and the mis- 
government of the ruling class being unchecked, the 
great body of the working order were left to idleness, 
nakedness, and famine. Faith in God and in good 
died out ; religion, as represented by the degenerate 
priesthood, fell into contempt ; and the reign of 
materialism and atheism began. Frightful distress 
at length culminated in revolution and anarchy ; and 
there being no element of stability in the state, no 
class possessing moral weight to stand between the in- 
furiated people at the one end of the social scale, and 
the king and nobles at the other, the imposture 
erected by the Great Louis was assailed on all sides, 
and king, church, and nobility were at once swept 

As regards the emigration of the Huguenots in 1685, 
and of the nobles and clergy in 1789, it must be ac- 
knowledged that the former was by much the most 
calamitous to France. "Was the one emigration 
greater than the other ? " says Michelet. " I do not 


know. That of 1685 was probably from three to four 
hundred thousand persons. However this may be, 
there was this great difference between them : France, 
at the emigration of '89, lost its idlers ; at the other, 
its workers. The terror of '89 struck the individual, 
and each feared for his life. The terror of the dragon- 
nades struck at heart and conscience ; then men feared 
for their all." 

The one emigration consisted for the most part of 
nobles and clergy, who left no traces of their settlement 
in the countries which gave them asylum ; the other 
emigration comprised all the constituent elements of 
a people skilled workmen in all branches, manufac- 
turers, merchants, and professional men ; and wherever 
they settled they founded numerous useful establish- 
ments which were a source of prosperity and wealth. 

Assuredly England has no reason to regret the 
asylum which she has in all times so freely granted 
to fugitives flying from religious persecution abroad. 
Least of all has she reason to regret the settlement 
within her borders of so large a number of industrious, 
intelligent, and high-minded Frenchmen, who have 
made this country their home since the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, and thereby not only stimulated, 
but in a measure created, British industry ; while, at 
the same time they have influenced, in a remarkable 
degree, our political as well as our religious history 






native of Nay, in Beam, where 
he was born in 1654. An able 
preacher and writer ; first set- 
tled in Berlin, which he left to 
accompany the Duke of Schom- 
berg into England. He was 
for some time minister of the 
Church of the Savoy, London, 
and afterwards became Dean 
of Killaloe, in Ireland. He 
died in London, 1727. For 
notice see p. 252. 

A'LASCO : see p. 116. 

ALLIX, PETER : an able 
preacher and controversialist. 
Born at Alencon, 1641 ; died 
in London, 1717. He was one 
of the ministers of the great 
church at Charenton, near 
Paris. At the Revocation he 
took refuge in England, where 
he was appointed canon and 
treasurer to the Cathedral of 
Salisbury. For notice see p. 

AMAND, or AMYAND : a Hu- 
guenot refugee of this name 
settled in Lon'don in the begin- 
ning of last century. His son 

1764), who sat in Parliament 
for Barnstaple. The second 
baronet assumed the name of 
Cornewall. His daughter mar- 
ried Sir Gilbert Frankland 
Lewis, Bart., and was the 
mother of the late Sir Corne- 
wall Lewis, Bart., M.P. Wil- 
liam Henry Haggard of Brades- 
ham, Norfolk, married Miss 
Frances Amyand, who belonged 
to a younger branch of the 
family, in right of whom the 
present Mr. Haggard now pos- 
sesses Amyand House, Twick- 

: the name of a French 
refugee f airily settled in South- 
ampton, to whom the celebrated 
and unfortunate Major Andre' 
belonged, though the latter 
was brought up at Lichfield. 

ABNAUD : a Huguenot family 
of noble descent. In Mon- 
strelet's continuation of Frois- 
sart's Chronicles, translated by 
Thomas Jones, an ancestor of 
the Arnauds is described in a 
note (i. 348) as " Guillem-Ar- 
naud, baron of Barbazan in 

Claude was principal surgeon ! Bigorre, first Chamberlain to 
to George H. ; and the two j Charles VII. , afterwards Gov- 
sons of the latter were Claudius, j ernor of Champagne and the 
Under Secretary of State, and j Lionnais," etc. The king gave 
George (created a baronet in him the title of Chevalier sans 




repi-oche, and permitted him to 
take the fleur-de-lys for his 
arms. He was killed at Belle- 
ville in 1432, and buried with 
the highest honours." Shake- 
speare, in his play of Henry V., 
alludes to him as a "devil," 
i.e. to the English army to 
which he was opposed. A de- 
scendant of his was the Marquis 
de Pompone (Simon Arnaud), 
Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs to Louis XIV. In the 
sixteenth century a branch of 
the family became Huguenot, 
and emigrated to England. 
The ancestor of the English 
Arnauds was, when quite a 
child, smuggled out of France 
in a hamper, and brought across 
the English Channel in an open 
boat. Elias Arnaud, his son, 
subsequently became a thriving 
merchant at Portsmouth, and 
was appointed deputy - lieu- 
tenant for the county of Hants. 
His son Elias Bruce Arnaud 
was also a deputy - lieutenant, 
and a very active magistrate. 
In 1804, when England was 
threatened with invasion by 
the French, he raised a regi- 
ment of infantry at Ports- 
mouth, and commanded it as 
colonel. His second son, John, 
was a lieutenant in the llth 
Regiment at Toulouse, where 
(according to Sir Wm. Napier, 
in his History of the Peninsular 
War, vi. 169) two British regi- 
ments, the llth and 91st, came 
up and turned the tide of 
battle, which, until then, had 
gone in favour of the French. 
He died a few years ago, a 
major - general, K.H. His 
eldest son Elias, for many 
years collector of customs at 

Liverpool, was the father of 
Henry Bruce Arnaud, now a 
member of the English bar. 
The present representative of 
the second or junior branch of 
the Arnauds, is John Macaulay 
Arnaud, related, through his 
maternal grandfather John Ma- 
caulay, formerly of Ardincaple 
in Dumbartonshire, to the late 
Lord Macaulay, and through 
the ancient family of the Oli- 
phants of Gask in Perthshire, 
to several noblemen and per- 
sons of distinction, including 
the celebrated Lady Nairne. 
The Arnauds are also related 
to Sir George Bowyer, Sir 
Maziere Brady, ex-Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland, and the late 
Sir Lucius Curtis, admiral of 
the fleet. 

Fontaine, in his Autobiography, 
frequently makes mention of 
his cousin, John Arnauld, set- 
tled in London. 

AUBERTIN : This family 
originally belonged to Metz, 
in Lorraine. The original emi- 
grant fled from France at the 
Revocation, leading his grand- 
child, a little boy, by the hand. 
They arrived at Neuchatel, in 
Switzerland ; other members of 
the family joined them ; and 
they settled there for a time. 
But the great-grandson of the 
original emigrant, not finding a 
small place like Neuchatel to 
his taste, left it about a century 
ago, and naturalized himself in 
England. His son, the late 
Rev. Peter Auberton, vicar of 
Chepstead, Surrey, died in 
1861, in his 86th year, leaving 
a numerous family. The Rev. 
Edmund Auberton, of Chalon- 




sur-Marne, a famous Protestant 
divine, author of the famous 
work on the Eucharist, which so 
much disturbed Rome at the 
time of its publication, was a 
collateral ancestor of the same 

descended from a Huguenot 
refugee ; sat for Stamford in 
Parliament from 1761 to 1768. 

AURIOL, PETER : a refugee 
from Lower Languedoc, who 
rose to eminence as a London 
merchant. The Archbishop of 
York, the Hon. and Most Rev. 
R. N. Drummond, married his 
daughter and heiress, Henri- 
etta, and afterwards succeeded 
to the peerage of Strathallan. 
The refugee's daughter thus be- 
came Countess of Strathallan. 
The present head of the family 
is the Earl of Kinnoul, who 
continues to bear the name of 
Auriol. The Rev. Edward 
Auriol is rector of St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-West, London. 


BARBON : A French Hugue- 
not family of this name lived 
at Wandsworth. The name 
was changed to Barbone, or 
Barebone. In Mount Nod, 
the French burying-ground at 
Wandsworth, is a tombstone 
bearing this inscription : "Sarai, 
daughter of Praise Barbone, 
was buried 13th April, 1635." 
Praise-God Barebone, the lea- 
ther-seller in Fetter Lane, 
belonged to this family. 

BARON, PETER : Professor 
in the University of Cambridge 
about 1575. He was originally 
from Etampes, and fled to 
England after the massacre of 

Saint Bartholomew. He died 
in London, leaving behind him 
an only son, Samuel, who 
practised medicine at Lyme- 
Regis in Norfolk. 

BARRE': a Protestant family 
of Pont-Gibau, near Rochelle, 
several members of which set- 
tled in Ireland. Peter Barr 
married Miss Raboteau, also a 
refugee. He was an alderman 
of Dublin, and carried on a 
large business as a linendraper. 
His son Isaac, educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, en- 
tered the army, in which he 
rose to high rank. He was 
adjutant-general of the British 
forces under Wolfe at Quebec. 
He afterwards entered Parlia- 
ment, where he distinguished 
himself by his eloquence and 
his opposition to the American 
Stamp Act. In 1776 Colonel 
Barre was made Vice-Treasurer 
of Ireland and Privy Coun- 
cillor. He subsequently held 
the offices of Treasurer of the 
Navy and Paymaster of the 
Forces, in both of which he 
displayed eminent integrity 
and ability. He died in 1802. 
See also pp. 173, 331. 

BASNAGE : Few families in 
France have produced so many 
persons of literary distinc- 
tion and moral worth, as the 
Basnages. Nicholas Basnage 
was driven by the persecutions 
which followed the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, to take refuge 
in England, where he for some 
time officiated as pastor of the 
French Walloon Church at Nor- 
wich. He afterwards returned 
to France. His son Benjamin 
succeeded his father as minister 
of Charenton, and was head of 




the Protestant assembly held at 
Bochelle, in 1622. He was sent 
over to England on a mission, 
to solicit aid from James I. for 
the Protestants. He was the 
author of several able works, 
and during his lifetime was 
regarded as one of the chief 
luminaries of the Protestant 
Church. Antoine, son of Ben- 
jamin, was minister of Bayeux, 
and was long imprisoned be- 
cause of his faith, in the prison 
of Havre de Grace. After the 
Revocation, he escaped to 
Zutphen, in Holland, where 
he was minister of a French 
congregation, and died in 1681. 
Samuel Basnage, son of Antoine, 
was a minister, like his father, 
and, like him, escaped to Zut- 
phen, succeeding him in his 
charge. He was the author of 
numerous works, greatly prized 
in their time. Henri Basnage 
was one of the most able and 
eloquent advocates in the Par- 
liament of Rouen. His learning 
was great, and his integrity 
unsullied. But his eldest son, 
Jacques Basnage, was the most 
eminent member of the family. 
He was a man of immense 
learning. At the early age of 
23, he was appointed minister 
of the great Protestant church 
at Grand Queville, near Rouen, 
capable o f accommodating 
10,500 persons. When that 
church was demolished, and 
the persecution waxed very 
hot, he took refuge at the 
Hague. While there he was 
often employed in delicate 
state affairs, which he skilfully 
conducted ; and Voltaire said of 
him, that he was better fitted 
to be a minister of state than 

of a parish. He published 
eleven learned historical works 
in his lifetime, some of which 
passed through many editions. 
His younger brother, Henri, 
was also an esteemed author. 
Like Jacques, he took refuge 
in Holland, and died there. 

BATZ: the name of a Hugue- 
not family, the head of which 
was seigneur of Monan, near 
i Nerac, in Guyenne. Three of 
! the sons of Joseph de Batz, 
1 seigneur of Guay, escaped from 
France into Holland, and en- 
| tered the service of the Prince 
; of Orange, whom they accom- 
panied in his expedition to 
England. Two of them, cap- 
tains of infantry, were killed 
at the Boyne. 

BAUDOTTIN : This family is 
descended from Jacques Bau- 
douin, whose tombstone, in 
Mount Nod burying-ground at 
Wandsworth, relates all that 
we know of him : " James 
Baudouin, Esq., born at Nismes, 
in France ; but in the year 
1685, fled from France to avoid 
Tyranny and Persecution, and 
enjoyed a Protestant Liberty 
of Conscience, which he sought, 
and happily found, and was 
gratefully sensible of, in the 
Communion of the Church of 
England. He constantly an- 
swered this pious Resolution in 
i his life, and went to enjoy the 
j blessed Fruits of it, by his 
i death on the 2nd day of Feb., 
1 1738-9, aged 91." 

BAYLEY, Sir JOHN, Bart. : 
the late distinguished Judge of 
i the Court of Queen's Bench, 
;( 1808-30), afterwards a Baron 
j of the Court of Exchequer and 
Privy Councillor, was fourth in 

fiEA -BEL. 



descent from Philippe de Bail- 
leul, a French Protestant re- ' 
fugee, who settled in the neigh- 
bourhood of Thorney Abbey 
about the year 1656. It is be- 
lieved that the family originally 
came from the neighbourhood 
of Lille, where there are still 
many of the same name ; and 
that they joined the Walloon 
colony, which in the first place i 
settled at Sandtoft in York- 
shire, but migrated from thence 
to Thorney Abbey during the 
wars of the Commonwealth. 
The above Philippe de Bailleul, 
or his son Daniel, purchased a 
small estate at Willow Hall, 
near Peterborough, which still 
belongs to the family. These 
two married daughters of Pro- 
testant refugees ; but Daniel's 
son, Isaac Bayley, married 
Orme Bigland, a member of the 
ancient family of Bigland of 
Bigland ; and their second son, 
John Bayley, married Sarah 
Kennet, granddaughter and j 
heir of White Kennet, Bishop j 
of Peterborough, by whom he 
became father of Sir John 
Bayley, and grandfather of the 
late Judge Bayley, of the 
Westminster County Court. 
The original name of De Bail- 
leul has undergone many trans- 
mutations, passing through 
Balieu, Balieul, Bayly, Bailly, 
and ultimately arriving at Bay- 

LIS DE : a controversial writer. 
He was pastor of the church of 
New Patente in 1728 ; oi the 
Artillery in 1728 ; and of the 
Savoy, and probably Spring 
Gardens, in 1741. He after- 
wards went to Ireland, where 

he held the living of Navan, 
and was appointed Dean of 
Tuam. Admiral Sir Francis 
Beaufort, Hydrographer Royal, 
belonged to the family, as also 
does Lady Strangford and the 
rector of Lymm. Cheshire. 

BEAUVOIR, DE : the name of 
one of the most ancient families 
in Languedoc, several branches 
of which were Protestant. 
Francis, eldest son of Scipio 
du Roure, took refuge in Eng- 
land at the Revocation, and 
obtained a company in a cavalry 
regiment. His two sons also 
followed the career of arms with 
distinction . Alexander, the 
eldest, was colonel of the 4th 
Foot, Governor of Plymouth, 
Lieutenant-General, Comman- 
der-in-Chief in Scotland, etc. 
He especially distinguished 
himself at the battle of Dettin- 
gen. He went into France for 
the benefit of his health, and 
died at Bareges, where he 
had gone for the benefit of the 
waters. The French Govern- 
ment having refused his body 
Christian burial, in consequence 
of his being the son of a Protes- 
tant refugee, the body was em- 
balmed and sent to England 
to be buried. The second son, 
Scipio, was also the colonel of 
an English Infantry regiment, 
and was killed at the battle of 
; Fontenoy. Another family of 
I the same name is sprung from 
| Richard de Beauvoir, Esq. , of 
the island of Guernsey, who 
purchased the manor of Balmes, 
in the parish of Hackney, and 
' thus gave its name to De Beau 
voir Town. 

LANT, PIERRE : a refugee officer 



from Languedoc, who entered ; his Irish cousin. She died 
the service of William of Orange, j without issue, and the widower 
After the death of La Caille-jnext married a Mademoiselle 
motte at the Boyne, he was \ Mestayer, also of French de- 
made colonel of the regiment. ' scent. Beranger was a very 
Belcastel took a prominent part clever, observant man. He 

in the Irish campaigns of 1690- 
91. He was eventually raised 
to the rank of major-general in 
the Dutch army. He was killed 
at the battle of Villa Viciosa, 
Spain, in 1710. 

the earliest and most zealous 
advocates of negro emancipa- 
tion. He was born in London 
in 1713, of an honest refugee 
couple from Saint-Quentin, and 

was employed by an anti- 
qxiarian society in Dublin, 
under Burton, Conyngham, 
and Valiancy, to travel through 
Ireland in company with the 
celebrated Italian architect, 
Signer Bigari, and describe 
and draw the various antiqui- 
ties of Ireland. A consider- 
able collection of his drawings 
and MSS. recently came into 
the possession of the late Sir 

bred to the trade of a cooper, j W. R. Wilde, who contributed 
He accompanied his parents to an illustrative memoir of Be- 
America, and settled at Phila- : ranger to the Kilkenny Journal 
delphia. There he became a | of Archaeology. He died in St. 
Quaker, and devoted himself Stephen's Green, Dublin, in 

with great zeal to the question 
of emancipation of the blacks, 
for whose children he estab- 
lished and supported schools 
in Philadelphia. He died there 
in 1784. 

BENOIT, N. : a refugee silk- 
weaver settled in Spitalfields. 
He was the author of several 
controversial works, more par- 
ticularly relating to baptism ; 
Benoit being of the Baptist 

BERANGER : a branch of the 
Huguenot family of this name 
settled in Ireland and another 
in Holland, but both dwindled 
in numbers until, in 1750, they 
became reduced to two one 
the only surviving son of the 
Dutch refugee, and the other 
the only surviving daughter of 
the Irish refugee. The Dutch- 
man, Gabriel Beranger, came 
over to Dublin and married 

1817, and was interred in the 
French burying-ground there. 

refugee pastor in London : a 
native of Montpellier. He was 
expelled from Paris, where 
he was one of the minis- 
ters of the great Protestant 
church of Charenton, at the 
Revocation. He became minis- 
ter of the Walloon church in 
Threadneedle Street, which 
office he filled for forty-four 
years. Several volumes of his 
sermons have been published. 

a refugee officer who served 
under the Earl of Galway in 
Spain. He lost a hand at the 
battle of Almanza. His son 
was captain in the 30th Foot ; 
his grandson (Henry Abraham 
Crommelin de Berniere), was a 
major-general in the British 
army ; and his great-grandson, 




married to the sister of the late 
Archbishop of Canterbury, rose 
to the same rank. 

BION, JEAN FRANgois : a 
native of Dijon, Roman Catho- 
lic curate of Ursy, afterwards 
appointed chaplain to the gal- 
ley Superbe at Toulon, which 
contained a large number of 
galley-slaves condemned for 
their faith. Touched by their 
sufferings, as well as by the 
patience and courage with 
which they bore them, Bion 
embraced Protestantism, ex- 
claiming. "Their blood preaches 
to me ! " He left France for 
Geneva in 1704, and afterwards 
took refuge in London, where 
he was appointed rector of a 
school, and officiated as minis- 
ter to the French church at 
Chelsea. He subsequently 
proceeded to Holland, where he 
exercised the functions of chap- 
lain to an English church. He 
was the author of several works, 
the best known being his 
Relation des Tourmens qne Von 
fait souffrir aux Protestans 
ijui sont sur les Galeres de 
France, published at London 
in 1708. 

BLANC, ANTHONY : pastor of 
the French church of La Nou- 
velle Patente in 1G92. Theo- 
dore and Jean Blanc were two 
other French refugee pastors 
in London about the same time, 
the latter being pastor of L'Ar- 
tillerie . The Blancs were from 
Saintonge and Poitou. 

BLAQUI^RE, DE : a noble 
family of Limousin, of whom 
John de Blaquie're, a zealous 
Huguenot, took refuge in Eng- 
land in 1685. He married Mary 
Elizabeth de Varennes, the 

daughter of a refugee, by whom 
he had issue. One of his sons 
became eminent as a London 
merchant ; another settled at 
Lisburn, where his sister mar- 
ried John Crommelin, son of 
Louis. The fifth son, John, 
entered the army, and became 
lieutenant-colonel of the 17th 
Light Dragoons. He held 
various public offices : was Sec- 
retary of Legation at Paris ; 
secretary to the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland ; was made 
a baronet in 1784 ; and raised 
to the peerage in 1800 as 
Lord de Blaquie're of Ardkill 
in Ireland. 

BLONDEL, MOSES : a learned 
refugee scholar in London 
about 1621, author of a work 
on the Apocryphal writings. 

a distinguished refugee phy- 
sician in London, as well as an 
able scholar. The author of 
several learned and scientific 
treatises. He died in 1734. 

BLOSSET : a Nivernais Pro- 
testant family, the head of 
which was the Sieur de Fleury. 
Several Blossets fled into Hol- 
land and England at the Re- 
vocation. Colonel Blosset, of 
"Blosset's Foot," who settled 
in Ireland, was the owner of a 
good estate in the county of 
Dublin. Serjeant Blosset, after- 
wards Lord Chief-Justice of 
Bengal, belonged to the family. 
For his connection with Mr. 
Grote, see p. 322. 

says that amongst the Protes- 
tant refugees in Scotland, 
Francis Bochart has been men- 
tioned, who, in conjunction 
with Claude Paulin, established 




in 1730 the manufacture of 
cambric at Edinburgh. 

refugee French officer : ap- 
pointed captain of artillery and 
engineers in the British ser- 
vice in 1690. He distinguished 
himself by the operations con- 
ducted by him at the siege of 
Namur to which William III. 
mainly attributed the capture 
of the place. Bodt afterwards 
entered the service of the King 
of Prussia, who made him bri- 
gadier and chief engineer. He 
was also eminent as an archi- 
tect, and designed some of the 
principal public buildings in 


pastor of the French congrega- 
tion at Winchelsea in 1700-6. 
His son, of the same name, was 
a surgeon in London in 1764. 

testant refugee from Courtray, 
in Flanders He fled into 
England during the persecu- 
tions carried on in the reign of 
Philip H., and settled in Lon- 
don in 1572. He was a suc- 
cessful merchant ; and at his 
death, he left legacies to the 
Dutch congregations ID London, 
Norwich, and Haarlem. His 
successors became landed pro- 
prietors and intermarried with 
the aristocracy ; Sir Thomas 
Hyde Crawley Boevey, Bart., 
Flaxley Abbey, being the pre- 
sent head of the family. 

ancient Languedoc family, many 
of whose members embraced 
Protestantism and remained 
faithful to it. Jacques Boileau, 
fifth Baron, counsellor of 
Nismes, born 1657, died in 

prison in France, after a con- 
finement of ten years and six 
months, for his adherence to 
the Protestant religion. His 
son Charles took refuge in 
England, served in the Eng- 
lish army as captain of in- 
fantry, and died at Dublin. 
His son Simeon, born at South- 
ampton, was succeeded by 
Solomon Boileau, who had 
sons, from the eldest of whom, 
Simeon Peter, the present 
Major-General Boileau is de- 
scended ; Sir John Boileau, 
Bart., being descended from 
John Peter, the fifth son. See 
also p. 329. 

BOILEAU : see Bouherau. 


usually known as Armand de la 
Chapelle. He left France at the 
B^vocation. He was destined 
for the ministry from an early 
age. At eighteen he was sent 
into Ireland to preach to the 
French congregations, and after 
two years, at the age of twenty, 
he was appointed pastor of the 
French church at Wandsworth. 
He subsequently officiated as 
minister of the Artillery church, 
and of the French church at the 
Hague. He was a voluminous 

BONHOMME : a Protestant 
draper from Paris, who settled 
at Ipswich, and instructed the 
artizans there in the manufac- 
ture of sail-cloth, which shortly 
became a considerable branch 
of British industry. 

tleman of good family near 
Ypres, in Flanders, who took 
refuge in England from the 
Duke of Alva's persecutions, 
and settled at Norwich, of 




which he became mayor. His 
son was Daniel Bonnell, mer- 
chant, of London, father of 
Samuel Bonnell, who served 
his apprenticeship with Sir 
William Courteen (a Flemish 
refugee), and established him- 
self as a merchant at Leghorn. 
He returned to England, and 
at the Bestoration was ap- 
pointed accountant-general for 
Ireland. He died at Dublin, 
and was succeeded in the office 
by his son, a man eminent for 
his piety, and whose life has 
been fully written by Arch- 
deacon Hamilton, of Armagh. 

guenot refugee, naturalised in 
England in 1687. His grand- 
son, Samuel, was a director of 
the Bank of England. Mary, 
the sister of the latter, was the 
celebrated wife of the Rev. Mr. 
Fletcher, vicar of Madeley. 
Other members occupied illus- 
trious positions in society. One, 
William, founded the well- 
known bank in London. Sir 
John B. Bosanquet, the cele- 
brated judge, also belonged to 
the family, which is now re- 
presented by Samuel Richard 
Bosanquet, of Dingestow Court, 

BOSQUET, ANDREW: a refugee 
from Languedoc, who escaped 
into England after suffering 
fourteen years' slavery in the 
French King's galleys. He was 
the originator of the West- 
minster French Charity School, 
founded in 1747, for the educa- 
tion of children of poor French 


notice see pp. 202-28. 
BOUFARD, see Garric. 

D.D. : son of one of the Pro- 
testant pastors of La Rochelle, 
from which port he escaped at 
the Revocation, carrying with 
him the records of the Consis- 
tory, of which his father was 
president. He settled in Dublin, 
where he was appointed libra- 
rian to the Marsh Library (now 
known as St. Patrick's Library), 
and deposited the above-men- 
tioned papers in a strong box. 
He afterwards officiated as sec- 
retary to the Earl of Galway. 
When the Earl left Ireland, 
Dr. Bouherau became pastor 
of one of the French congrega- 
tions in Dublin ; but, having 
been officially ordained, he 
afterwards officiated as chantor 
of St. Patrick's Cathedral. One 
of his sons, John, entered the 
church ; another was " Town- 
major of Dublin." The latter 
altered his name to Borough ; 
and from him the present Sir E. 
R. Borough, of Baseldon Park, 
Berkshire, is lineally descended. 
Within the last few years the 
original box, containing the 
records of the church of La 
Rochelle previous to the Revo- 
cation, brought over by Dr. 
Bouherau in 1685, was opened, 
and a paper found in it in the 
doctor's handwriting, directing 
that, in the event of the Protes- 
tant Consistory at La Rochelle 
ever becoming reconstituted 
and reclaiming the papers, they 
were to be given up. A com- 
munication was accordingly for- 
warded to the Consistory of La 
Rochelle, offering to restore the 
papers ; and they were duly 
forwarded to Pastor Delmas, 
the president, who has since 




published, with their assist- 
ance, a history of the Pro- 
testant church of La Rochelle. 

an eloquent pastor of several 
French churches in London. 
For notice; see pp. 285-7. 

ancient Protestant family of 
Picardy (seigneurs of Gamache 
and d'Oye, and of de la Fosse'), 
a member of which, VaMry or 
Vale'rien de Bourgeois, came 
over to England with one of 
the first bodies of immigrants, 
and settled with the earliest 
congregation at Canterbury. 
Births, deaths, and marriages 
of members of the family ap- 
pear in the registers of the 
Huguenot church there, from 
the year 1592 downwards. In 
that year Rolin Bourgeois " de 
Gamache en Picardie," son of 
the original refugee, married 
Marie Gambier ; and successive 
intermarriages took place with 
members of the De Money, Le 
Cornue, La Motte, and Four- 
nier families, down to the 
middle of last century, when 
the Huguenot identity became 
almost unrecognisable, and 
Bourgeois was changed to Bur- 
gess. The tradition, however, 
contimied to exist in the family, 
that they were of Huguenot 
extraction ; and since the pub- 
lication of the first edition of 
this book, Lieutenant Burgess, 
late of the 46th Regiment, has, 
with the assistance of the 
Heralds' College of France 
and the Canterbury Registers, 
clearly traced the pedigree of 
his family back to the seigneurs 
of Gamache. 


a refugee from Sainghen, near 
Lille, in 1568. He settled first 
at Sandwich, and afterwards at 
Canterbury, where he began 
the business of a silk weaver. 
Edward, the grandson of Lau- 
rence, established himself in 
London as a Levant merchant ; 
and from that time the family 
greatly prospered. William was 
made a baronet in 1711 ; and 
Jacob was created a peer, under 
the title of Viscount Folke- 
stone, in 1747. His son Philip 
assumed the name of Pusey 
on his marriage in 1798. The 
Rev. Dr. Pusey, of Oxford, is 
one of the sons by this mar- 
riage. For further notice see 
p. 320. 

BOYER, ABEL : a refugee 
from Castres, where he was 
born in 1664. He died, pen 
in hand, at Chelsea, in 1729. 
He was the author of the well- 
known French and English Dic- 
tionary, as well as of several 
historical works. 

BREVET, COSME : a Hugue- 
not pastor, who took refuge in 
Guernsey, after the St. Bar- 
tholomew massacre. He was 
made minister of the island of 
Sark. His grandson, Daniel 
Brevin, D. D., was prebendary 
of Durham and Dean of Lin- 
coln ; and the author of several 
important religious works. 

BRIOT, NICOLAS : one of the 
first coin-engravers of his age, 
supposed to have been the in- 
ventor of the coining-press. He 
was a native of Lorraine, a gen- 
tleman born, and possessed of 
the genius of a true artist. He 
was Graver of the Mint to 
Louis XIII., king of France ; 
but being a Protestant, and 




thereby placed under serious 
disabilities, he fled from his 
native country and took refuge 
in England, where he intro- 
duced his coining-press, and 
was appointed chief engraver 
to the Mint by Charles I. in 
the year 1626. His first pub- 
lished work was a fine medal 
of the King, exhibited in 
Evelyn, with the artist's name, 
and the date 1628. In 1632 
we find Briot engaged coining 
money upon the regular esta- 
blishment, by means of his 
press, instead of by hammer- 
ing, as was the previous prac- 
tice. In 1633, he was sent 
down to Scotland to prepare 
and coin the coronation pieces 
of Charles I. On the death of 
Sir John Foulis, Master of the 
Mint in Scotland, Briot was 
appointed to the office in 1636, 
and superintended the coinage 
for several years. Sir John 
Falconer, brother of Sir Alex- 
ander Falconer, one of the 
Senators of the College of Jus- 
tice (created Lord Halkerton 
in 1647), having married Esther 
Briot, daughter of Nicolas Briot, 
in 1637, was from that year 
conjoined with him in the 
office, which he held until the 
outbreak of the civil war. The 
coronation-medal of Charles I., 
executed by Briot, and struck 
at Edinburgh on the 18th June, 
1633, was the first piece struck 
in Britain with a legend on the 
edge, and, it is supposed, was 
the only gold one ever coined 
in Scotland. Three only of 
these fine medals are known 
to exist, one of which is in the 
British Museum. Briot was 
recalled to England by the 

King ; and, at the time of the 
rebellion, he took possession 
of the punches, roller instru- 
ments, and coining apparatus 
at the Tower, by order of his 
Majesty, and had them re- 
moved, trussed up in saddles, 
at the hazard of his life, for 
the purpose of continuing the 
coining operations in the cause 
of the King. The tradition in 
the family which survives in 
the Falconers, his descendants 
is, that he died of grief on the 
death of Charles I. In the 
Museum at Oxford are two 
small carvings on wood re- 
presenting Christ on the Cross, 
and the Nativity with the 
cypher N.B. on each, which are 
understood to have been the 
work of this accomplished artist. 

BRISSAC, B. DE : a refugee 
pastor from Chatellerault, who 
fled from France at the Revo- 
cation. We find one of his 
descendants, Captain George 
Brissac, a director of the French 
Hospital in London in 1773. 
Haag says that one of the 
female Brjasacs became famous 
at Berlin for her sausages, and 
especially for her black pud- 
dings, which continue to be 
known there as " boudins fran- 

BROCAS : a noble family, 
holding numerous lordships in 
the south of France, mostly in 
the neighbourhood of Bordeaux. 
The Very Reverend Theophilus 
Brocas, D.D., was a scion of 
the family. He escaped from 
France at the Revocation, and, 
having taken holy orders, he 
was appointed by the Crown to 
the deanery of Killala and 
vicarage of St. Anne's, Dublin. 




He was a highly distinguished 
divine, and for his valuable 
services in promoting the arts 
and manufactures of Ireland, 
he was presented with the free- 
dom of the city of Dublin in a 
gold box, accompanied by a 
suitable address. He died in 
1766, and was interred in St. 
Anne's churchyard, Dublin. 
He was succeeded in the 
deanery by his only son and 
heir, the Rev. John Brocas, 
D.D., rector of Monkstown, 
and chaplain of the military 
chapel at Rings-end. He died 
in 1806, and left issue, the Rev. 
Theophilus Brocas, rector of 
Strabane, in the diocese of 
Derry, and an only sister, 
Georgiana, who married, in 
1804, Robert Lindesay, Esq., 
captain of the Louth Militia. 
The Rev. Theophilus Brocas 
dying without issue, this noble 
family has become extinct in 
the male line, but survives, 
through the female line, in the 
person of Walter Lindesay, 
Esq., of Glen view, County 
Wicklow, J.P., who is its pre- 
sent representative. 

BROS : see De Brasses. 

BRUNEI : a numerous Pro- 
testant family in Saintonge. 
N. Bnmet, a privateer of La 
Rochelle, was in 1662 con- 
demned to suffer corporal pun- 
ishment, and to pay a fine of 
1000 livres, unless within a 
given time he produced before 
the magistrates thirty-six young 
Protestants whom he had car- 
ried over to America. Of course 
the refugee youths were never 
produced. At the Revocation 
the Brunets of Rochelle nearly 
all innigrated to London. We 

find frequent baptisms of chil- 
dren of the name recorded in 
the registers of the churches of 
Le Quarre and La Nouvelle 
Patente, as well as marriages 
at the same place, and at 
Wheeler Street Chapel and La 
Patente in Soho. 

BUCER, MARTIN : a refugee 
from Alsace ; one of the early 
reformers, an eloquent preacher 
as well as a vigorous and learned 
writer. He accepted the in- 
vitation of Archbishop Cranmer 
to settle in England, where he 
assisted in revising the English 
liturgy, excluding whatsavoured 
of popery, but not going so far as 
Calvin. He was appointed pro- 
fessor of theology at Cambridge, 
where he was presented with a 
doctor's diploma. But the 
climate of England not agree- 
ing with him, Bucer returned to 
Strasburg, where he died, 1551. 

BUCHLEIN, otherwise called 
FAGIUS : a contemporary of 
Martin Bucer, and, like him, a 
refugee at Cambridge TJnwer- 
sity, where he held the profes- 
sorship of Hebrew. While in 
that office, which he held for 
only a few years, he fell ill of 
fever, of which he died, but not 
without a suspicion of having 
been poisoned. 

BURGESS : see Bourgeois. 

BUSSIRE,PAUL: a celebrated 
anatomist, F.R.S., and corre 
spending member of various 
scientific societies. He lived 
for a time in London, but 
eventually settled at Copen- 
hagen, where he achieved a 
high reputation. We find one 
Paul Buissie're governor of the 
French Hospital in London in 
1729,and Jean Buissie're in 1770. 




CAILLEMOTTE, LA : younger 
son of the old Marquis de Ru- 
vigny; he commanded a Hugue- 
not regiment at the battle of the 
Boyne, where he was killed. 
See Massue, and notices, pp. 
222, 225. 

CAMBON : a refugee French 
officer, who commanded one of 
the Huguenot regiments raised 
in London in 1689. He fought 
at the Boyne and at Athlone, 
and died in 1693. 

CAPPEL, Lotns: characterized 
as " the father of sacred criti- 
cism." He was born at Saint 
Elier in 1585 ; at twenty he 
was selected by the Duke de 
Bouillon as tutor for his son. 
Four years later the church at 
Bordeaux furnished him with 
the means of visiting the prin- 
cipal academies of England, 
Holland, and Germany. He 
passed two years at Oxford, 
during which he principally oc- 
cupied himself with the study 
of the Semitic languages. He 
subsequently occupied the chair 
of theology in the university of 
Saumur until his death, which 
occurred in 1658. Bishop Hall 
designated Louis Cappel "the 
grand oracle of the Hebraists." 
Louis' son James was appointed 
professor of Hebrew in the 
same university at the early 
age of nineteen. At the Re- 
vocation he took refuge in 
England, and became professor 
of Latin in the Nonconform- 
ist College, Hoxton Square, 
London. For notice see p. 

CARBONEL, JOHN : son of 
Thomas Carbonel, merchant of 
Caen ; John 'was one of the 
secretaries of Louis XIV. He 

fled to England at the Revo- 
cation. His brother William 
became an eminent merchant 
in London. 

CARLE, PETER : a native of 
Valleraugue in the Cevennes, 
born 1666 ; died in London 
3730. He fled from France at 
the Revocation, passing by 
Geneva through Switzerland 
into Holland, and finally into 
England. He entered the 
corps of engineers in the army 
of William, and fought at the 
Boyne. He afterwards accom- 
panied the army through all its 
campaigns in the Low Coun- 
tries. He rose to be fourth 
engineer in the British service, 
and retired upon a pension in 
1693. He afterwards served 
under Lord Gal way in Spain, 
after which the king of Portu- 
gal made him lieutenant-general 
and engineer-in-chief . In 1720 
he returned to England, and 
devoted the rest of his life to 
the improvement of agricul- 
ture, on which subject he wrote 
and published many useful 

CARRE' : a Protestant family 
of Poitou, of which several 
members emigrated to England 
and others to North America. 
A. M. Carre' officiated as reader 
in the French church at Ham- 
mersmith ; and another of the 
same name was minister of 
La Patente, London. We also 
find one Francis Carre* a mem- 
ber of the consistory of New 
York in 1772. 

THEW : a Protestant minister 
who fled from France at the 
time of the Bartholomew mas- 
sacre, and officiated as pastor of 




the little church of fugitives at 
Rye, afterwards returning to 
Dieppe ; and again (on the 
revival of the persecution) 
finally settling and dying in 
England. One of his sons 
was minister of La Nouvelle 
Patente, London, in 1696. 
CASATJBON, ISAAC : son of a 
French refugee from Bour- 
deaux settled at Geneva, where 
he was born in 1559. His 
father returned to Paris on the 
temporary cessation of the per- 
secution, became minister of a 
congregation at Crest, and pro- 

pointed him prebendary of 
Westminster. He . died at 
London in 1614, leaving be- 
hind him twenty sons and 
daughters, and a large number 
of works written during his 
lifetime, chiefly on classical 
and religious subjects. Hia 
son Florence Stephen Casau- 
bon, D.D., having accompanied 
his father into England, was 
entered a student at Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1614, where 
he greatly distinguished him- 
self. In 1622 he took the 
degree of M.A. He was ap- 

ceeded with the education of 
his son Isaac, who gave signs 
of extraordinary abilities. At 
nine years of age he spoke 
Latin with fluency. At the 
massacre of Saint Bartholomew 
the family fled into conceal- 
ment ; and it was while hiding 
in a cavern that Isaac received 
from his father his first lesson 
in Greek. At nineteen he was 
sent to the academy of Geneva, 
where he studied jurisprudence 
under Pacius, theology under 
De Beza, and Oriental lan- 
guages under Chevalier ; but no 
branch of learning attracted 
him more than Greek, and he 
was, at the age of twenty-four, 
appointed professor of that 
language at Geneva. His large 
family induced him to return 
to France, and accept the pro- 
fessorship of civil laws in the 
university of Montpellier ; and 
there he settled for a time. On 
the revival of persecution in 
France after the assassination 
of Henry IV., Casaubon emi- 
grated to England. He was 

pointed rector of Ickham, and 
afterwards prebendary of Can- 
terbury. He was the author 
of many learned works. He 
died at Canterbury in 1671. 

of this name 

many refugees 
fled from Nor- 

mandy into England. Several 
of them came over from Dieppe 
and settled in Norwich, their 
names frequently occurring in 

the registers of 
church there, in 

the French 

with those of Martineau, Co- 
lumbine, Le Monnier, De la 
Haye, etc. Solomon de Caus, 
the engineer, whose name is 
connected with the first inven- 
tion of the steam-engine, spent 
several years as a refugee in 
England ; after which he pro- 
ceeded to Germany in 1613, 
and ultimately died in France, 
whither he returned in his old 
age. For notice, see p. 243. 

CAVALIER, JOHN : tne (k- 
vennol leader, afterwards bri- 
gadier-general in the British 
army, and lieutenant-governor 

of Jersey. 

well received by James I., who | 234. 

gave him a pension, and ap- 1 CAZENOVE 

For notice, see p. 
The family of 




De Cazenove de Pradines, at 
Marmande, in Guienne, were 
well-known Huguenots at the 
time of the Revocation. Several 
members of the family took re- 
fuge in England. One of its 
present representatives, Philip 
Cazenove, is well known as 
a large-hearted benefactor in | 
every good undertaking. 

CHABOT, JAMES : The head 
of this family in England, was 
sent over from France, when ' 
about seven years of age, con- j 
cealed in a hamper or basket, i 
This was during the persecu- i 
tions which followed the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, i 
It is supposed that his parents ; 
sent him over to England to 
prevent him being taken from 
them and brought up as a 
Roman Catholic. They doubt- 
less intended to follow him, but 
were unable to make their 
escape. Nothing is known of 
them, excepting that they were 
nobles, and possessed of large 
estates. For this reason, they 
may have been murdered. Or, 
the father may have been sent 
to the galleys, and the mother 
. immured in a convent for life. 
But as regards the child who 
had escaped to England, he was 
brought up in the household of 
the Duke of Bolton. On the 
death of his patron, and after 
arriving at man's estate, he 
married, and settled at High 
Wycombe, Bucks, being de- 
scribed, in the registers of his 
two sons, as "of the Borough 
of Chopping Wycombe." His 
eldest son, James, carried on 
the business of a Calendarer 
and Tabby Waterer in Moor- 
fields, London, whose third 

son, Philip, the grandfather of 
Philip James, settled in Spital- 
fields as a silk dyer, the firm 
continuing for three genera- 
tions. Philip James Chabot, 
M.A., F.R.A.S., was for about 
twenty years Secretary of the 
Old Mathematical Society of 
Crispin Street (a society mainly 
supported by the descendants 
of French refugees), until its 
incorporation with the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1845. 
He was then made, in common 
with the other remaining mem- 
bers, a fellow of the latter 
society. M. Chabot was for 
many years a director of the 
French Hospital. It was mainly 
owing to his exertions that the 
Conditioning of Silk, as prac- 
tised in all continental cities, 
was established in London. His 
first cousin, James Chabot, 
Esq. , of Manchester, eldest son 
of the late James Chabot, Esq. , 
of Malta, is now the head of 
the family. 

AND STEPHEN : refugees from 
St. Sairenne, in the Charente, 
where the family held conside- 
rable landed estates. They 
settled in Dublin, and pros- 
pered. One of the sons of 
Louis sat for Gowran in the 
Irish Parliament ; another held 
a benefice in the Church. John 
had two sons Colonel William 
Chaigneau, and John, Treasurer 
of the Ordnance. The great- 
grandson of Stephen was called 
to the Irish bar in 1793. He 
eventually purchased the estate 
of Benown, in county West- 

M.D. : a physician of Paris, 




who fled into England at the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. 
He was admitted a member of 
the College of Physicians, and 
obtained an extensive practice 
in London, where he died. 

CHAMIER : an eminent Pro- 
testant family, originally be- 
longing to Avignon. Daniel 
Chamier, who was killed in 
1621 in the defence of Montau- 
ban, then besieged by Louis 
XIII., was one of the ablest 
theologians of his time, and a 
leading man of his party. He 
drew up for Henry IV. the 
celebrated Edict of Nantes. 
Several of his descendants 
settled in England. One was 
minister of the French church 
in Glass-House Street, London, 
and afterwards of the Artillery 
church. His eldest son, also 
called Daniel, emigrated to 
Maryland, U.S., where he 
settled in 1753. A younger 
son, Anthony, a director of the 
French Hospital, sat for Tarn- 
worth in Parliament in 1772. 
See also Des Champs. 

a noble family in Saintonge- 
Several of the members took 
refuge in England and Ireland. 
The children of Josias de Bo- 
billard, chevalier of Cham- 
pagne, under charge of their 
mother, escaped from La Ro- 
chelle concealed in empty wine 
casks, and arrived safe at Ply- 
mouth. Their father went into 
Holland and took service with 
the Prince of Orange. He 
afterwards died at Belfast, on 
his way to join his regiment 
in Ireland. Madame de 
Champagne" settled at Port- 
arlington with her family. 

One of Champagne's sons, 
Josias, was an ensign in La 
Melonnie're'sregiment of French 
nfantry, and fought at the 
Boyne. He after wards becamo 
major of the 14th Foot. Several 
of his descendants have served 
with distinction in the army, 
she church, and the civil ser- 
vice ; while the daughters of 
the family have intermarried 
with various titled families in 
England and Ireland. 

CHAMPION : see Crespigny. 

CHARDEVENNE : a Protestant 
family belonging to Castel- 
jaloux. The first eminent 
person of the name was An- 
toine, doctor of medicine, who 
afterwards became a famous 
preacher and pastor, first at 
Caumont, and afterwards at 
Marennes. At the Revocation, 
the members of his family be- 
came dispersed. Some of them 
went to North America ; in 
1724 we find Pierre (son of the 
pastor above named) a member 
of the French church at New 
York ; while others fled to 
England, and established them- 
selves at Hungerford. 

brothers of this name emigrated 
from Picardy, after the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and settled in Edinburgh, where 
they established the manufac- 
ture of cambric muslin. They 
built a factory and dwelling- 
house at the head of Leith Walk. 
The place on which it was built 
(for it has long since been pulled 
down) is now known as Pi- 
cardy Place. Another brother 
of the same family was mur- 
dered in France because of his 




known under the name of 
d'Argenteuil, was a Roman 
Catholic cure converted to Pro- 
testantism, who took refuge in 
England, and officiated as pas- 
tor in several of the London 
churches. In 1699 he was min- 
ister of the Tabernacle, with 
Pierre Rival and Ctesar Pe- 
gorier for colleagues. He pub- 
lished several works through 
Duchemin, the refugee pub- 

CHABPENTIEB, of Ruflec, in 
Angoumois : a martyr to the 
brutality of the dragoons 
of Louis XIV. To force him 
to sign his abjuration, they 
made him drink from twenty- 
five to thirty glasses of water ; 
but this means failing, they 
next dropped into his eyes the 
hot tallow of a lighted candle. 
He died in great torture, 1685. 
His son John took refuge in 
England, and was minister of 
the Malthouse Church, Canter- 
bury, in 1710. 

monk of La Trappe, who left 
that monastery in 1672, and 
took refuge in England, where 
he acquired great fame as a 
Protestant preacher, under the 
name of Lusancy. He officiated 
for a time as pastor of the 
church of the Savoy, and was 
afterwards appointed to the 
charge of the French church at 
Harwich. Lusancy wrote and 
published a life of Marshal 
Schomberg, together with other 
works, principally poetry. 

CHATELAIN, SIMON : a famous 
Protestant mamifacturer of 
gold and silver lace in Paris. 
His lace procured for him the 

toleration of his religion. He 
was even allowed to be buried 
without disgrace, though eighty 
of his descendants paid fines 
for openly attending his funeral. 
After his death, his son Zach- 
arie was harassed with a view 
to his forced apostasy ; but at 
length, in 1685, he fled to Hol- 
land in disguise. For this he 
was hanged in effigy, and his 
house at Villiers-Le-Bel was 
razed to the ground. His son, 
also named Zacharie, was 
thrown into the Bastile, in 
1686, and on being set at 
liberty, removed to Holland, 
where he introduced the manu- 
facture of gold and silver lace. 
His eldest son, Henry, studied 
for the ministry, and removed 
to England in 1709, when he 
was ordained by the Bishop of 
London. He was pastor of the 
Church of St. Martin Orgas (St. 
Martin's Lane), for ten years, 
after which he returned to 
Holland. His sermons were 
published in six volumes. 

CHENEVIX : a distinguished 
Lorraine family, which became 
dispersed at the Revocation. 
The Be"ville branch of the 
family settled in Brandenburg, 
and the Eply branch in Eng- 
land. Two brothers belonging 
to the latter, Paul and Philip 
Chenevix, were both Protest- 
ants ; the former a gentleman, 
illustrious for his learning and 
piety was councillor of the 
king in the court of Metz ; the 
latter was pastor of the church 
of Limay, near Nantes. It 
happened that in 1686, the 
year after the Revocation, the 
elder brother fell dangerously 
ill, when the curate of the 



parish, forcing himself into his 
presence, importuned him tj 
confess. The councillor replied 
that he declined to confess to 
any but God, who alone could 
forgive sin. The Archbishop 
next visited him, urging him to 
communicate before he died, at 
the same time informing him 
of the penalty (refusal of Chris- 
tian burial) decreed by the King 
against such as died without 
receiving the sacrament. He 
refused, declaring that he would 
never communicate after the 
popish manner. At his death, 
shortly after, orders were given 
that his body should be re- 
moved by the executioner ; and 
his corpse was accordingly 
seized, dragged away on a 
hurdle, and cast upon a dung- 
hill. About four hundred of 
his friends proceeded thither 
by night to fetch the body 
away. They wrapped it in 
linen ; four men bore it aloft 
on their shoulders, and they 
buried it in a garden. While 
the corpse was being let down 
into the grave, the mourning 
assembly sang the 79th psalm. 
The Kiev. Philip Chenevix, 
brother of the above, fled into 
England at the Revocation, and 
the family afterwards settled in 
Ireland. The refugee's son 
entered the Bang's Guards, of 
which he became colonel ; and 
his grandson rose to eminent 
dignity in the church being 
made Bishop of Killaloe in 
1745, and afterwards of Water- 
ford and Lismore. The present 
Archbishop of Dublin, Richard 
Chenevix Trench, is his great- 
grandson by the mother's side, 
being also descended, by the 

father's side, from another Hu- 
guenot family, the Trenches or 
De la Tranches, of whom the 
Earl of Clancarty is the head. 
The first La Tranche emigrated 
from France and settled in Eng- 
land at the massacre of St. Bar- 
tholomew. Another member 
of the family, Richard, was a dis- 
tinguished chemist, member of 
the Royal Society in 1801, and 
author of many able works on 
science, including an Essay on 
National Character. 

CHEROIS : see De la Cherois. 

CHERON, Louis : a painter 
and engraver who took refuge 
in England at the Revocation, 
and died in London in 1723. 

DOLPHE : a zealous Huguenot, 
born at Montchamps in 1507. 
When a youth he was compelled 
to fly into England for life. 
He completed his studies at 
Oxford, and being recommended 
to the Duke of Somerset, he 
was selected by him to teach 
the Princess (afterwards Queen) 
Elizabeth the French language. 
Chevalier subsequently held the 
professorship of Hebrew at 
Cambridge, but resigned it in 
1570 to return to France. He 
was again compelled to fly by 
the renewed persecutions at the 
time of the Bartholomew mas- 
sacre, and died in exile at 
Guernsey in 1572. He was a 
voluminous writer on classical 
subjects. During his short re- 
sidence abroad, he left his son 
Samuel at Geneva, for the pur- 
pose of being educated for the 
church, under Theodore de 
Beza. On the revival of the 
persecutions in France, Samuel 
took refuge in England, was 




appointed minister of the 
French church in London in 
1591, and afterwards of the 
Walloon church at Canterbury 
in 1595. Mr. Chevalier Cob- 
bold, M.P., belongs to this 

yoiing man of remarkable 
talents, grandson of the cele- 
brated French preacher at the 
Hague. He was appointed 
pastor of the Walloon church 
in Threadneedle Street in 1710, 
but died of small-pox a few 
years later, aged only twenty- 

COETLOGEN : a Breton family 
who emigrated to England at 
the Revocation. The village of 
Coetlogon is some ten miles 
from Loudeac, and the chateau, 
where the family lived, is now 
in ruins. The estate passed 
into other hands. The son of 
the first emigrant the Cheva- 
lier Dennis de Coetlogen, 
published a Dictionary of the 
Arts and Sciences (London, 
1745), and many other works. 
He was a physician, Knight of 
St. Lazare, etc. His son was 
Rector of Godstone, in Surrey, 
celebrated alike as an author 
and a preacher. The present 
representative of the family is 
the Rev. Charles de Coetlogon, 
British Chaplain at Aix-la- 

minister of Mens. At the Re- 
vocation he and several of his 
sons took refuge in Hesse, 
while Paul became minister of 
the Dutch church in Austin 
Friars, London. His sonCharles 
was professor of anatomy and 
medicine at Cambridge, and 

was known as the author of 
several able works on these 

COLLOT DE L'EscuRY : a re- 
fugee officer from Noyon, who 
escaped from France through 
Switzerland into Holland at 
the Revocation, and joined the 
army of William of Orange. 
He was major in Schomberg's 
regiment at the Boyne. His 
eldest son David was a captain 
of dragoons ; another, Simeon, 
was colonel of an English re- 
giment ; both of their sons 
were captains of foot. Their 
descendants still survive in 

COLOME'S, JEROME : the great 
pastor and preacher of Ro- 
chelle, belonged to a Bearnese 
family. His grandson, Paul, 
the celebrated author, came 
over to England in 1681, and 
was first appointed reader in 
the French church of the 
Savoy. Sancroft, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, afterwards made 
him his librarian. Paul Colo- 
mies was the author of numer- 
ous learned works, the titles of 
nineteen of which are given by 
Haag in La France Protestants. 
He died in London, 1692. 

CONANT, JOHN : son of a 
Protestant refugee, probably 
from Normandy, who settled 
in Devonshire. John was born 
at Yeatenton in 1608. He 
studied at Oxford, and in 1633 
obtained a fellowship of Exeter 
College, which he resigned in 
1647 because of declining to 
sign the Covenant. Two years 
later, he accepted the rector- 
ship of the same college ; and 
though he declined pledging his 
fidelity to the Commonwealth, 



Cromwell confirmed the appoint- 
ment. In 1654 he was elected 
professor of theology, and in 
1657 vice-chancellor of the 
University. He was one of the 
Commissioners for the Review 
of the Liturgy in 1661. In 1676 
he was appointed Archdeacon 
of Norwich, and in 1681 pre- 
bendary of Worcester. He 
died in 1693. Sir Nathaniel 
Conant, who was chief magi- 
strate of London early in 
the present century, was 
Dr. Conant's great-grandson. 
Sir Nathaniel's grandson, Ed- 
ward Conant, Esq., of Lyndon, 
Rutlandshire, is the present 
representative of the family. 
There is a good memoir of Dr. 
Conant in Aikin's Biography. 

CONDAMINE : see La Conda- 

CONSTANT : a Protestant 
family of Artois. At the Re- 
vocation, several of them fled 
into Switzerland, and others 
into Holland, where they took 
service under the Prince of 
Orange. Samuel, known as 
Baron de Constant, served as 
adjutant - general under Lord 
Albemarle in 1704 ; and after- 
wards fought under Marl- 
borough in all the great bat- 
tles of the period. His son 
David-Louis, an officer in the 
same service, was wounded at 
Fontenoy. Benjamin Con- 
stant, the celebrated French 
author, belonged to this family. 

CCNTE" : see Morell. 

of Zeager Corcellis of Ruselier, 
in Flanders, who took refuge 
in England from the persecu- 
tions of the Duke of Alva. 
Nicholas became a prosperous I 

London merchant. James was 
a physician in London, 1664. 


learned refugee, author of T/K- 
Works of the Learned, The His- 
tory of Learning, and numerous 
other works. 

gee gentleman from La Beauce, 
Orleans, who settled at South- 
ampton. His son Ruvigny de 
Cosne entered the Coldstream 
Guards, and rose to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the British 
army. He was afterwards 
secretary to the French em- 
bassy, and ambassador at the 
Spanish court. 

ther branch of the same family. 
Captain de Cosne - Chaverney 
came over with the Prince of 
Orange in command of a com- 
pany of gentlemen volunteers. 
He was lieutenant-colonel of 
Belcastel's regiment at the tak- 
ing of Athlone in 1691. 

Coss ; an old French family 
of Brissac, who settled in Eng- 
land at the Revocation. A 
granddaughter of the refugee 
married Captain Dickinson, 
R.N., whose son was the great 
paper manufacturer. The writer 
of an obituary notice of the late 
Mr. John Dickinson, in the 
Times, says : " It is probable 
that, as has been the case in 
many other instances, it was by 
this infusion of French blood 
that much of the inventive 
faculty to which Mr. Dickinson 
owed his subsequent success 
was due. He was associated 
in his patent with Henry Four- 
drinir, the grandson of another 
French refugee." 

COTTEREAU, N. : a celebrated 




Protestant horticulturist, who 
fled into England at the Revoca- 
tion, and was appointed one of 
the gardeners of William III. ' 
Having gone into France to look 
after a manufactory of pipes 
-Yhich he had established at 
Rouen, he was detected en- 
couraging the Protestants there 
to stand fast in the faith. He 
had also the imprudence to 
write something about Madame ; 
de Maintenon in a letter, which 
was construed into a libel. He 
was thereupon seized and thrown 
into the Bastile, where he lay 
for many years, during several 
of which he was insane. The 
converters offered him liberty 
if he would abjure his religion. 
At last he abjured ; but he was 
not released. " It was deemed 
just, as well as necessary, that 
Cottereau should remain in the 
Bastile and be forgotten there." 
He accordingly remained there 
a prisoner for eighteen years, 
until he died. 

COULAN, ANTHONY : a refugee 
pastor from the Cevennes. He 
was for some time minister of 
the Glass-house Street French 
church in London. He died 
in 1694. 

COUR : see De la Cour. 



COURTATJLD : a family from 
the neighbourhood of Saintonge. 
The first settler in England was 
Augustin, who came over at 
Revocation. Shortly after his 
arrival, he married Anne Bar- 
dine, daughter of another 
French refugee, and began the 
trade of a gold and silver smith 
in Cornhill. His son Samuel 
(who married Miss Ogier, also 

of Huguenot descent) carried 
on the same business ; and his 
son, the grandson of Augustin, 
having been bred to the silk 
trade, was the founder of the 
modern manufacturing house of 
Courtauld. He was the first 
to introduce silk throwing 
into the county of Essex. 
He built throwing-mills at Peb- 
marsh and Braintree, the latter 
of which is now one of the 
largest establishments in Eng- 
land for the manufacture of 
silk crape. The present head 
of the Courtauld firm Samuel 
Courtauld, Esq., of Gostield 
Hall, Essex is widely known 
as the staunch friend of civil 
p,nd religious liberty. 

son of a tailor at Menin in 
Flanders, who took refuge in 
England from the persecutions 
of the Duke of Alva. He 
established himself in business, 
with his son Peter Boudeau, 
in Abchurch Lane, and is said 
to have owed his prosperity to 
the manufacture of French 
hoods. His son became Sir 
William Courteen, a leading 
merchant of the city of Lon- 
don. His descendants mar- 
ried with the Bridgewater and 
other noble families. 

COUSIN, JEAN : a refugee 
pastor from Caen ; he was one 
of the first ministers of the Wal- 
loon church in London, about 
the year 1562. He returned to 
France, but again fled back to 
England after the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, and died in 
London. A correspondent at 
Melrose, in Scotland, bearing 
the same name, informs us that 
the tradition exists in his 




family, settled in Fife, that 
they were originally driven out 
of France by religious persecu- 
tion which is by no means 
improbable, as the name is 
peculiarly French. It is also 
believed that Cousin, the en- 
graver, belonged to the same 

CRAMAH^ : a noble family 
of La Rochelle. The three 
brothers, Cramahe, De L'Isle, 
and Des Roches, made arrange- 
ments to escape into England 
at the Revocation. The first 
two succeeded, and settled in 
this country. Des Roches 
was less fortunate ; he was de- 
tected under the disguise in 
which he was about to fly ; he was 
flogged, maltreated, stripped 
of all the money he had, put 
into chains, and cast into a dun- 
geon. After being transferred 
from one prison to another, 
undergoing many cruelties, and 
being found an obstinate here- 
tic, he was, after twenty-seven 
months' imprisonment, banished 
the kingdom. 

CRAMER : a refugee Protest- 
ant family of Strasburg, some 
of whom settled in Geneva, 
where Gabriel Cramer, a cele- 
brated physician, became Dean 
of the College of Medicine in 
1677. Jean-Louis Cramer held 
the rank of captain in the Eng- 
lish army, and served with 
distinction in the Spanish cam- 
paign. When the French army 
occupied Geneva at the Revo- 
lution, Jean-Antoine, brother 
of the preceding, came over 
to England and settled. His 
second son, Jean-Antoine, was 
a professor at Oxford and Dean 
of Carlisle. He was the author 

of several geographical works. 
Another member of this family 
was Gabriel Cramer, of Ge- 
neva, the celebrated mathema- 

CREGUT : a refugee pastor 
from Montelimar, who offici- 
ated as minister of the French 
church in Wheeler Street, and 
afterwards in that of La Nou- 
velle Patente, London. 

PION DE : a landed proprietor 
in Normandy, who fled from 
France into England with his 
family, at the Revocation. He 
was related by marriage to the 
Pierpoints, who hospitably re- 
ceived the fugitives. Two of 
his sons entered the army ; 
Gabriel was an officer in the 
Guards, and Thomas captain 
in Hotham's Dragoons. The 
grandson of the latter had two 
sons: Philip Champion deCres- 
pigny, M.P. for Aldborough, 
1803 ; and Sir Claude Champion 
de Crespigny, created Baronet 
in 1805. 

CROMMELIN, Louis : royal 
superintendent of the linen- 
manufacture in Ireland, to 
which office he was appointed 
by William III. For notice of 
him, see p. 296. A correspon- 
dent (A. V. Kirwan, Esq.), 
says: " I knew well a descend- 
ant of the Crommelins, Nicolas 
de la Cherois Crommelin, a 
gentleman of good landed es- 
tate. Like all the descendants 
of the Huguenots whom I have 
known, he bore a pensive, not 
to say melancholy, cast of coun- 
tenance. The same sense of 
sadness may be observed in the 
expression of the Jews in Po- 




CROZE : see Cornaiid de la 

CRUSO, JOHN : a refugee 
from Hownescoat in Flanders, 
who settled in Norwich. His 
son Timothy became a pros- 
perous merchant in London, 
and founded the present Nor- 
folk family of the Crusos. 

ber of the illustrious family 
of Du Lude. He entered the 
English Church, and held a 
benefice in Buckinghamshire 
towards the end of the 17th 
century ; but having declared 
in favour of James II. , he was 
deposed from his office in 1693, 
and died in London in 1726. 
His brother Benjamin was also 
a refugee in England, and held 
the office of minister in the 
church of La Paten te, which 
he contributed to found. 

D'ALBIAC : this family is said 
to derive its name from Albi, 
the" capital of the country of 
the Albigenses, which was de- 
stroyed in the religious crusade 
against that people in the thir- 
teenth century. The D'Albiacs 
fled from thence to Nismes, 
where they suffered heavily for 
their religion, especially after 
the Revocation. Two youth- 
ful D'Albiacs were sent to Eng- 
land, having been smu"gled out 
of the country in hampers. 
They both prospered and 
founded families. We find the 
names of their descendants oc- 
curring amongst the directors 
of the French Hospital. The 
late Lieutenant-General Sir J. 
C. Dalbiac, M.P., was lineally 
descended from one of the 
sons, and his only daughter 
became Duchess of Roxburghe 

by her marriage with the Duke 
in 1836. 

fugee from Sedan, who entered 
the English Church, and became 
rector of Ferriby in Lincoln- 

DAMPIER : the navigator, is 
said to have belonged to an 
old Huguenot family settled 
in Somersetshire. There is a 
glover of the same name in 
Yeovil, who claims to be of 
like French descent. 

refugee at Rye in Sussex. 
William was a jurat of that 
town ; he died in 1787. The 
family is now represented by 
the Stonhams. 

D'ALTERA : The ancestors of 
this family possessed large 
estates near Nismes, in Lan- 
guedoc. They emigrated tc 
England early in the sixteenth 
century, and afterwards took 
refuge in the county of Cork, 
Ireland. The only surviving 
member of the family is a 
Surgeon-Major in the British 

D'ARANDA: originally a 
Spanish family, supposed to 
have been driven out of Flan- 
ders by the persecutions of the 
Duke of Alva. In 1617, Elie 
D'Aranda was minister of the 
Walloon church at Southamp- 
ton ; in 1619, " mode'rateur de 
colloques " at Norwich. He was 
grandfather of Paul D'Aranda, 
Amsterdam, sometimes called 
" the merchant prince," and, 
by the female line, to the Rev. 
William Coxe, archdeacon of 
Wilts and canon of Salisbury, 
author of the " Life of Sir R. 
Walpole," " House of Austria," 




etc. The male branch of the 
D'Aranda family is now extinct. 

fugee family from Sancerre, 
some of the members of which 
settled in England and Ireland 
at the Revocation. Two of 
them served as officers in 
William III.'s Guards. Two 
brothers were directors of the 
French Hospital John in 1756, 
and James in 1762. Dargan, 
the late railway contractor in 
Ireland, is supposed to have 
belonged to this family. 

D'AsGENTEUiL : see Chariot. 

DAVID : a Protestant family 
of Rochelle, many members 
of which fled from France, 
some into England, and others 
to the United States of America. 
One, John David, was a direc- 
tor of the French Hospital in 
London in 1750. 

DAUDJS, PETER : a member 
of one of the best families of 
Marudjols in the Gevaudan. 
He came to England in 1680, 
and became a tutor in the Trevor 
family ; afterwards he accepted 
a clerkship in the Exchequer, 
which he held for twenty-eight 
years. He was a very learned, 
but an exceedingly diffident and 
eccentric man. His nephew, 
also named Peter, was a minis- 
ter of one of the French churches 
in London. 

DE B ROSSES : One of the de- 
scendants of the distinguished 
refugee of this name officiated 
as secretary of the Bank of 
England under the name of 
Bros. His son is a barrister 
on the Oxford circuit. 

DE FOE : Charles Philarete, 
in Notes and Queries, for March 
7th, 18C8, says : " The real 

patronymic of Daniel De Foe 
appears to have been De Foy, 
or De Foix, which belongs to 
an old Huguenot family of Pro- 
vence. His progenitors were 
refugees who adopted the false 
orthography of De Foe in order 
to avoid having the name pro- 
nounced in the English fashion, 
which would have lent to the 
syllable oi a sound analogous 
to that of hoist, moist, etc." 

DE JEAN, Louis : descended 
from a Fench refugee, was 
colonel of the 6th Dragoon 
Guards, and eventually lieu- 

scion of a noble Huguenot 
family of the Gatinais, whose 
two sons, Nicolas and Bour- 
jouval, officers in the French 
army, being Protestants, left 
France at the Revocation, and 
took service under the Prince 
of Orange. They were after- 
wards joined by their elder 
brother Daniel, and their two 
sisters, Judith and Louisa, who 
had succeeded in escaping from 
France in disguise. The two 
first-named brothers entered 
the service of William III., and 
both distinguished themselves 
at the battle of the Boyne. The 
second was killed at the siege 
of Dungannon ; but Nicolas 
served the King through all his 
wars, and afterwards under 
Marlborough, rising to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel. Having 
married Marie Crommelin, a 
sister of Louis Crornmelin, he 
left a family whose descendants 
still survive in the north of 
Ireland. The eldest of the 
three brothers, Daniel, held the 
office of governor of Pondi- 




cherry in the East Indies, to 
which he was nominated by 
King William ; and in that ca- 
pacity he realized a considerable 
fortune. His only daughter 
married for her second husband 
Count Montgomery, of Mount 
Alexander. Judith, one of the 
girls who had fled from France 
in disguise, lived to the age of 
113, and died at Mount Alex- 
ander in the full possession of 
her faculties. 

DE LA COUR : an illustrious 
Huguenot family, many mem- 
bers of which filled places of 
high trust under the French 
kings, as indicated by the billets 
on their coat of arms. The 
first of the family that emi- 
grated on account of religion, 
was a distinguished officer of 
the French army, who settled 
in the neighbourhood of Port- 
arlington, from whence his 
descendants afterward removed 
to the county of Cork. The 
motto of the branch of the 
family settled in Ireland, Au 
Ciel de la Cour, was adopted on 
their leaving France, intima- 
ting that they had left a high 
position at Court for the sake 
of the religion which they pro- 

DE LATVE, PETER : a French 
refugee, who fled into England 
before the Revocation, and ob- 
tained letters of denisation 
dated 1681 . He was appointed 
French tutor to the children of 
the Duke of York, afterwards 
James II. We are informed 
by a correspondent, that J. T. 
Delane, editor of the Times, is 
collaterally descended from this 

Da LA. MOTHS : see Mothe. 

j Tournay, of Roman Catholic 
j parents, about the middle of 
the sixteenth century, while 
! the Low Countries were under 
! the dominion of Spain. He 
was apprenticed to a silkman, 
who was a Protestant, and 
becoming informed as to the 
truth of the new views, he em- 
braced Protestantism. When 
the persecution began under 
the Duke of Alva, young Dela- 
motte went to Geneva, studied 
for the ministry, was ordained, 
and returned to Tournay, where 
he privily officiated as minister 
to the flock there, at the same 
time working with his old mas- 
ter as a silkman. But his pro- 
fession and calling having been 
discovered, he was forced to fly 
across the frontier into France. 
The following account is con- 
tained in a MS. in the posses- 
sion of his family : "An in- 
formation having been given 
against him to the Inquisition, 
they sent their officers in the 
night to apprehend him ; they 
knocked at the door and told 
his master (who answered them) 
that they wanted his man. He, 
judging who they were, called 
Joseph, and he immediately 
got on his clothes and made 
his escape over the garden wall, 
with his Bible, and travelled 
away directly into France, to 
St. Malo. They, believing him 
to be gone the nearest way to 
the sea-coast, pursued toward 
Ostend, and missed him. From 
St. Malo he got over to Guern- 
sey (then in the possession of 
Queen Elizabeth), and from 
thence to Southampton, where, 
his money being all gone, he 




applied himself to the mem- 
bers of the French church there, 
making his condition known to 
them. Their minister being 
just dead, they desired that he 
would preach to them the next 
Sabbath day, which accordingly 
he did, and they chose him for 
their minister." He married 
and had a large family, most of 
whose descendants also have 
had large families, so that the 
Southampton Delamottes now 
form a very numerous body. 
Some members of the family 
have been distinguished as mer- 
chants and manufacturers, and 
others as clergymen. 

DELATING : a refugee family 
from Normandy, who took re- 
fuge in England as early as 
1599, when a Delaune officiated 
as minister of the Walloon 
Church in London. Another, 
in 1618, held the office of 
minister of the Walloon church 
at Norwich. Thomas Delaune 
was a considerable writer on 
religious and controversial sub- 

DE LAVAL, VICOMTE : posses- 
sor of large estates in Picardy, 
who, after heavy persectition, 
fled at the Revocation, and took 
refuge in Ireland, settling at 
Portarlington. His son was an 
officer in the British army : and 
descendants of the family are 
still to be met with in Ireland. 

DE LAVALADE : this family 
possessed large estates in Lan- 
guedoc. Several members of 
them succeeded in escaping into 
Holland, and afterwards pro- 
ceeded to Ireland, settling in 
Lisburn. M. De Lavalade was 
forty years pastor of the French 
church there. 

MER : a Protestant refugee 
family at Canterbury, whose 
names are of frequent occur- 
rence in the register of that 
church. Their descendants are 
numerous, and enjoy good posi- 
tions in society. 

DELME\ PHILIP : minister of 
the Walloon congregation, Can- 
terbury, whose son Peter settled 
in London as a merchant, and 
whose grandson, Sir Peter, an- 
cestor of the present family of 
Delme' Radcliffe, was Lord 
Mayor of London in 1723. 

notice, p. 231. 

DESAGULIERS, DR. : notice p. 

DES CHAMPS JOHN : a native 
of Bergerac, belonging to ac 
ancient family established in 
Perigord. At the Revocation 
he took refuge, first in Geneva, 
and then in Prussia. Of his 
sons, one became minister of the 
church at Berlin ; while another 
came over to England and be- 
came minister of the church of 
the Savoy, in which office he 
died in 1767. The son of the 
latter, John Ezekiel, entered 
the civil service of the East 
India Company, and became 
member of Council of the Pre- 
sidency of Madras. He ulti- 
mately took the name of 
Chamier, having been left sole 
heir to Anthony Chamier, the 
descendant of another refugee. 
By his marriage with Georgiana 
Grace, daughter of Admiral 
Burnaby, he had a numerous 
family. One of his sons is 
Captain Frederick Chamier, 
the novelist and nautical annal 


tive of Auvergne, born 1666; 
the son of a Protestant minis- 
ter, who took refuge in England. 
Little is known of Des Mai- 
saux's personal history, be- 
yond that he was a member of 
the Royal Society, a friend of 
St. Evremond, and a volumi- 
nous author. He died in 1745. 

DES ORMEAUX, also named 
Rochelle family. At the Revo- 
cation several members of it set- 
tled at Norwich. One Catherine 
Colin was married to Thomas 
le Chevalier in 1727. Gabriel 
Colin was minister of Thorpe- 
le-Soken from 1707 to 1714. A 
member of the family, Jacques 
Louis des Ormeaux, was elected 
a director of the French Hos- 
pital in 1798. 

DE REGIS : the head of this 
family emigrated to England 
at the Revocation. In his 
will, De Regis stated that 
he was "entitled by primo- 
geniture to an abbey, and to 
paternal and maternal estates 
in Dauphiny." His son, the 
Rev. Balthazar Regis, was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin ; 
was D.D. of Cambridge, 1721 ; 
Canon of Windsor, 1751 ; Chap- 
lain to the King ; Rector of 
Adisham, Kent; and died 

DESBOIS : a farmer of Autun, 
in Burgundy, born in 1646. 
He married Lazarin Paulet, by 
whom he had Lazarus, born 
1670, Martin, and a daughter. 
At his death, in 1679, the pro- 
perty was taken in charge by 
his wife's father, who induced 
his daughter to put the chil- 
dren into the Convent of St. 

Lazare, Autun, under protec- 
tion of the abbess. Lazarus 
assisted as singing boy in the 
chapel, and in the work of the 
convent ; but finding it irksome, 
he left for Paris, and became 
apprenticed to a joiner. While 
in this service, he became ac- 
quainted with some Protest- 
ants, and adopted their faith. 
The monks, observing that he 
no longer attended confession 
and mass, reproached him for 
his conduct. Finding it unsafe 
to remain in Paris, he set out 
for Amsterdam. He remained 
there for seven years, after 
which, in 1699, he passed over 
into England, and settled him- 
self in Crompton Street, Soho, 
where he pursued the trade 
of a joiner and cabinet-maker. 
In 1701 he married Margaret 
Loizel, a Protestant refugee from 
St. Quentin, in Brittany, by 
whom he had a family, and his 
descendants still survive. 

DE SCHIRAC : a Huguenot 
family from Bergeral, in Gui- 
enne. The first refugee had 
the greatest difficulty in es- 
caping from France, after the 
Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. He was compelled to 
comply with the outward cere- 
mony of abjuring his faith. 
Then he arranged to send 
his family out of the country. 
The ship in which his wife 
embarked was burnt, and the 
report reached him that none 
on board had escaped but a 
few sailors. The two eldest 
daughters, who could not escape 
with their mother, were sent 
on board another vessel. One 
of them, when the ship was 
searched, was obliged to con- 




ceal herself in a coil of ropes. 
At length, after visiting nu- 
merous seaports, and finding 
that he was unable to escape by 
sea, De Schirac and his son 
managed to cross the Swiss 
frontier accompanied by a party 
of recruits. After remaining 
at Zurich for a few days, he 
and his son set out for England. 
M. De Schirac eventually be- 
came minister of the French 
church at Bristol. The late 
Professor Rigaud drew out an 
abstract of his history, which 
concludes with the following 
words : " He died in his pulpit 
at Bristol ; he had a lap-dog 
with him at the time, which 
could not be driven from his 
corpse. His daughter married 
M. Triboudet Demainbray, 
himself a refugee from France 
in consequence of the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes, 
and their granddaughter was 
my mother." 

D'ESPAGNE, JEAN : a Hugue- 
not pastor, who fled from Dau- 
phiny, shortly after the assassi- 
nation of Henry IV. He was 
one of the most able divines of 
the refugee churches in Eng- 
land. He died in 1659. 

escaped to England from the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
abandoning his title and estate 
rather than abjure Protestant- 
ism. He was sent to Ireland on 
civil serviceby Queen Elizabeth. 
His grandson, William, was 
colonel of engineers in the army 
of William III., and in 1715 
his eldest son represented the 
borough of Thomastown, and 
afterwards the County Kil- 
kenny, in the Irish House of 

Commons. Many members of 
the family have served in the 
church and the army : two were 
generals, one governor of New- 
foundland, three were High- 
Sheriffs of Queen's County, and 
several were magistrates there 
and elsewhere. The name has 
been written "Dispard" with- 
out the apostrophe for about 150 
years. There are still numerous 
D'Espards in the south of 
France. Several of them re- 
side on the banks of the Loire 
near Tours. 

son of De Bacquencourt, presi- 
dent of the parliament of Rouen. 
He took refuge in Dublin, 
where he became minister of 
the French church. In con- 
junction with the Rev. Peter 
Droz, he commenced, about 
1742, the publication of the 
first literary journal which ap- 
peared in Ireland. He after- 
I wards removed to Portarlington. 
The present head of the family 
j is Sir C. Des Voeux, Bart. 

descended from a Huguenot 
refugee. He was a director of 
the East India Company, a 
director of the French Hospital, 
and was elected for Barnstaple 
in 1774. 

DE VEILLE HANS : a refugee 
who entered the English Church, 
and was made library keeper at 
Lambeth by Archbishop Tillot- 
son. His son Thomas entered 
the English army as a private, 
and was sent with his regiment 
to Portugal. There he rose by 
merit to the command of a 
troop of dragoons. On his 
return to London, he was ap- 
pointed a London justice an 




office then paid by fees ; and 
his conduct in the riots of 1735 
was so much approved, that he 
received the honour of knight- 
hood. He was also colonel of 
the Westminster militia. 

D'OLiER : see Olier. 

Huguenot landed proprietor in 
the Isle of France, was arrested 
in 1685 by order of Louis XIV., 
and thrown into prison and 
tortured. He contrived to es- 
cape into Holland, where he 
entered the service of William 
III. His granddaughter Mar- 
garet became the wife of the 
Rev. Dr. Traviss, vicar of 
Snape, in Yorkshire, whose 
eldest daughter, Anne, married, 
in 1772, the Be v. Thomas Faber, 
vicar of Calverley, and was the 
mother of the late George Stan- 
ley Faber, prebendary of Salis- 
bury, whose family still possess 
the much-prized Bible with 
which the orginal refugee fled 
out of France. The Fabers 
are themselves supposed to be 
of Huguenot descent by thej 
male side, as is indicated by ; 
their name. The families of 
Buck of Townhall and Denham 
Park, Cooke of Swinton, and I 
Atkinson of Bradford, are de- 
scended by intermarriages from 
the Dibon family. See notice, 
p. 167. 

DOBREE : the ancestor of this 
family fled to the island of 
Guernsey during the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew. From- 
him descended Peter Dobree, j 
merchant of London, father of 
the Rev. William Dobre'e, 
rector of St. Saviour, Guern- 
sey ; and the Rev. Peter Paul 
Dobree, Regius Professor of 

Greek at the University of Cam- 
bridge. Dobree Bonamy, the 
well-known author and political 
economist, belongs to this 

DOLLOND, JOHN : for notice, 
p. 337. 


D'AMBRAIN : a Protestant 
Huguenot family of high ex- 
traction, the head of which, 
Jacques d'Embrun, fled from 
the town of Embrun, near Gap, 
in the Hautes-Alpes, in 1572. 
Escaping to Rouen, his family, 
with six others, De Cafour, Le 
Gyt, De Lasaux, Beaufort, Le 
Pine, and La Grande, crossed the 
Channel in an open boat on the 
19th August, 1572, and settled 
at Canterbury. The head of 
the family is Sir James D'om- 
brain, Kt., Bt., R.N., now 
resident in Ireland. His son, 
the Rev. Henry Honywood 
D'ombrain, is vicar of West- 
well, Kent, and his grandson, 
the Rev. James D'ombrain, 
is rector of St. Benedict's, Nor- 
wich. Some years since there 
was an eminent surgeon of the 
same name settled in Edin- 

Charles Drelincourt, one of the 
ablest preachers and writers 
among the French Protestants. 
He was educated at Geneva, 
and afterwards came to England, 
where he entered the English 
Church, and eventually became 
dean of Armagh. 

Du BEDAT : the head of this 
family was the Marqiiis Du 
Bedat. One of his descend- 
ants is secretary to the Bank 
of Ireland. 

Du Bois or Du UOUAYS : a 




Protestant family of Brittany, 
of whom many members came 
over to England and settled at 
an early period at Thorney, 
Canterbury, Norwich, and Lon- 
don. Others of the name came 
from French Flanders. 

DUBOIS, FRANCIS : fled from 
the massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew into England. He settled 
at Shrewsbury, where he found- 
ed a ribbon manufactory. Mr. 
Agnew says that his descend- 
ants removed to Wolverhamp- 
ton, where they purchased coal- 
mines, and built extensive iron 
forges. In the fourth genera- 
tion, the Dubois changed their 
name to Wood. William Wood, 
born in 1671, was the manu- 
facturer of " Wood's half- 
pence," the circulation of which 
caused such a fureur in Ire- 
land. William Wood's fourth 
son was Charles Wood, the 
discoverer of platinum. He 
built the Lowmill Iron Works, 
near Whitehaven, and the Cy- 
farthon Works, near Merthyr- 
Tydvil. Mrs Mary Howitt 
(wife of William Howitt) is 
the granddaughter of Charles 

DUBOUCHET : an illustrious 
Huguenot family of Poitou, 
several of whose members took 
refuge in England. One of 
them, Pierre, officiated as mini- 
ster of the French church at 
Plymouth between 1733 and 

Du BOTTZAY : a family de- 
scended from the Marquis 
d'Argencon de Boulay, a Hu- 
guenot refugee in Holland in 
1658. His grandson was mini- 
ster of the French church in 
Threadneedle Street, London. 

The family is now represented 
by Du Boulay, of Donhead 
Hall, Wiltshire. Mr. Agnew 
says : " This family is at pre- 
sent largely represented in the 
church, and is established in 
the Southern Counties. It ex- 
emplifies the manner in which 
the French colony clung to- 
gether, though perhaps it is 
only a coincidence, that by 
the marriage of the widow of 
the Rev. J. T. H. Du Boulay, 
of Heddington, with the Rev. 
G. J. Majendie, son of the 
Bishop of Bangor, the Rev. 
Henry William Majendie, at 
present the representative of 
the Majendies, is half-brother 
to the present head of the Du 

DUBOURDIEU : a noble Pro- 
testant family of Beam. Isaac 
was for some time minister of 
the Savoy church, London. His 
son, John Armand, after having 
been minister at Montpellier, 
took refuge in England, and 
also became one of the ministers 
of the church in the Savoy. His 
grandson was the last pastor of 
the French church at Lisburn, 
and afterwards rector of Anna- 
hilt, in Ireland. For notice of 
the Dubourdieus, see p. 258. 

tor of the Sorbonne. Becoming 
converted to Protestantism, he 
fled into England at the time 
of the massacre of St. Bartho- 
lomew, and became minister 
of the French church at Rye. 
Another emigrant of the same 
name was Pierre Grostete du 
Buisson. His grandson bought 
an estate in South Wales, which 
one of the branches of the 
family still occupies. 




DUCANK : see Du, Quesne. 

a refugee who accompanied his 
parents from Caen into Eng- 
land, at the revival of religious 
persecution in France in 1724. 
He studied at Eton and Oxford. 
In 1757 he was appointed arch- 
bishop's librarian at Lambeth, 
and in the following year he 
was sent to Canterbury, where 
he held an important appoint- 
ment in the record office. He 
was a man of great antiquarian 
learning, and published numer- 
ous works on classical antiqui- 

Du Cuos, JOHN" : a refugee 
from Dauphiny. In 1711 his 
son John was minister of the 

Du JON : a noble family of 
Berri, several members of which 
took refuge in England. Fran- 
cis, son of a refugee at Leyden, 
where he studied, was appointed 
librarian to the Earl of Arundel, 
and held the office for thirty 
years. He was one of the first 
t< devote himself to the study 
of Anglo-Saxon literature, and 
published several works on the 

Du MOULIN : an ancient and 
noble family of the Isle of 
France, that has furnished dig- 
nitaries to the Roman Church 
as well as produced many 
eminent Protestant writers. 
Charles du Moulin, the eminent 
French jurisconsult, declared 
himself as Protestant in 1542. 
Pierre du Moulin belonged to 
another branch of the family. 
He was only four years old at 
the massacre of Bartholomew, 
and was saved by an old ser- 
vant of his father, who picked 

him up from amongst the 
dead and dying. In his youth 
he studied at Sedan and 
afterwards at Oxford and Ley- 
den. At the latter university 
he was appointed professor of 
philosophy when only in his 
twenty-fourth year. Grotius 
was among his pupils. Seven 
years later, he was "called" 
by the great Protestant church 
at Charenton near Paris, and 
accepted the invitation to be 
their minister. He officiated 
there for twenty-four years, 
during which he often incurred 
great peril, having had his 
house twice pillaged by the 
populace. At the outbreak of 
the persecution in the reign of 
Louis XIII. he accepted the 
invitation of James I. to settle 
in England, where he was re- 
ceived with much honour. The 
King appointed him prebendary 
of Canterbury, and the univer- 
sity of Cambridge conferred 
upon him the degree of D.D. 
He afterwards returned to Paris, 
to assist in the conferences of 
the Protestant church, and 
died at Sedan at the age of 
ninety. His two sons, Peter 
and Louis, both settled in Eng- 
land. The former was preacher 
to the university of Oxford in 
the time of the Commonwealth. 
In 1660 Charles II. appointed 
him one of his chaplains, as well 
as prebendary of Canterbury. 
j Louis, on the other hand, who 
j had officiated as Camden pro- 
j fessor of liistory at Oxford 
during the Commonwealth, was 
turned out of his office on the 
Restoration, and retired to 
Westminster, where he con- 
tinued for the rest of his life 




an extreme Presbyterian. Both 
brothers were voluminous 

DUNCAN : a Scotch family 
naturalised in France at the 
beginning of the seventeenth 
century. Mark Duncan was 
Protestant Professor of philo- 
sophy and Greek at Saumur. 
One of his sons, Sainte-Helene, 
took refuge in London, where 
he died in 1697. Another 
descendant of the family, 
Daniel, was celebrated as a 
chemist and physician, and 
wrote several able works on 
his favourite subjects. His son 
Daniel was the last pastor of 
the French church at Bideford, 
where he died in 1761. He 
was also celebrated as a writer 
on religious subjects. 

DUPIS, PAUL : an eminent 
paper-manufacturer who esta- 
blished himself in England 
after the Revocation, and 
carried on a large paper-mill 
with great success. 

lain to the French Hospital in 
1750. Another of the name, 
Francis, was minister of La 
Nouvelle Patente and Wheeler 
Street chapels, London of the 
latter in 1720. 

Du PORT: a Protestant 
family of Poitou, several mem- 
bers of which took refuge in 
England. One of them, James, 
was pastor of the French Wal- 
loon church in London in 1590. 
His son, of the same name, 
filled the office of professor of 
Greek at the University of 
Cambridge with great distinc- 
tion. In 1660 he was appointed 
dean of Peterborough and 
chaplain to the King. He was 

the author of several learned 
works : he died in 1679. 

DUPUY : a Protestant family 
of Languedoc. At the Revo- 
cation, the brothers Philip and 
David entered the army of Wil- 
liam of Orange. They were both 
officers in his guards, and were 
both killed at the Boyne. An- 
other brother, Samuel, was also 
an officer in the British army, 
and served with distinction in 
the Low Countries. 

cond son of the celebrated ad- 
miral, lieutenant in the French 
navy, settled in England after 
the Revocation, and died there. 
His son Thomas Roger was 
prebendary of Ely, and vicar of 
East Tuddenham, Norfolk. 
Another branch of the family 
of Du Quesne or Du Cane, 
settled in England in the six- 
teenth century. One of their 
descendants was an alderman 
of London. From this branch 
the Du Canes of Essex are 
descended. Charles Du Cane, 
M.P., of Braxted Park, is the 
representative of the family. 

IAUME : a native of Montpellier, 
born 1649. On arriving at 
maturity he became an or- 
dained minister of the French 
Protestant Church ; and was 
appointed to a cure at Genuil- 
lac, in Lower Languedoc. In 
1680 he married the Demoisell 
de Brueyx de Fontcouverte, 
daughter of the Baron of that 
name, residing in the diocese of 
Usez. Durand lived at Ge- 
nuillac for two or three years, 
until the persecutions began, 
and then he was compelled to 
fly from France, leaving behind 

DUK nun 



him his son Francis. He fled 
into Westphalia, where he lived 
for a year, and then proceeded 
to Schaffhausen in Switzerland. 
He afterwards settled at Copet, 
near Geneva. There we find 
him acting as captain in the 
service of William III. of Eng- 
land. That monarch was then 
raising Huguenot regiments 
abroad, to enable him to carry 
on his contest with James II. 
in Ireland. Durand succeeded 
in raising in the Canton of 
Vaux the 2nd and 3rd Batal- 
lions of the Regiment of Loches, 
and the Dragoon Regiment of 
Baltasar. The ministers of 
Geneva, however, having given 
it as their opinion that the 
duties of Captain and Minister 
were incompatible, he resigned 
the former office, and remained 
Chaplain of the Regiment of 
Baltasar. He served with the 
English army in Savoy, under 
the Duke of Schomberg, after 
which he journeyed northward 
to Nimuegen, in Holland, where 
he was appointed minister of 
the Walloon church. His son 
Francis there joined him; the 
old refugee died at the advanced 
age of eighty-four. Fran- 
cis Durand de Fontcouverte, 
after the flight of his father, 
had been apprehended and 
educated by the Jesuits of 
Montpellier, and was accord- 
ingly brought up a Roman 
Catholic. He afterwards left 
France, joined his father at 
Nimuegen, and was permitted 
to practise at the bar in Hol- 
land. He had doubtless re- 
turned to the faith of his 
fathers, for we find him bring- 
ing up his son as a minister of 

the Reformed Church. His 
son, Francis William Isaiah 
Durand, proceeded to Norwich 
in England, with his Huguenot 
wife, where he was appointed 
ministeaof the Dutch church in 
1743. In 1751 lie was ordained 
Deacon and 'Priest by Ben- 
jamin, Bishop of Winchester. 
Four days after his reordina- 
tion, he was inducted into the 
United Parishes of St. Sampson 
and the Vale in the Island of 
Guernsey. Some time after, 
he was made minister of the 
French church held in the 
Crypt, Canterbury, still re- 
taining his Guernsey livings. 
He died at Canterbury in 1789 . 
One of his sons was Dean of 
Guernsey. His descendants 
have filled various public offices 
of importance. Charles James 
Durand, Captain of the Bengal 
Staff Corps, has favoured us 
with the above particulars. 

DURAND : a noble family of 
Dauphiny. Several ministers 
of the name officiated in French 
churches in England one at 
Bristol and others in London. 

DURANT : several members 
of this Huguenot family sat 
in Parliament. Thomas sat 
for St. Ives in 1768, and George 
for Evesham. 

DURAS, BARON: see Durfort. 

DURFEY, THOMAS : born at 
Exeter about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. He was 
the son of a French refugee 
from Rochelle, and is well 
known as a song writer and 
dramatic author. 

ancient Protestant family of 
Guienne. Louis, Marquis of 
Blanquefort, came over to 




land in the reign of Charles II. , 
and was well received by that 
monarch, who created him 
Baron de Duras and employed 
him as ambassador-extraordi- 
nary at Paris. James II. created 
him, though a Protestant, Earl 
of Faversham, and gave him 
the command of the army 
which he sent against the Duke 
of Monmouth. He died in 
1709. The French church 
which he founded at Faversham 
did no-t long survive him. 

DUROURE, FRANCIS : scion of 
an ancient family in Languedoc. 
His two sons were officers in 
the English army. Scipio was 
lieutenant-colonel of the 12th 
Foot, and was killed at Fon- 
tenoy. Alexander was colonel 
of the 4th Foot, and rose to be 

DURY, PAUL : an eminent 
officer of engineers, who entered 
the service of William III., 
from which he passed into that 
of the Elector of Hesse. Two 
of his sons served with dis- 
tinction in the English army ; 
the elder, of the regiment of 
La Melonniere, was killed at 
the Boyne. 

Du SOUL, MOSES : a refugee 
from Tours, known in England 
as a translator and philologist, 
about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. 

DUTEXS, Louis : a refugee 
from Tours, historiographer to 
the king of England, member 
of the Royal Society and of the 
French Academy of Inscrip- 
tions. Having entered the 
English Church, he was pre- 
sented with the living of Elsdon 
in Northumberland. He was 
the author of many well-known 

works ; amongst others, of the 
learned treatise entitled Origiiie 
des Decouwrtes attributes aux 

DUVAL : many refugees from 
Rouen of this name settled in 
England, and several were 
ministers of French churches 
in London. Several have been 
governors of the French Hos- 

Du VEIL : three brothers 
of this name, Jews by birth, 
were won over by the Roman 
Catholic Church. Daniel Du 
Veil, the eldest, was baptised 
under Royal sponsorship at 
the palace of Compiegne. 
After further study the three 
brothers became Protestants ; 
two took refuge in Eng- 
land, the third in Holland. 
Charles Marie Du Veil came 
to England about the year 
1677. He was ordained a 
minister of the Church of Eng- 
land ; but, having abjured the 
theory of infant baptism, he 
eventually became a Baptist 
minister. He published several 
works on religious subjects. 

EMERIS : a refugee family of 
this name fled out of France at 
the massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew, and purchased a small 
property in Norfolk, which 
descended from father to son, 
and is still in the possession of 
the family, at present repre- 
sented by W. R. Emeris, Esq., 
of Louth, Lincolnshire. 

REMOND : a refugee gentleman 
of wit and bravery, who served 
with distinction under Turenne 
and Conde. His satiric humour 
lost him the friendship of his 




patrons, and provoked the en- 
mity of Louis XIV., who 
ordered his arrest. Having 
received timely notice, Evre- 
mond fled first into Germany 
and Holland, and afterwards 
into England, where he became 
a great favourite with Charles 
II., who gave him a pension. 
In 1678, an order in Council 
was passed directing returns to 
be made of foreigners then in 
England, and amongst them 
appears the following, doubt- 
less that of our French seig- 
neur : " Nov. 23, 1678. S te ' 
Evremond chasse' de France il y 
a long temps, est venu d'abord 
en Angleterre, de la il est alle 
en Flandre, de Flandre en Alle- 
magne, d'Allemagne en Hol- 
lande, de Hollande il est revenu 
en Angleterre, ou il est pre- 
sentemente, ne pouvant retour- 
ner en son pais ; il n'a qu'un 
valet nomine' Gaspard Girrard, 
Flammand de nation. Je suis 
loge dans St. Albans Street au 
coin. S r . Evremond." [Mate 
Papers, Domestic, various, No. 
694.] Ste. Evremond was not 
a Protestant, nor would he be 
a Catholic. Indeed, he seems 
to have been indifferent to 
religion. His letters are among 
the most brilliant specimens of 
that style of composition in 
which the French so much 
excel ; but his other works are 
almost forgotten. Des Maise- 
aux, another refugee, published 
them in three vols. quarto, in 
1705 ; afterwards translating 
the whole into English. 

EYNARD : a refugee family of 
Dauphiny. Anthony entered 
the British army, and served 
with distinction, dying in 1739. 

His brother Simon began busi- 
ness in London, and acquired 
a considerable fortune by his 
industry. A sister, Louise, mar- 
ried the refugee Gideon Ageron, 
who also settled in England. 

FABEK : see Diban. 

wealthy apothecary belonging 
to one of the best families of 
Montpellier. In 1569 his house 
was pillaged by the populace, 
while he himself was condemned 
to death because of his religion, 
and hanged. His family fled 
into England, where their des- 
cendants still exist. 

longed to an ancient Angevine 
family, and was captain of the 
Royal Regiment of La Ferte 
previous to the Revocation. He 
left the French king's service, 
and first emigrated to Switzer- 
land, from whence he proceeded 
to Holland and entered the 
service of the Prince of Orange. 
He became cap tain of grenadiers 
in the regiment of Caillemotte- 
Ruvigny, and fought with it at 
the battle of the Boyne, where 
he received six severe wounds, 
which disabled him for life. 
King William, who personally 
witnessed his bravery in the 
battle, rewarded him by ap- 
pointing him governor of the 
port, town, and county of Sligo, 
and conferring on him a pen- 
sion of 10s. a day. He left 
behind him a family of two 
sons and three daughters. Both 
sons became officers in the 
army ; one saw much service in 
Flanders, was brigade-major at 
Fontenoy and Dettingen, and 
subsequently became major- 
general and colonel of the 6Gth 



Regiment. He was present at 
the capture of Havannah, and 
died on board ship on the voy- 
age home. The general left 
only one daughter ; his brother, 
a captain in the army, died un- 
married. The general's daugh- 
ter married a member of the 
Torriano family, and had two 
sons, one a captain in the Artil- 
lery, the other a lieutenant in 
the 71st Regiment ; the Tor- 
rianos in England being also 
descended from another victim 
of religious persecution, who 
fled from Milan and settled in 
London in 1620. 

FLEURY, Lotris : Protestant 
pastor of Tours, who fled into 
England in 1683. His son, 
Philip Amuret, went over to 
Ireland as a Protestant minis- 
ter, and settled there. His 
son, grandson of the refugee, 
became vicar-choral of Lismore; 
and the great-grandson of the 
refugee, George Lewis Fleury, 
became archdeacon of Water- 
ford. See p. 333. 

FONBLANQUE : the original 
name of this refugee family was 
Grenier, of the estate of Fon- 
blanque, in the department of 
Tarn et Garonne. The Greniers, 
says a writer in Notes and Queries 
[4th S. iv. 247], "appear to 
have been of considerable anti- 
quity; noble, though not titled, 
and enjoyed the privilege of 
glass-making as Gentilshommes 
Venders, a monopoly granted 
by St. Louis on his return from 
the Crusades, as an indemni- 
fication for the loss of their 
patrimony in that service. Part 
of the family, having embraced 
the Reformed faith, were in 
consequence exposed to neglect 

and persecution, and the elder 
branch was extinguished by the 
death of the three brothers 
Grenier, who were decapitated 
on the accusation of harbour- 
ing the Protestant minister 
Rochette in their house and 
favouring his escape. All the 
principal family documents of 
importance were destroyed 
during the dragonnades of 
Louis XIV. and XV." The 
late Albany Fonblanque was 
for many years editor of the 
Examiner. His brother J. S. 
Fonblanque was one of the 
commissioners of Bankruptcy. 

FONNEREAU : three members 
of this family, descended from 
a Huguenot refugee Zachary 
Philip, Thomas, and Martin 
sat in Parliament successively 
for Aldborough in 1768, 1773, 
and 1774. 

many members of this family 
settled in England. JameS 
Fontaine, son of James de la 
Fontaine, pastor of Vaux and 
Royan, married for his first 
wife an Englishwoman, a Miss 
Thompson, in 1628, and had by 
her five children ; of whom 
Judith, married to a M. Siner- 
mot, was left a widow with four 
children. After being herself 
shut up in a convent, and com- 
pelled to make abjuration 
of her religion, she suc- 
ceeded in escaping with her 
daughters to London, where 
they maintained themselves by 
needlework. James, pastor of 
Archiac, in Saintonge, died 
and left a widow, who, after 
being confined in a dungeon 
for three years because of her 
faith, succeeded in reaching 




London with her three sons, 
one of whom became a Pro- 
testant minister in Germany. 
Elizabeth, married to M. San- 
treau, pastor of Saujon, in 
Saintonge, who first emigrated 
to Ireland, and left it for 
America with his family, but 
their vessel being wrecked, 
they were all drowned within 
sight of Boston. Peter, pastor 
of Vaux, who, after imprison- 
ment for six months, escaped 
to England, and settled in 
London, where he became 
minister of the Pest House 
chapel. One of Peter's daugh- 
ters married John Arnauld, a 
London merchant. James Fon- 
taine married for his second 
wife Marie Chaillon, in 1641, 
by whom he had two sons and 
three daughters ; of whom 
Mary married Peter Forestier, a 
zealous pastor, who took refuge 
in London, and whose son was a 
celebrated chronometer maker ; 
Ann, who married Leon Testard 
Sieur des Meslars, and escaped 
to Plymouth with her husband, 
b\it died shortly after reaching 
England ; James (see narrative 
at p. 301) ; and Peter, who, 
under the influence of his wife, 
abjured his religion, became a 
lloman Catholic, and remained 
in France. James Fontaine, 
so celebrated for his exploits at 
Bearhaven, died in Dublin, but 
nearly all his family subse- 
quently emigrated to Virginia, 
and settled there. His eldest 
daughter, Mary Anne, married 
Matthew Maury, of Castel 
Mauron, Gascony, who for 
a time settled in Dublin, but 
afterwards left for America ; 
and from this branch the 

Maurys of Virginia are de- 
scended. The only one who 
remained in this country was 
Moses, who pursued the calling 
of an engraver, in London, in 
which he acquired considerable 
reputation. A lady in Aus- 
tralia writes to us as follows : 
"My great-great-grandfather 
Fontaine, or De la Fontaine, 
was at one time Lord of the 
Manor of Nismes. He was 
greatly persecuted for his faith. 
For a long time he preached to 
the people in the mountain 
gorges of the Cevennes. He 
ultimately escaped from France 
with his betrothed and his 
sister. After reaching London, 
one of his sons was employed in 
the Bank of England." 

there were several refugees of 
this name in England. Peter 
Forester was minister of the 
French church, La Nouvelle 
Patente, 1708. Paul was minis- 
ter of the French church at 
Canterbury ; and another was 
minister of that at Dartmouth. 
Alexander was a director of the 
French Hospital in 1735 ; and 
James was a captain in the 
British army. 

major-general in the British 
army, who served in the Irish 
campaign of 1699. 

inventor of the paper-making 
machine. He was descended 
from one of the numerous in- 
dustrial families of the north 
of France, who fled into Hol- 
land at the Revocation. From 
Holland, Fourdrinier's father 
passed into England about the 
middle of the eighteenth cen- 




tury, and established a paper- 
manufactory. The first idea 
of the paper-making machine 
belonged to France, but Four- 
drinier fully developed it and 
embodied it in a working plan. 
He laboured at his invention 
for seven years, during which 
he was assisted by his brother 
Sealy and John Gamble. It 
was perfected in 1809. Several 
of the Fourdrinier family are 
buried in the French burying- 
ground at Wandsworth. 

guenot family of this name 
settled in London after the 
llevocation of the Edict. Sir 
Thomas Gabriel, a recent Lord 
Mayor, is descended from them. 

GAGNIER, JOHN : a cele- 
brated Orientalist scholar, who, 
becoming converted to Protes- 
tantism, fled from France into 
England. The Bishop of Wor- 
cester appointed him his chap- 
lain. In 1715 he was appointed 
professor of Oriental languages 
at Oxford. His son took the 
degree of M.A., and was ap- 
pointed rector of Stranton in 
the diocese of Durham. 

GALWAY, EARL OF : see p. 

GAMBIER : a French refugee 
family settled at Canterbury, 
the name very frequently oc- 
curring in the registers of the 
French church there. James 
Gambier, born 1692, became 
i istinguished as a barrister : he 
was a director of the French 
Hospital in 1729. He had two 
sons, James and John. The 
former rose to be a vice-admiral, 
the second became governor of 
the Bahama Islands, where his 
son James, afterwards Lord 

Gambier, was born, 1756. He 
early entered the royal navy, 
and rose successively to the 
ranks of post-captain, vice-ad- 
miral, and admiral. He was 
created a peer for his services 
in 1807. His elder brother, 
Samuel, was a commissioner of 
the navy ; and other members 
of the family held high rank in 
the same service. 

DE : a doctor of medicine, na- 
tive of Caen, who came over 
to England as physician to the 
French ambassador, and em- 
braced Protestantism. He was 
the author of several medical 

DUDLEY: probably the son of 
the preceding. A minor canon 
of Chester, he was made rector 
of Handley, Cheshire, in 1684, 
also rectorof Waverton,Cheshire, 
in 1696. According to Ormerod, 
in his History of Cheshire, the 
Pvev. Mr. Garencie'res was the 
only minor canon who was pro- 
moted to a prebendal stall in 
Chester Cathedral. Hiti son 
Theophilus was educated on 
the foundation of the King's 
School, Chester ; he went from 
thence to Oxford, and was 
afterwards rector of a church 
in Yorkshire. 

GARRET, MARK : afterwards 
called Gerrard, the portrait- 
painter, a refugee from Bruges 
in Flanders, from whence he 
was driven into England by 
the religious persecutions in 
the Low Countries. He was 
king's painter in 1618. 

an ancient family possessing 
estates near Castres, south of 




Bourdeaux, of which Pierre 
Bouffard, Sienr de la Garrigue, 
was the head. Two of the 
scions of this family, Pierre 
and David, being Protestants, 
fled at the Revocation, the 
former to Holland, and the 
latter to England, both adopt- 
ing, according to the usual 
custom, the name of the family 
estate. David fled from Bour- 
deaux and travelled by Sain- 
tonge, Poitou, and Brittany, to 
St. Malo, from whence he sailed 
for Guernsey, and afterwards 
reached London in October, 
1685. He left his wife and his 
infant son, Peter (then only 
five months old), behind him, 
his wife arriving in London 
about two months after him, 
having come by sea in a little 
Guernsey vessel of only 14 
tons, and her son about eighteen 
months later, accompanied by 
his nurse. This boy, on arriv- 
ing at manhood, entered the 
army, was lieutenant of Dra- 
goons, afterwards captain of the 
Old Buffs; and it was while re- 
cruiting at Hereford, in 1716, 
that his son David, afterwards 
the celebrated actor, was born, 
in the Angel Inn there. While 
abroad on foreign service, the 
captain's family resided at Lich- 
field, to which his wife belonged 
Arabella Clough, daughter of 
one of the vicars of the cathe- 
dral. On arriving at manhood, 
Peter, the captain's eldest son, 
and his brother David, began 
the business of wine-merchants 
in London ; but the latter, not 
taking kindly to a business life, 
and probably conscious of the 
power within him, eventually 
left the wine trade and took to 

the stage, on which he dis- 
played such extraordinary 
genius. See also notice at p. 174. 

GASTIGNY : founder of the 
French Hospital in London. 
Seep. 288. 

GATJSSEX : there were several 
branches of this distinguished 
Protestant family in France. 
Haag mentions those of Saumur, 
Burgundy, Guienne, and Lan- 
guedoc. David Gaussen, who 
took refuge in Ireland in 1685, 
belonged to Lunel in Langue- 
doc. His descendants still 
flourish at Antrim, Belfast, and 
Dublin. The Gaussens who 
settled in England, were also 
from Languedoc. About the 
period of the Revocation, John 
Gaussen, son of Pierre (noble), 
emigrated from Lunel to G eneva, 
where he married Marie Bosan- 
quet (also an emigre family 
still existing in England), by 
whom he had six children ; of 
these Francis emigrated to 
London, where he died, un- 
married, in 1744 ; and Peter, 
who married in London a 
Mademoiselle Molet, died at 
Geneva without issue. Paul 
Gaussen emigrated from France 
after the Revocation, and died 
at Geneva in 1774. He married 
Catherine Salat, widow of 
Jacques de Beaumont (noble), 
and had issue, Jean Pierre and 
four other sons. Jean Pierre 
joined his two uncles in Lon- 
don, and became governor of 
the Bank of England, which 
he administered for many years. 
He married, in 1775, Anna 
Maria Bosanquet, daughter of 
Samuel Bosanquet, Esq., of 
Forest House, in Essex ; and 
died in 1778, leaving five chil- 



dren. The eldest, Samuel 
Robert Gaussen, of Brookman's 
Park, Herts, married Eliza 
Bosanquet, daughter of James 
Bosanquet, Esq. He was High- 
Sheriff of Herts, M.P. for 
Warwick, and a lieutenant- 
colonel of the militia. He died 
in 1812, leaving issue, of whom 
Peter, a captain in the Cold- 
stream Guards, died of fever 
contracted in the Walcheren 
expedition ; Eliza married Mr. 
Whatman, of Vinters, near 
Maidstone ; and Harriet mar- 
ried Colonel Best. Samuel 
Robert, the second son, who 
succeeded to the family estate 
in Herts, was also High-Sheriff 
of the county ; he died in 1818, 
and left issue, Robert William 
Gaussen, Esq., of Brookman's 
Park, the present representa- 
tive of the family, who was 
High-Sheriff in 1841. The 
same year he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of James Casamayor, 
Esq., by whom he has two 
sons Robert George, and Casa- 
mayor William, the former of 
whom is captain in the Grena- 
dier Guards. A Roman Catho- 
lic branch of the Gaussens, who 
remained in France, still holds 
large property in the neigh- 
bourhood of Montpellier ; and 
many members of the family 
have distinguished themselves 
in the French military and 
diplomatic services. Other 
members of the Protestant 
branch are still resident in 
Geneva ; the famous Pasteur 
Oaussen, the friend of Merle 
d'Aubigne, being one of them. 
It may be mentioned, as a sin- 
gular illustration of how the 
Huguenot refugee families kept 

together, that the Gaussens, 
while neighbours of the Bosan- 
quet family in France, twice 
intermarried with them there, 
and have, since the families 
settledinEngland, intermarried 
with them no less than four 

GAUTIER, N : a physician of 
Niort, who took refuge in Eng- 
land at the Revocation. He 
was the author of several reli- 
gious books. 

GENESTE, Louis : the owner 
of a large estate in Guienne, 
which he forfeited by adhering 
to the Protestant religion. He 
first fled into Holland and took 
service under the Prince of 
Orange, whom he accompanied 
into England and Ireland, and 
fought in the battle of the 
Boyne in the regiment of Lord 
Lifford. After the pacification 
of Ireland, Geneste settled at 
Lisburn, and left behind him 
two sons and a daughter, among 
whose descendants may be men- 
tioned Hugh Stowell, and Ge- 
neste, well known in the Chris- 
tian world. 

GEORGES, PAUL: two refu- 
gees of this name were minis- 
ters of the French church at 
Canterbury. One of them, 
from Chartres, was minister in 
1630. The other, a native of 
Picardy, died in 1689, after a 
ministry of 42 years. 

GERVAISE, Louis : a large 
hosiery merchant at Paris, elder 
of the Protestant church there. 
At the Revocation of the Edict, 
though seventy years of age, he 
was incarcerated in the Abbey 
of Gannat, from which he was 
transferred to that of Saint 
Magloire, then to the Oratory, 




and after that to the convent of 
Lagny and the castle of Angou- 
leme. All methods of convert- 
ing him having failed, he was 
finally banished from France in 
1G88, when he took refuge in 
London with his brother and 
his son, who had succeeded in 
escaping before him. 

GIBERT, ETIENNE : one of the 
last refugees from France for 
conscience' sake. He laboured 
for some time as a pastor of the 
" Church in the Desert ; " but 
the Bishop of Saintes having 
planned his capture, he fled 
into Switzerland. Afterwards, 
in 1763, we find him attending 
a secret synod in France, as 
deputy of Saintonge ; but at 
length, in 1771, he fled into 
England. He was minister of 
the French church of La Pa- 
tente, in London, in 1776, and 
afterwards of the Chapel Royal 
of St. James. He was finally 
presented with the rectory of 
St. Andrew's in the island of 
Guernsey, where he died in 

GOSSET : a Huguenot family, 
originally from Normandy ; 
they first settled in Jersey. 
Some of the younger branches 
passed over into England, where 
the first of the name that dis- 
tinguished himself was Isaac, 
born 1683, celebrated for his 
skill in the fine arts ; amongst 
others, for his exquisite model- 
ling of portraits in wax. He 
was buried in St. Marylebone 
churchyard, 1744. His grand- 
son, Dr. Gosset, D.D., was a 
famous classical scholar and 
book collector, died 1812 ; he 
was father of the Rev. Isaac 
Gosset. for many years vicar of 

Windsor and Datchet, and 
chaplain to four successive 
sovereigns. Among the mem- 
bers of the elder branch of the 
family may be mentioned Mat- 
thew, for many years Vicomte 
of Jersey, who died 1842 ; 
Major - General Sir William 
Gosset, C.B., R.C.A., who held 
the office of Under-Secretary 
of State for Ireland ; was for 
some time M.P. forTruro ; and 
for several years sergeant-at- 
arms to the House of Commons: 
he died in 1848. Admiral 
Henry Gosset is now the eldest 
survivor of the senior branch 
of the family. 

GOST, JOHN : the son of 
Daniel Gost, a French Protest- 
ant refugee, settled in Dublin 
about 1684. His son J ohn was 
born in that city about 1715, 
and graduated in the University 
there. Having taken priest's 
orders, he was selected to per- 
form the duty of pastor to the 
French Protestant congrega- 
tion at Portarlington ; he was 
honoured with the degree of 
D.D., and appointed to the 
archdeaconry of Glendalough 
and rectory of Arklow. Besides 
sermons and other writings, Dr. 
Gost published a History of 

OF VERVANS : a Huguenot re- 
fugee in England, who died 
there in 1700. The mar- 
chioness, his wife, was appre- 
hended when about to set out 
to join her husband. She was 
shut up in the convent of the 
Ursulines at Angouleme, from 
which she was successively 
transferred to the Abbey of 
Puyberlan, in Poitou, to the 




Abbey of the Trinity at Poitiers 
and finally to Port- Royal. He 
courage at length succumbec 
and she conformed, thereby ob 
taining possession of the estate 
of her husband. 

GOYER, PETER : a refuge 
manufacturer fromPicardy, wh< 
settled at Lisburn in Ireland 
His son was English master in 
the Belfast academy. For notice 
see p. 299. 

GRAVEROL, JOHK : born a 
Nismes, 1647, of a famous Pro 
testant family. He early en 
tered the ministry, and became 
pastor of a church at Lyons. 
He fled from France at the Re- 
vocation, and took refuge in 
London. He was pastor of the 
French churches in Swallow 
Street and the Quarre*. Gra- 
verol was avoluminous author. 
GROSTETE, CLAUDE : a refugee 
pastor in London, minister 
the French church in the 

GROTE or DE GROOT : for 
notice, see p. 322. 

GTJALT : a Protestant family 
of Rouergue. Peter, son of the 
Sieur de la Gineste, fled into 
England atthe Revocation, with 
his wife and three children 
Paul, Francis, and Margaret. 
Paul entered the English army, 
and died a major-general. 
Francis also entered the army, 
and eventually settled at Dub- 
lin, where his descendants still 

GTJERIK : a French refugee 
family long settled at Rye, now 
represented by the Crofts. 

GUIDE, PHILIP : a French 
physician of Paris, native of 
ChAlons-sur-Saone, who took 
refuge in London at the Revo- 

cation. He was the author o! 
several medical works. 

GUILL, GEORGE : a refugee 
from the neighbourhood of 
Tours. He abandoned an es- 
tate and property in France of 
the value of 12,000. He left 
the following notice inscribed 
on his family Bible : "On 
Thursday, Oct. 11, 1685, we set 
out from Tours, and came to 
Paris on the loth of the same 
month. On the 17th came out 
the King of France's declara- 
tion to drive out the Protest- 
ants, who had notice in Paris, 
in four days, which, falling on 
the 21st, was just the day 
whereon our places in the 
waggon for Calais were re- 
tained ; and the day before, j 
was warned, by letters from 
Tours, that upon false accusa- 
tions I was sought by the In- 
tendant and other magistrates ; 
and that they had written to 
the Chancellor of France to 
send after me and arrest me. 
But it pleased God that, imme- 
diately after his signing and 
sealing the declaration, he fell 
sick and died, while we were 
on our journey." Guill arrived 
safely in London. His daughter 
fterwards married the Rev. 
)aniel Williams, D.D., the 
ounder of the Williams Li- 
brary ; and a great friend of 
he banished Huguenots. 


ugee in London from Champ - 
leniers, where he had been 

minister. His descendants have 
>een directors of the French 
lospital at different times. 

GUILLOT : several members 
if this family were officers 

in the navy of Louis XIV. 




They emigrated to Holland at 
the Revocation, and were pre- 
sented by the Prince of Orange 
with commissions in his navy. 
Their descendants settled at 
Lisburn in Ireland. Others of 
the same name Guillot and 
Gillett of like French extrac- 
tion, settled in England, where i 
their descendants are still to 
be found at Birmingham (every- 
body knows the " Gillott pens") 
and Sheffield, as well as at 
Glastonbury, Exeter, and Ban- 

DE : son of the Sieur de Pam- 
pelona, a Protestant, who fled 
into Holland at the Revocation. 
He took service under William 
of Orange, and saw much ser- 
vice in the campaigns in Pied- 
mont and Germany, where he 
lost an arm. William III. gave 
him a retiring pension. He 
settled at Portarlington, and 
died there in 1740. Several of 
his descendants have been 
officers in the English army. 
The last Count Guyon entered 
the Austrian service, and dis- 
tinguished himself in the Hun- 
garian rebellion of 1848. 

HAESTRICHT : a Flemish 
refugee, who fled into England 
during the persecutions of the 
Duke of Alva in the Low 
Countries. He became a well- 
known manufacturer at Bow ; 
and afterwards assumed the 
English name of James. The 
Flemings were given a site in j 
Austin Friars, on which to build j 
a Dutch church ; and adjoining I 
the church the James family 
still continue to hold their | 
house property on a nominal I 
ground rent from the Trustees. > 

The property has been in their 
possession since lu'5<. 

HAMON: an ancient Norman- 
dy family. There were Hamons 
in Baccaville and Rouen who 
claimed descent from the great 
Hamon Dentatus, Earl of Cor- 
beil, in that historic province. 
To this illustrious family be- 
longed Hector Hamon, one of 
the first ministers of a Hugue- 
not congregation that settled 
in England. He is described 
as minister verbi Dei to the little 
flock of refugees that worshipped 
nearly three hundred years ago 
in the crypt of Canterbury cathe- 
dral. The two brothers Hamon 
who settled at Portarlington in 
Ireland about the middle of 
the following century were de- 
scended from him. There are 
Hamons still in Ireland, though 
the name has in some cases 
been changed to Hammond. 

HA RENO : a refugee family 
from the south of France. Ben- 
jamin was a director of the 
French Hospital in 1765. He 
bought the estate of Footscray, 
Kent ; his son married the 
daughter of Joseph Bernes, 
Esq., and was a prominent 
county magistrate. The family 
is at present represented by C. 
J. Harenc, Esq., barrister, on 
the Home Circuit. 

a refugee in England from the 
persecutions in the Low Coun- 
tries under the Duke of Parma. 
Returning on a visit to his na- 
tive land, he was seized and 
burnt alive in 1568. His de- 
scendants still survive in Eng- 
land and Ireland under the 
name of Hassard. 

HENZELL : a foreign Protest- 




ant who settled at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, about the time of the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. 
He was joined by two other 
refugees, named Tysack and 
Tittory ; and the three estab- 
lished glassworks which long 
continued to flourish. To pre- 
serve their nationality, the 
members of the three families 
intermarried with each other ; 
and so much were they isolated 
from the other inhabitants of 
the district, that they were 
generally known as " the Pil- 
grims," or "the Strangers." In 
course of time, two of the fami- 
lies, the Tysacks and Tittorys, 
became extinct ; but the Hen- 
zells remained in possession of 
the glassworks until the com- 
mencement of the present cen- 
tury, when the owner died, and 
the works passed into other 
hands. Mr. Alderson, Town 
Hall, Manchester, married the 
granddaughter of the last owner 

He afterwards settled at South- 
ampton. He became governor 
of the French Hospital in 1720, 
to which he gave a sum of 
4000, dying in the following 

a native of Rennes, who came 
into England before the Revo- 
cation. The name has since 
been changed to Heurtley. The 
present representative of the 
family, Dr. Heurtley, Mar- 
garet Professor of Divinity, and 
Canon of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, informs us that, among 
other family records, he pos- 
sesses a passport to one ot his 
ancestors, described as " Le 
Sieur du Creux, controlleur de 
la Maison de Monsieur le 
Prince." It is dated July, 
1613, and is signed by Marshal 
Turenne, the father of the 
more eminent person who bore 
the name, 
not know 

Dr Heurtley does 
at what time the 

of the works, of the name of] original refugee came into 
Henzell ; but there are other I England. He had a daughter 

members of the family still 
living in different parts of the 

HERAXJLT, Louis : a refugee 
pastor from Normandy, who ob- 
tained a benefice in the English 
Church in the reign of Charles 
I. But he was found so zealous 
a Royalist that he was forced to 
fly again into France, from 
which, however, he returned at 
the Restoration, and obtained a 
canonryat Canterbury, which 
he enjoyed until his death. 


DE HTJNINGUE : a refugee of 

high character and station. In 

690 William III. appointed 

him his ambassador at Geneva. 

who returned to France, and 
who must have been born be- 
tween 1684 and 1690. His son, 
probably by a second marriage, 
was born in England in 1707. 
He was baptized at Les Grecs, 
the French church in Soho. He 
was an officer in the English 
army, and served against the 
Pretender in 1745-6. 

HIPPOLITE, STE. : see Monto- 

HOTJBLON, PETER : a refugee 
from Flanders because of his 
religion, who settled in Eng- 
land about the year 1 568. His 
son John became an eminent 
merchant in London, his grand- 
son James being the "father" of 




the "Royal Exchange. Two 
sons of the latter, Sir James 
and Sir John, were aldermen of 
London. While the former re- 
presented the city in Parlia- 
ment in 1698, the latter served 
it as Lord Mayor in 1695. Sir 
John was the first governor of 
the Bank of England ; he was 
also a commissioner of the 
Admiralty. Another brother, 
Abraham, was also a director 
and governor of the bank. His 
son, Sir Richard, left an only 
daughter, who married Henry 
Temple, created Lord Palmer- 
ston, 1722, from whom the late 
Lord Palmerston was lineally 

HUDEL or UDEL : a pastor of 
" Les Grecs " French church, 
London, the eldest son of a 
zealous Huguenot. He was con- 
fined in prison for a quarter 
of a centuiy, and was only 
released at the death of Louis 

HUGESSEN, JAMES : a refugee 
from Dunkirk, who settled at 
Dover. The family is now re- 
presented by E. Knatchbull- 
Hugessen, M.P. For notice, 
gee p. 320. 

JANSEX, TnEODORK.youngest 
son of the Baron de Heez. The 
latter was a victim to the cruelty 
of the Duke of Alva in the 
Netherlands, and suffered death 
at the hands of the public exe- 
cutioner. Theodore took re- 
fuge inFrance, from whence the 
family fled into England. His 
grandson, also named Theodore, 
was knighted by William ILT. , 
and created a baronet by Queen 
Anne. The family were highly 
distinguished as merchants and 
bankers in London. Three of 

Sir Theodore's sons were baro- 
nets, two were members of Par- 
liament, and one, Sir Stephen 
Theodore, was Lord Mayor of 
! London in 1755. 

! Jeune emigrated from France 
about the time of the massacre 
i of St. Bartholomew, and settled 
! in Jersey, where the family 
! long continued to flourish, in- 
termarrying with the families 
of St. Croix, De Carteret, Le 
Fevre, La Chappelain, etc. 
The Le Jeunes belonged origin- 
ally to La Marche, from which 
they afterwards removed to 
Montpellier, the head-quarters 
of the Huguenot party in the 
south of France. They became 
sieurs of Chambson, one of them 
subsequently officiating as 
judge-royal of Villeneuve. In 
the sketch of the family pedi- 
gree which we have seen,George 
Jeune was settled in the parish 
of St. Brelade, Jersey, in 1570, 
in which year he married Marie 
Hubert. One of the last and 
most distinguished members of 
the family was the late Dr. 
Fran9ois Jeune, Dean of Jersey 
1838, and Bishop of Peter- 
borough 1864. His father was 
the owner of a small estate in 
Jersey, long in the possession 
of the family. 

JORTIN, RENE : a refugee 
from Brittany. For notice, see 
p. 332. 

JUSTEL, HENRY : a great Pro- 
testant scholar, formerly secre- 
j tary to Louis XIV. , but a fugi- 
tive at the Revocation. On his 
I arrival in England in 1684, the 
' king appointed him royal libra- 
! rian. He was the author o< 
; numerous works. 




KERK, DAVID : a celebrated 
sea-captain, born in Dieppe, 
who took refuge in England 
about 1620 because of his re- 
ligion, and entered the English 
naval service. When Charles I. 
declared war against France, 
in 1620, Kerk was put in com- 
mand of a squadron of six ships, 
and sent out to Quebec, then a 
French fortress, to besiege and 
if possible reduce it. Kerk ap- 
peared before the fortress in 
July 1628, but with his weak 
squadron he failed to make any 
impression on it. He learnt, 
however, that the garrison were 
in great straits for want of pro- 
visions, and that a French fleet 
was on its way from France 
for their relief . He then dropped 
down the St. Lawrence, to lie 
in wait for the French squad- 
ron ; and on its making its ap- 
pearance, he suddenly attacked, 
surprised, and captured the re- 
lieving ships. Again ascending 
the river, he summoned the 
garrison, now reduced to the 
last extremity ; and though 
Governor Champlain held out 
for a few weeks longer, he was 
at length compelled to sur- 
render. Kerk was then ap- 
pointed Governor of Quebec, 
and he held the office until the 
conclusion of a peace with 
France, when it was restored 
to its former owners. 

LABAT, LABATT : a branch of 
this very ancient Normandy 
family, related to the Sabatiers 
andChateauneufs,has been long 
settled inlreland.The firstLabat 
came over with William III., 
in whose army he was an officer. 
He was afterwards at the siege 
of Deny, on board the "Mount- 

joy," which burst the boom 
across the harbour mouth, and 
led to the raising of the siege. 
He eventually settled in King's 
County. The representative of 
the family is the Rev. Edward 
Labat, M. A. , Rector of Kilcar, 
County Donegal. 

LABILLIERE : the ancestor of 
the family, Peter de Labilliere, 
fled from France at the Revo- 
cation. He was naturalized 
along with Peter Bagneol, 
Daniel Souault, and others. 
He was described in his letters 
of naturalization as " Peter de 
Labilliere, son of Charles de 
Labilliere and Franois his 
wife, born in Languedoc, in 
France." He belonged to a 
noble family. From Hozier's 
Armoiial General ou Regestres 
de la Noblesse de France, it 
appears that the De la Cours 
are lineally descended from 
Bernard de la Cour Damoiseau, 
born early in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The fourth in descent 
from him was the " Noble 
Fulcrand de la Cour, Seigneur 
de Labilliere." In his will he 
declared that he belonged to 
the Reformed Faith. From 
his time until the Revocation 
the family continued Pro- 
testant ; but, on the perpetra- 
tion of that great injustice, the 
Labillieres fled, but De la Cour 
de Montcamp and De la Cour 
de Viala abjured Protestantism 
and remained in France. The 
French general who fell defend- 
ing Quebec belonged to the 
former branch. The " Noble 
Pierre de la Cour, Seigneur de 
la Gardoile," who was sponsor 
to Peter and Paul de Labilliere, 
died in London on the 3rd of 




October, 1705. Peter de La- 
billiere was married in London 
to Margue Francoise Reynaud. 
He and Paul became officers in 
the British army. The present 
representative of the family is 
a member of the English bar. 

LABOUCHKHE : an ancient dis- 
tinguished Bearnese Protestant 
family, whose original name 
was Barrier. In 1623, Jean- 
Guyon Barrier, notary-royal, 
married Catherine de la Broue, 
and from this union sprang 
Francis,seigneur of Labouchere, 
practitioner of law at Stranniac, 
in the department of Commin- 
gues. His son Peter, who was 
a merchant at Orthez, being a 
Protestant, sent his son and 
daughter, Matthew and Susan, 
to London to be educated by 
their relative, Dr. Majendie, 
pastor of the French church in 
St. Martin's Lane, who was also 
from Orthez. The children did 
not return to France. Mat- 
thew went \\, Holland, where 
he married and settled. He 
had several sons, of whom 
Peter- Caesar established the 
branch of the family which ulti- 
mately settled in England ; 
while Samuel-Peter continued 
the descent in Holland. The 
former was born at the Hague 
in 1772. After undergoing 
some preliminary training in 
the oihce of his uncle Peter at 
Nantes, he entered the great 
commercial house of Hope at 
Amsterdam , in which he became 
a partner at the age of twenty- 
two, together with Mr. Alexan- 
der Baring, whose sister he 
married. On the invasion of 
Holland by Pichegru, in 1793, 
the head-quarters of the house 

of Hope were removed to Lon- 
don, where Mr. Labouchere 
settled in 1799, and superin- 
tended the business for many 
years, conducting many largo 
financial operations. Strange to 
say, he possessed the confidence 
in a large degree of Napoleon 
Bonaparte, who employed him 
privately in 1810, to sound the 
British Government as to the 
conditions on which they would 
agree to a general peace. Mr. La- 
bouchere retired from business 
in 1822. His eldest son, Henry, 
who took honours at Oxford, 
sat in the House of Commons 
for many years, was President 
of the Board of Trade and Secre- 
tary for Ireland, and has since 
been raised to the peerage under 
the title of Baron Taunton. 
His second son, who married a 
Miss Dupre", also descended 
from a Huguenot family, and 
was for a long time one of the 
principal partners in the London 
banking house of Williams, 
Deacon, Labouchere, and Co. 

LABKTJNB : see Klou. 

LA CONDAMINE : an ancient 
and noble family belonging to 
the neighbourhood of Nismes. 
Andrd, the eldest, 'was a Pro- 
testant, and held to his reli- 
gion ; Charles Antoine abjured, 
and obtained possession of the 
family estate. Andrd fled with 
his family, travelling by night 
only,- -his two youngest chil- 
dren swung in baskets across 
a horse or mule. They suc- 
ceeded in reaching the port of 
St. Malo, and crossed to Guern- 
sey. The boy who escaped in 
the basket founded a family of 
British subjects. His son John 
became King's Comptroller of 




Guernsey, and colonel of the 
Guernsey militia ; and his de- 
scendants still survive in Eng- 
land and Scotland. 

LALO : of the house of De 
Lalo in Dauphiny,a brigadier in 
the British army, killed at the 
battle of Malplaquet. 

tenant-colonel in the French 
army, who fled from France at 
the Revocation, and joined the 
army of the Prince of Orange. 
He raised the regiment, called 
after him, " Lamelonie're's 
Foot." He served throughout 
the campaigns in Ireland and 
Flanders, and was raised to the 
rank of major-general. Several 
of his descendants have been 
distinguished officers in the 
British army. 

LA MOTTE, FRANCIS : a refu- 
gee from Ypres in Flanders, 
who settled at Colchester as a 
manufacturer of bays and sayes. 
His son John became an emi- 
nent and wealthy merchant of 
London, of which he was an 

L'ANGLE, DE : for notice, see 
p. 256. 

LANGLOIS : Benjamin Lang- 
lois, Under Secretary of State 
for the Home Department, who 
died in 1802, was youngest son 
of Pierre Langlois, by Julie de 
la Melonniere, sister of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel de la Melonniere, 
mentioned above. The family 
was from Montpellier, but 
originally from Normandy, and 
was naturalised in England in 
1702. Pierre Langlois left four 
sons, three of whom died un- 
married. Of these Peter Lang- 
lois rose to great distinction in 

the Austrian service, and died 
in 1788, Governor of Trieste, a 
Feld Zuegmeister, and high in 
the favour of the Emperor 
Joseph II. He left an only 
daughter, who married An- 
thony Lefroy of Leghorn. See 

LA PIEKRE : a Huguenot 
family of Lyons. Marc-Conrad 
was a magistrate, and councillor 
to the Parliament of Grenoble 
a man highly esteemed for 
his learning and integrity. He 
left France at the Revocation, 
and settled in England. One 
of his sons was minister of 
Spring Gardens French church 
in 1724 ; and Pierre de la Pierre 
was a director of the French 
Hospital in 1740. 

converted to Protestantism, 
who took refuge in England 
about 1716. He was the author 
of several works relating to his 
conversion, and also on English 

LA PRIMAUDAYE : a noble 
Protestant family of Anjou. 
Several of them took refuge in 
England. In 1740 Pierre de la 
Primaudaye was a governor of 
the French Hospital, and others 
of the same name afterwards 
held that office. 

LA RIVE : a refugee settled 
in Ireland, who escaped with 
his wife, by pretending to be 
sellers of oranges, and going 
about with a donkey and pan- 
niers. On reaching Holland 
the Prince of Orange gave him 
a commission in his troops, and 
he acquitted himself bravely 
in the Irish campaigns. He 
afterwards became agent to 
Sir C. Wandersforde at Castle 




Corner, where he died, and his 
tombstone is to be seen in the 
churchyard of that place. 

LA ROCHE : a refugee from 
Bordeaux, originally named 
Crothaire, whose son became 
M.P. for Bodmin in 1727. His 
grandson, Sir James Laroche, 
Bart., also sat for the same 
borough in 1768. 

Roye : an able officer of Louis 
XIV., field-marshal under Tu- 
renne, who served in the great 
campaigns between 1672 and 
1G83. He left France at the 
Revocation, first entering the 
Danish service, in which he 
held the post of grand-marshal. 
He afterwards settled in Eng- 
land. He died at Bath in 1690. 
His son Frederick William was 
a colonel of one of the six 
French regiments sent to Por- 
tugal under Schomberg. He 
was promoted to the rank of 
major-general, and was raised 
to the peerage (for life) under 
the title of Earl of Liflbrd in 


DE : son of the Baron de Mon- 
tendre. He escaped from the 
abbey of the Canons of Saint 
Victor, where he had been shut 
up for "conversion," and fled 
to England. He entered the 
English army, served in Ireland, 
where he was master-general of 
artillery, and rose to the rank 
of field-marshal. 


DE : a voluminous writer of ro- 
mances of the Scuderi school. 
He was a Protestant, and first 
took refuge in Holland, and 
afterwards settled, in England 

about 1697, though his works 
were still published abroad, 
mostly in Amsterdam. 

LARPENT, JOHN DE : a refugee 
from Caen in Normandy, who 
fled into England at the Revo- 
cation. His son and grandson 
were employed in the Foreign 
Office. The two sons of the 
latter were F. S. Larpent, 
judge advocate-general in Spain 
under the Duke of Wellington, 
and Sir George Gerard De 
Hochepied Larpent, Bart. 

testant refugee from Turcoigne, 
in the Low Countries, who 
settled at Norwich about 1558. 
His son, of the same name, was 
a thriving merchant in London 
in 1634. 

LA TOUCHE : a noble Protest- 
ant family of the Blesois, be- 
tween Blois and Orleans, where 
they possessed considerable 
estates. The eldest son of the 
family,Pauldela Touche, having 
conformed, retained possession 
of the estates, and also obtained 
those of his uncle, Digues de la 
Brosse, who had refused to con- 
form, and fled to Amsterdam, 
where he settled. Paul's young 
brother, David, also remained 
staunch to the Protestant faith, 
and fled to join his uncle, taking 
with him a Bible which is still 
preserved in the family. Shortly 
after reaching Amsterdam, his 
uncle obtained for him a com- 
mission in Caillemotte's Dra- 
goons, with which he after- 
wards served in the Irish 
campaigns ; his gallant conduct 
at the Boyne securing his pro- 
motion. At the close of the 
war, the regiment was dis- 
banded in Dublin, where many 




of the officers settled, amongst 
others, Digues de la Touche. 
"Having a little money," says 
his biographer, "he and an- 
other Huguenot established a 
silk, poplin, and cambric manu- 
factory, articles which were 
produced in high perfection, 
and soon acquired celebrity. 
For the sale of them, a shop was 
opened in the High Street. Many 
of his countrymen had to visit 
the provinces with the view of 
ascertaining eligible places of 
settlement. The refugees usu- 
ally left with him what money 
and other valuables they had, I 
beyond what was reqiiired for ! 
travelling expenses, that it : 
might be in safe custody ' 
till their return. Thus a 
considerable amount of pro- 
perty came into his hands." 
To employ the money at profit- 
able interest, advances were 
made on good security, or re- 
mittances were sent to London 
for the purpose ; hence the 
origin of the Latouche Bank. 
At his death, his eldest son, 
David, succeeded to the Bank, 
and his younger son, James, to 
the poplin trade, both of which 
prospered. Both brothers 
founded families, from which 
have come the Latouches of 
Bellevue, Marlay, Harristown, 
and Sans-Souci. Many mem- 
bers of the family have held 
high offices, sat in Parliament, 
and intermarried with the 
landed aristocracy. N. La- 
touche, a refugee in London, 
but unconnected with the above, 
was the author of an excellent 
French grammar. 

a Huguenot gentleman, who 

took refuge in England shortly 
after the massacre of St. Bar- 
tholomew. He first settled in 
Northumberland, from whence 
his descendants removed to 
Ireland, and founded the Trench 
family, the head of which is the 
Earl of Clancarty. Many high 
dignitaries of the church, and 
officers in the army and civil 
service, have belonged to this 
family. The present Arch- 
bishop of Dublin is a Trench 
as well as a Chenevix (which 
see), being thus doubly a Hu- 
guenot by his descent. The 
Power-Keatings are a branch 
of the Trench family. The Earl 
of Ashtoun is the head of an- 
other branch. 

DE : wife of James Stanley, 
Earl of Derby. The Countess 
was a Protestant the daughter 
of Claude de la Tremouille and 
his wife, the Princess of Orange. 
Sir Walter Scott incorrectly 
makes the Countess to have 
been a Roman Catholic. 

LA TROBE, JEAN : a Hugue- 
not refugee from the south of 
France shortly after the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes. 
He came to Ireland by way of 
Holland, and settled in Water- 
ford about the year 1690. He 
was of a noble family (originally 
of Villemur, near Montauban 
in Languedoc), which had early 
become attached to the doc- 
trines of the Reformation, and 
had shared in all the vicissi- 
tudes of the party both before 
and after the accession of Henri 
IV. Jean La Trobe died in 
Dublin at an advanced age. 
Among his descendants are 
names which have since been 




of note in literature, science, 
and art, both in England and 
in the United States of Ame- 
rica. The grandson of Jean la 
Trobe, Benjamin la Trobe, 
married into a Protestant refu- 
gee family, who had emigrated 
from the Palatinate after its 
devastation by Louis XIV., 
and had taken refuge in the 
British plantations in Pennsyl- 
vania. The name, originally 
Von Blume, was changed to 
Antes, which it still bears ; and 
there is no doubt but that it is 
from this family that the very 
marked engineering talent 
which has distinguished many 
of the descendants of Benjamin 
La Trobe, both in England and 
America, is derived. The name 
of La Trobe has been more 
particularly and honourably 
associated, for the last hundred 
years, with Protestant mission- 
ary work among the heathen in 
the British dependencies, in 
consequence of the connection 
of the elder branch of the 
family with the church of the 
United Brethren or [Moravians. 

thor of a History of the Refor- 
mation and of the Reformed of France, and min- 
ister of the French church in 
Castle Street, London, about 
the year 1730. 

LA VALLADE : pastor of the 
French church at Lisburn, in 
Ireland, during forty years. 
He left an only daughter, who 
married, in 1737, George Rus- 
sell, Esq., of Lisburn, whose 
descendants survive. 

LAYARD : an ancient Albi- 
gensian family, whose original 
name was Raymond "de Lay- 

arde"(nearMontpellier), boing 
merely their nom de terre, as in 
so many similar cases. Pierre 
Raymond de Layarde, born 
1666, left France about the 
period of the Revocation. He 
attended William III. into 
England as major in General 
Verey's Regiment of Foot. 
The family settled first at Can- 
terbury, of which Pierre de 
Layarde was mayor ; and we 
find in the church register 
there the baptism of Ms son 
Gaspard, in 1725. Another 
son, Daniel-Peter, was a cele- 
brated doctor, and held the 
appointment of physician to 
the Dowager Princess of Wales. 
He was the author of numerous 
works on medicine ; amongst 
others, of a treatise on the cattle 
distemper, which originally ap- 
peared in the Philosophical 
Transactions, and has since 
been frequently reprinted. The 
doctor had three sons Charles - 
Peter, afterwards prebendary 
of Worcester and dean of Bris- 
tol ; Anthony-Louis and John- 
Thomas, who both entered the 
army, and rose, the one to the 
rank of general, and the other 
to that of lieutenant-general. 
Austin Layard, lately M.P., so 
well known for his explora- 
tion of the ruins of Nineveh, 
and Colonel F. P. Layard, are 
grandsons of the above dean of 
Bristol. Two cousins are in 
the church. The head of the 
family is Brownlow Villiers 
Layard, Esq., of Riversdale, 
near Dublin. 

LB BAS, PETEK : a Protestant 
refugee naturalised in 1687, 
from whom descended the late 
eminent divine, the Rev. 




Charles Webb Le Bas, LL.B., 
president of the East India 
College at Haileybury. 


FRANCOIS : a canon of St. 
Genevieve at Paris, afterwards 
canon of Oxford. He was a 
very learned man and a volu- 
minous author. Having main- 
tained, as a Roman Catholic, 
the validity of ordination by 
the bishops of the Anglican 
Church because of their un- 
broken succession from the 
apostles, he was denounced by 
his own Church as a heretic, 
and excommunicated. In 1728 
Le Courrayer took refuge in 
England, and was cordially 
welcomed by Wake, then Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. The 
university of Oxford conferred 
upon him the degree of D.D. 
Although he officiated as canon 
of Oxford, he avowed to the 
last that he had not changed 
his religion ; and that it was 
the Roman Catholic Church 
and not he that was in fault, in 
having departed from the doc- 
trines and practices of the early 
church. Le Courrayer died in 
London in 1776. 

LE FANU : a Norman Pro- 
testant family. Etienne Le 
Fanu, of Caen, having, in 1657, 
married a lady who professed 
the Roman Catholic religion, 
her relatives claimed to have 
her children brought up in the 
same faith. Le Fanu never- 
theless had three of them bap- 
tized by Protestant ministers. 
The fourth was seized and bap- 
tized by the Roman Catholic 
vicar. At the mother's death, the 
maternal uncle of the children 
claimed to bring them up, and 

to set aside their father, be- 
cause of his being a Protest- 
ant ; and the magistrates of 
Caen ordered Le Fanu to give 
up the children accordingly. 
He appealed to the parliament 
of Rouen in 1671, and they 
confirmed the decision of the 
magistrates. Le Fanu refused 
to give up his children, and 
was consequently cast into 
prison, where he lay for three 
years. He afterwards suc- 
ceeded in making his escape 
into England, and eventually 
settled in Ireland, where his 
descendants still survive. 

LE FEVRE: many refugees 
of this name settled in Eng- 
land. The Lefevres of Anjou 
were celebrated as chemists 
and physicians. Nicholas, phy- 
sician to Louis XIV. and de- 
monstrator of chemistry at the 
Jardin des Plantes, was invited 
over to England by Charles 
II., and made physician and 
chemist to the king in 1660. 
Sebastian Lefevre, M.D., of 
Anjou (one of whose sons, 
Pierre, suffered death for his 
religion), was admitted licen- 
tiate of the London College of 
Physicians in 1684. Another 
family of the same name, 
from Normandy, settled in 
Spitalfields, where they long 
carried on the silk manufac- 
ture. From this line, the 
present Lord Eversley is de- 
scended. For notice, see p. 

LEFROY : Antoine Leffroy, a 
native of Cambray, took re- 
fuge in England from the per- 
secutions in the Low Countries 
about the year 1587, and set- 
tled at Canterbury, where his 




descendants followed the busi- 
ness of silk-dyeing, until the 
death of Thomas Leffroy inl723. 
The family appears to have 
been originally from Picardy, 
where the name Leffroy is still 
to be found. The sole de- 
scendant of this Antoine es- 
tablished himself in business. 
Anthony Lefroy settled at Leg- 
horn in 1728, and died there in 
1779. He was a great anti- 
quarian, and possessed one of 
the most extensive collections of 
coins ever made by a private 
person, numbering over 6600 
pieces, many of them of the 
utmost rarity : vide Catalogus 
numistnaticus Musei Lefroyani. 
He left two sons, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Anthony Lefroy, of 
Limerick, father of the Right 
Hon. Thomas Lefroy, ex-Chief 
Justice of the Court of Queen's 
Bench, Ireland, and from whom 
is the Irish branch ; and the 
Rev. I. P. G. Lefroy, Rector of 
Ashe, Hants, from whom is the 
English branch of the family 
of this name. The t>resent 
Brigadier-General, J. H. Le- 
froy, R.A., F.R.S., has com- 
piled a private monograph 
" relating to the family of Lef- 

LE GOULAN : a pupil of Vau- 
ban, and a refugee at the Re- 
vocation ; general of artillery 
in the army of William III. 
He served with distinction in 
Ireland, Germany, and Italy, 
and died abroad. 

LE KEUX : the celebrated 
architectural engraver, was 
descended from a Huguenot 
refugee, his father being a 
manufacturer of pewter in 
London. His master Basire 

was also a Huguenot, whom 
Le Keux greatly excelled in his 
breadth and boldness of style. 
His son inherited much of his 
father's genius. 

of a refugee from Caen. He 
was chaplain to the Duke of 
Portland, rector of Eversley, 
Wilts, and the author of nu- 
merous works. He died in 

L'EscuRY : see Collot. 

LESTANQ : a Protestant family 
of Poitou, one of whom acted 
as aide-de-camp to the Prince 
of Orange on his invasion of 
England. Another, Louis de 
Lestang, settled at Canterbury 
with his family. 

LE STJEITR : the refugee sculp- 
tor who executed the fine bronze 
equestrian statue of Charles I. 
at Charing Cross. Another 
work of his, still preserved, is 
the bronze statue of the Earl of 
Pembroke in the picture-gallery 
at Oxford. The statue of Charles 
was sold by Parliament for 
old metal, when it was pur- 
chased by Jean Rivet, supposed 
to be another refugee, and pre- 
served by him until after the 
Restoration. A refugee named 
Le Sueur was minister of the 
French church at Canterbury. 

LliRE : an ancient family, of 
large landed possessions in 
France, several members of 
which emigrated at the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and settled in England and 
Ireland. Of these, Rene" de la 
Douespe, lord of the manor of 
Letablere, in the parishes of 
Saint Germain and Mouchamps, 
near Fontenai, in Lower Poitotj, 




left France in 1685, at the age 
of 22, "on the dragoons coming 
to his mother's," as expressed 

first American war, and was 
wounded at Bunker's Hill. Of 
this marriage there are three 

in the records of the family. He j surviving sons Daniel Bi^bon, 
arrived in Holland the same j Esq., of Dublin; Edward Lit- 
year, when he entered the mill- ton, Esq., of Altmore, County 
tary service of the Prince of \ Tyrone, a Master in Chancery, 

Orange. He was an officer in 
Du Cambon's Foot at the battle 
of the Boyne, and afterwards 
in Lifford's Horse. It appears 
from a manuscript account in 
the possession of his descend- 
ants, that Rene* received re- 
mittances at various times (a- 
mounting to 5570 livres) from 
his relatives in France, who 
succeeded to the estates which 
he had renounced for the sake 
of his religion. In 1723, when 
about 60 years old, he returned 
to the scenes of his youth, and 
visited his numerous relations 
in Poitou. On that occasion 
the heirs of those who had suc- 
ceeded to his ancestral posses- 
sions presented him with 4000 
livres. Returning to Dublin, 
he settled, and died there in 
1729, at the use of 66. His 
son. Dr Daniel Letablere, Dean 
of Tuam, to whose memory a 
monument has been erected in 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, was a 
divine eminent for his piety 
and learning. He was a great 
promoter of the Dublin "silk- 
manufacture, and was pre- 
sented by the Mason's Guild 
with the Freedom in a silver 
snuff-box, still in the posses- 
sion of the family. The dean's 
youngest daughter, Esther 
Charlotte LetableYe, the even- 
tual heiress of the family, mar- 
ried Edward Litton, Esq., an 
officer in H.M. 37th Foot, who 
served with distinction in the 

for some time leader of the bar 
in Ireland, formerly M.P. for 
Coleraine ; and John Litton, 
Esq., J.P., of Ardavilling, 
County Cork. 

Protestant refugee from Val- 
enciennes. His grandson was 
a celebrated London merchant, 
who was knighted in 1687. 

fugee from Orleans, who en- 
tered the English Church, and 
held a benefice in the county of 
Northampton, where he died. 
He was the author of several 
works, amongst others of a 
History of Louis XIII. , which 
gave great offence to Louis 

LIGONIER : a Protestant 
family of Castres. Jean Louis 
was a celebrated general in the 
English service ; he was created 
Lord Ligonier and Baron In- 
niskillin. During his life he 
was engaged in nineteen pitched 
3attles and twenty-three sieges, 
without ever having received 
a wound. One of his brothers, 
Antoine, was a major in the 
English army; and another, who 
was raised to the rank of bri- 
gadier, was mortally wounded 
at the battle of Falkirk. For 
further notice of Lord Ligo- 
nier, see p. 240. 

refugee musician, inventor of 
the method of musical notation 
which bears his name. He settled 




as a teacher of music at Dublin, 
where he died. 

brated French Engraver, who 
took refuge in England in the 
reign of Charles I., and re- 
mained there until the early 
period of the Restoration. 
During that time he produced 
a large number of highly es- 
teemed engravings. He died 
at Paris, and was interred in 
the Protestant cemetery at 
Charenton a few years before 
the Revocation. 

a Huguenot refugee from Caen, 
who settled in London. His 
son, Peter Abraham, became 
a great Hamburg merchant. 
George Augustus Luard, Esq., 
of Blyborough Hall, is the 
present head of the family, to 
which Major Luard, of the 
Mote, Tunbridge, also belongs. 

LTJSANCY : see Chastelet. 

brated philologist, linguist, and 
bibliographer, one of the 
masters of Westminster School 
at the beginning of the eight- 
eenth century. He was an 
able writer, principally on 
classical and religious subjects. 
Haag gives a list of sixteen of 
his works. 

MAJEXDIE : Several refugees 
from Beam of this name fled 
into England at the Revocation. 
One of them became pastor of 
the French church at Exeter. 
His son, Jean- Jacques Ma j endie, 
D.D., was pastor of the French 
church in St. Martin's Lane, 
and afterwards of the Savoy. 
The son of this last became 
Bishop of Bangor, and after- 
wards of Chester. The present 

head of the family is Ma- 

j endie, Esq., of Hedingham 

MARGIN : several refugees of 
this name from Metz settled in 
Ireland. Paul became estab- 
lished at Lisburn, where he 
married Madelaine, the daughter 
of Louis Cromnielin. 

MAJICET : a refugee family 
from Meaux, originally settled 
at Geneva, from whence Alex- 
ander came over to London 
about the end of last century, 
and settled as a physician. He 
was one of the founders of the 
Medico-Chirurgical Society, 
Physician to Guy's Hospital, 
and the author of many valu- 
able works on medicine and 
chemistry. Mrs. Marcet was 
also the author of some excel- 
lent popular works on political 
economy and natural history. 

MARIE, JEAN : minister of 
the Protestant church at Lion- 
sur-Mer, who took refuge in 
England after the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, and became 
pastor of the French church at 
Norwich. His son Nathaniel was 
minister of a French church in 

MAB.ION, ELI : a refugee 
from the Cevennes. He joined 
his friend Cavalier in England. 
Francis Marion, the celebrated 
general in the American War 
of Independence, is said to 
have been one of his descend- 

geon of Dieppe, who fled into 
England at the Revocation, and 
settled at Norwich. His son 
David was also a skilful sur- 
geon. Many of their descend- 
ants still exist, and some of 




them are highly distinguished 
in modern English literature. 

brated judge and mathematician. 
At the Revocation, the grand- 
father of Maseres escaped into 
Holland, took service in the 
army of William of Orange, 
and came over to England in 
the regiment of Schomberg, in 
which he served as a lieutenant. 
H e was afterwards employed in 
Portugal, where he rose to the 
rank of colonel. His son studied 
medicine at Cambridge, took 
his degree of doctor and 
practised in London. Francis 
Maseres, the grandson of the 
refugee, also studied at Cam- 
bridge ; and after distinguish- 
ing himself in mathematics, he 
embraced the profession of the 
law. Besides his eminence as 
a judge, he was an able and 
industrious author. Haag gives 
the titles of fifteen books pub- 
lished by him on different sub- 
jects. His Histor'uK Anglicaruz 
Selecta Momimenta is a mine of 
antiquarian learning. 

de Ruvigny : for notice of, see 
p. 219 ; and his son Henry, 
Earl of Galway, pp. 227-33, 
265, 311. 

MATHY, MATTHEW : a cele- 
brated physician and author. 
After a residence in Holland, 
he settled in England about 
the middle of last century. He 
was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society, of which he was 
appointed secretary in 1758. 
He was afterwards appointed 
librarian of the British Mu- 
seum, in which office he was 
succeeded by his son. 


gee pastor who escaped from 
France after having been shut 
up in the Bastile for twenty- 
six years. He settled in Ire- 
land, where he arrived a crip- 
ple. His son Peter became 
dean of Killala, and his grand- 
son dean of St. Patrick's, 
Dublin. From him descended 
the Rev. C. Maturin, senior 
fellow, Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, rector of Fanet ; the Rev. 
C. R. Maturin, an eloquent 
preacher, author of Bertram; 
and Gabriel Maturin, Esq., 

MAUDUIT, ISAAC : descended 
from a Norman refugee settled 
at Exeter as a merchant. Isaac 
was a dissenting minister at 
Bermondsey. He was the fa- 
ther of Jasper Mauduit, Esq, 
of Hackney. 

MAURY, MATTHEW : a refugee 
gentleman from Castle Mauron 
in Gascony, who settled in Lon- 
don for a time. His son James 
was ordained a minister there. 
The family afterwards emi- 
grated to Virginia, U.S., where 
their descendants survive. Cap- 
tain Maury, LL.D., belonged 
to the family. 

celebrated physician, belonging 
to a Lyons family, originally 
from Piedmont. He studied 
medicine at Heidelberg and 
Montpellier, where he took his 
degree of M.D. in 1595. He 
opened a medical school at 
Paris, in which he delivered 
lectures, and obtained an ex- 
tensive practice. Henry IV. 
appointed him his first physi- 
cian. After the assassination of 
the King, Marie de Medicis 
endeavoured to convert 




yerne from Protestantism ; but 
lie was firm, and consequently 
lost the patronage of the court. 
James I. invited him over to 
England, and appointed him 
his first physician. The uni- 
versities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge conferred honorary de- 
grees upon him, and he ob- 
tained a large practice in Lon- 
don. After the execution of 
Charles I. he retired into 
private life, and died at Chelsea 
in 1655. 

MAZIERKS, DE : a Protestant 
family of Aunis, north of Saint- 
onge, several members of which 
fled from France at the Revo- 
cation. Peter was a lieutenant 
in the French army, and after- 
wards joined the army of Wil- 
liam of Orange. He settled at 
Youghal, in Ireland, where he 
died in 1746. Other members 
of the family settled at Cork, 
where they left numerous de- 

at Usez in Languedoc. A 
famous Hebrew scholar. He 
married one of the Morell 
family. His descendants sur- 
vive in England. 

trait-painter, born at Berlin, of 
French refugee origin. He 
afterwards settled in London, 
where he died in 1760. He 
was patronised by Frederick 
Prince of Wales. Many of his 
portraits were engraved by 
Simon, Faber, Avril, and Heu- 
delot (refugee engravers in 
London), as well as by English 

MESNARD, JEAN : one of the 
pastors of the Protestant 
church of Charenton at Paris, 

from which he fled into Holland 
at the Pvevocation. His brother 
Philip, pastor of the Church of 
Saintes, was fined 10,000 livres 
and condemned to perpetual 
banishment ; his church was 
demolished and a cross set up 
on its site. Mesnard was in- 
j vited to Copenhagen by the 
: queen, Charlotte Amelia, and 
' appointed pastor of the French 
church there. He afterwards 
came over to England, and be- 
came minister of the Chapel- 
Royal of St. James in 1700. 
He was appointed a director of 
the French hospital in 1718 ; 
and died in 1727 . 

MEXTAYER, JOHN : minister 
of the Patente in Soho ; after- 
wards minister of the French 
church at Thorpe-le-Soken, 
where he died in 1707. 

fugee painter of architectural 
subjects, who studied under 
Nicholas de Larquilliere, an- 
other refugee artist . 

the Protestant judges in the 
"Chamber of the Edict," at 
the Parliament of Paris. At 
the Revocation he fled into 
England, and was selected by 
the Duke of Ormond as tutor 
to his grandson. Misson tra- 
velled with him through Eu- 
rope, and afterwards published 
several books of travels. 

MISSY, CJESAB DE : son of a 
refugee merchant from Saint- 
onge established at Berlin, who 
studied for the ministry, and 
came over to England in 1731, 
where he was appointed mini- 
ster of the French church of 
the Savoy, in London, and 
afterwards of St. James's. He 




was the author of many able 


fugee pastor from the isle of 
Jourdain, who fled into Eng- 
land and became minister of 
the French church at Stone- 
house, Plymouth. 


MONTENDRE, DE : see La- 


POLITE : Of this noble family, 
David came to England with 
the army of William III ., under 
whom he also served in Flan- 
ders. He was made a colonel 
and afterwards a brigadier -gene- 
ral. His descendants still sur- 
vive in several noble and gentle 

MORELL, DANIEL ; born in 
a village in Champagne about 
the period of the Revocation ; 
he lost his parents , supposed 
to have been murdered, at an 
early age. He was brought up 
from his infancy by a Protest- 
ant nurse, Madame Conte, 
whose son Morell's foster-bro- 
ther fled with him into Hol- 
land, under the guidance of a 
party of refugee Protestants of 
distinction. When Daniel Mo- 
rell and Stephen Conte' grew 
up to manhood, they entered 
the army of William III., and 
fought under him through the 
Irish campaigns. The foster- 
brothers settled in life, married, 
and saw themselves united 
again in their old age, in 
the persons of their children. 
Young Daniel Morell married 
the daughter of Conte, and the 

issue was Stephen Morell, who 
entered the navy, served under 
ilawke and Boscawen, and 
died at Maldon, in Essex, at an 
advanced age, leaving behind 
him three sons, all of whom 
became eminent as dissenting 
ministers. The eldest son, Ste- 
| phen, was minister of an Inde- 
i pendent congregation at Little 
Baddon, Essex ; the second, 
Dr. John, was minister of 
a Unitarian congregation at 
Brighton ; and the youngest 
son, Thomas, was for twenty 
years theological tutor of the 
Independent Academical In- 
stitution known as Coward 
College. Dr. Morell, author of 
The History of Philosophy, and 
other well-known works, be- 
longs to this family. See fur- 
ther incidental notice at p. 

fugee minister of the church 
in the Savoy. For notice of, 
see p. 258. 

poet and translator ; a refugee 
from Rouen, who fled into 
England and settled in London 
in 1C60. He first translated 
and published Don Quixote and 
i Rabelais into English, which 
were received with great fa- 
vour. He also published seve- 
ral volumes of poetry and a 
tragedy, " Beauty in Distress.'' 
Notwithstanding his success as 
an English author, he aban- 
doned literature for commerce, 
and made a considerable fortune 
by a series of happy specula- 
tions. He died in 1717. 

NADAULD : a Huguenot fa- 
mily who settled at Ashford- 
in-the- Water, in Derbyshire, 



shortly after the Revocation. 
The grandson of the original 
refugee was the Rev. Thomas 
Nadauld, for upwards of fifty 
years incumbent of Belper and 
Turnditch. One of the mem- 
bers of the family was a cele- 
brated watchmaker and silver- 
smith. Another was a sculptor, 
who was employed by the Duke 
of Devonshire to execute some 
of the most important works 
at Chatsworth Palace. Others 
were clergymen, surgeons, and 
officers in the British army. 

NICHOLAS, ABEL: descended 
from an ancient family in Brit- 
tany. He left France at the 
Revocation, and settled at East 
Looc in Cornwall. His eldest 
son, Paul, was twice mayor of 
the town, and left descendants. 
Nicholas was major in a dra- 
goon regiment, and John, cap- 
tain in the Royal Marines, 
afterwards mayor of East Looe. 
Other descendants of the family 
have been officers in the army 
and navy. 

NOODT, NOOTH : an ancient 
family of North Brabant, fre- 
quently mentioned in Dutch 
history under the name of Van 
der Noodt. One of them, a 
colonel, distinguished himself 
greatly at the siege of Ostend. 
One branch of the family re- 
mained Roman Catholics, and 
their descendants still exist 
in Belgium ; another became 
Protestant, and emigrated into 
England in the 17th century. 
In 1712 we find James Nooth 
vicar-choral of Wells Cathe- 
dral. He married Miss Winch- 
combe, cousin of Lady Boling- 
broke, and his son, Colonel 
Nooth. marrying Miss Anne 

Assheton Yates, heiress of the 
Vavasours of Spaldington, Co. 
York, he assumed the name of 
Vavasour, now represented by 
Sir H. M. Vavasour, Bart. 
Another member of the same 
family informs us that his branch 
came into Cumberland in the 
time of Henry I., and that 
they migrated into Pembroke- 
shire, where they were settled 
for centuries, at Easthook Hall, 
near Haverford West. One of 
the Van der Noodta was high 
in office at Brussels. He was 
Burgomaster of the city, and 
his arms are carved on the 
Hotel de Ville. He was a 
great benefactor of the city. 

OLIER, D'OLIER : an ancient, 
powerful, and noble family in 
the south of France, whose 
names are of constant occur- 
rence in French history. Ber- 
trand Olier was Capitoul of 
Toulouse as early as 1364. 
Members of the family held 
high offices under the French 
kings ; intermarrying with the 
Colberts, Malherbes, Beaure- 
gards, and other illustrious 
lines. Edouard Olier, secretary 
to the king and councillor of 
parliament, was made Marquis 
of Nointel in 1656. His eldest 
son, Charles Edouard, was 
French Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople in 1673. The second 
son, Paul, was a chevalier of 
Malta ; and it was intended 
that Pierre Olier (of Collegnes 
near Montauban), the third 
son, should enter the same 
order, b\it having embraced 
the doctrines of the Reforma- 
tion, he was precluded from 
doing so. He married, 1665, 
Genevieve Genoud de Guiber- 




ville, by whom he had issue, 
Isaac Olier ; he fled from 
France at the Revocation and 
entered the service of William, 
Prince of Orange, who after- 
wards, in acknowledgment of 
his valuable services, bestowed 
upon him a grant of land. In 
the year 1686, he was made a 
free burgess of the city of 
Amsterdam. He eventually 
settled in Dublin, with the 
freedom of which he was also 
presented in 1697. He now 
assumed the name of D'Olier. 
His grandson, Jeremiah, was 
high-sheriff in the year 1788, 
one of the principal streets in 
the city being named after him, 
D'Olier Street. He was one of 
the founders of the Bank of 
Ireland, of which he was a 
governor, as was also his rela- 
tive, the late Isaac M. D'Olier 
of Collegnes, Co. Dublin. A 
second branch of the Olier 
family in France held the Mar- 
quisate of Verneuil, and num- 
bered many illustrious names. 
The late Rev. Sydney Smith's 
mother was Maria Olier, daugh- 
ter of a Huguenot refugee from 
Languedoc, but it is not known 
that she belonged to the above 

ONWHYN : see Unwin. 

OUVRT, JAMES : a refugee 
from the neighbourhood of 
Dieppe about the period of the 
Revocation. His family became 
settled in Spitalfields, and, 
were owners of freeholds there 
in the early part of last cen- 
tury. Frederic Ouvry, trea- 
surer of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, belongs to the family ; 
also Francisca I. Ouvry, author ; 
of Henri de Ilohan, or tlie Hu- 

guenot Refugee, and other 

PAGET, VALERAIX : a refugee 
from France after the massa- 
cre of St. Bartholomew, who 
| settled in Leicestershire and 
I founded a nourishing family, 
I the head of which is Thomas 
I Paget, Esq., of Humberstown. 
' Charles, lately M.P. for Not- 
I tingham, belongs to the fa- 
: mily. 

PAES*, ELIE : a merchant in 
i Paris, who fled from France 
at the Revocation and settled 
in London, where he greatly 
prospered. Numerous French 
Protestants of the same name 
fled into England, where their 
i descendants still survive under 
i the names of Pain, Paine, or 
> Payne. At Deal and Sand- 
: wich, at Rye, and in the south- 
em counties, the Paines are 
numerous. One of the mini- 
sters of the French church a 
Bristol was a M. Pain. Louis 
: Pain was a well-known author, 
\ and William was an architect in 
I London. 

PAUUBET, ELIE : descended 
, from a refugee family settled 
I at Rotterdam, from whence he 
1 passed over into England. He 
| became minister of the French 
; church at Greenwich, and after- 
wards of St. John's Church, 
London. He was the author 
of numerous able philological 
works. Another of the name, 
John, born at Montauban, 
i 1697, emigrated to England, 
and became French master to 
the royal family ; he was also 
the author of numerous works. 
PAPILLON, DAVID : a refugee 
from Avranches, where he was 
imprisoned for three years 




because of his religion. Le 
Sieur Papillon took refuge in 
England in 1685, but several 
members of the family had set- 
tled here before the Revoca- 
tion. In 1695, Philip Papillon 
represented the city of London 
in Parliament, and other mem- 
bers of the family have since 
represented London, Dover, 
Pvomney, and Colchester. The 
present head of the family is 
David Papillon, Esq., of Crow- 
hurst, Sussex. 

PAPIN, DENIS : for notice, 
see p. 244. 

refugee portrait and historical 
painter. He was employed, 
with several other refugee 
artists, in the decoration of 
Montague House (now the 
British Museum), after which 
he worked at the decoration of 
the palace of King William at 
Loo, in Holland. Returning 
to England, he obtained com- 
missions to paint altar-pictures 
for Holy Trinity Church, Hull, 
and St. 'Peter's, Leeds ; as well 
as pictures for Worksop Manor, 
and Painter's Hall, London. 
He died in 1730. 

refugee from Strasburg, where 
he was born in 1678. Settling 
in England, he purchased the 
manufactory of Gobelin tapes- 
try for some time established at 
Fulham, and removed it to 
Exeter, where it long continued 
to flourish. 

PAUL, LEWIS : inventor of 
spinning by rollers, son of a 
French refugee who settled in 
England, and practised as a 
physician shortly after the Re- 

of La Buissonade, near Mon- 
tauban. He was subjected to 
cruel persecution at the period 
of the Revocation, having been 
thrown into prison, where he 
was kept for eighteen months. 
His wife, near her confinement, 
fled from her home with four 
children ; and the house was 
given up to pillage by the 
dragoons. De Pechel, after 
long imprisonment, was at 
length transported to the island 
of St. Domingo, from which he 
contrived to escape. He arrived 
in England, and there found 
his wife, bereft of her chil- 
dren. They had all been taken 
from her and sent to convents 
to be educated as Roman Ca- 
tholics. These daughters after- 
wards succeeded to the family 
estates, which their descendants 
still hold. The Pechel family, 
however, greatly prospered in 
England. Several of them 
have been directors of the 
French Hospital. Samuel Pe- 
chell was a Master in Chancery, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Paul 
Pechell, of Pagglesham, Essex, 
was created a baronet in 1797. 
Two other descendants of the 
family have been rear-admirals 
and occupied seats in the House 
of Commons. The present 
head of the family is Sir G. S. 
Brooke Pechell, Bart. 

PEGORIER, C^SAR : a native 
of Roujan, in Languedoc, minis- 
j ter of the church of Senitot, in 
Normandy, until the Revoca- 
tion, when he fled into England. 
He was for some time minister 
of the Artillery Church, Spital- 
fields, and afterwards of the 




PELESSIER, ABEL : a refugee 
Huguenot officer who settled 
at Portarlington. His two sons 
were clergymen, and other mem- 
bers of the family have been 
officers in the army. 

PERRIN, COUNT : a Huguenot 
refugee from Nouere, where he 
had large possessions. He 
originally settled at Lisburn, in 
Ireland, from which he after- 
wards removed to Waterford, 
and founded the family to 
which Justice Perrin of the 
Irish Bench belonged. 

PEKRONET : a French refugee 
pastor settled at Chateaux 
d'Oex, in the Canton of Berne, 
Switzerland, whose son David 
came into England about the 
year 1680, settled in London, 
and married a Miss Philothea 
Arthur. Their son Vincent, 
born in 1693, was educated for 
the church. He graduated at 
Oxford at twenty-four, took 
orders, and was curate of Sand- 
wich, in Kent, for nine years. 
He was afterwards presented 
to the vicarage of Shoreham, 
which he served for more than 
half a century, dying in 1785. 
The Rev. Vincent Perronet was 
one of the few regular clergy 
who openly joined John Wesley. 
From him, by the mother's side, 
was descended the late General 
Perronet Thompson, author of 
the Cornlaw Catechism and nu- 
merous other works. Perronet, 
the celebrated French engineer, 
was cousin of the David Perro- 
net who first settled in England. 

PETIT, LE SIEUU : an officer 
in the Red Dragoons of the 
Prince of Orange on his ex- 
pedition to England. Many 
descendant of the family have 

served in the British army, and 
held offices in church and state. 

PETITOT, JEAN : an excellent 
painter in enamel, patronised 
by Charles I., who knighted 
him, and gave him apartments 
at Whitehall to live in. At the 
King's death, Petitot returned 
to France to practise his art. 
Being a Protestant, he was 
thrown into jail, and kept there 
until he consented to abjure, 
when he was set at liberty. 
But he took the first oppor- 
tunity of flying to Geneva, 
where he died. Of his nume- 
rous sons, Francis, who followed 
his father's art of painting in 
enamel, settled in London. 
His descendants for the most 
part removed to Ireland, where 
the family still exists. 

ant family belonging to Nor- 
mandy, several members of 
which took refuge in Holland, 
where they entered the Dutch 
service. They afterwards ac- 
companied William III. into 
England. Francis, Sieur de la 
Motte, was raised to the rank 
of colonel in the English army ; 
John, Sieur de Boispre', was a 
lieutenant-colonel ; and Gabriel, 
Sieur de Belet, was captain in 
Ruvigny's dragoons. 

PHILIPOT, ELISEE : a refugee 
from Bordeaux who settled at 
Norwich in 1672, and there 
established a soap-manufactory 
which proved eminently suc- 
cessful. Towards the close of 
his life he filled with honour 
the office of high-sheriff of the 
county of Norfolk. 

ETIENNE : descended from a 
noble Norman family, who took 



refuge in England after the | 
Revocation. Several of their 
descendants emigrated to New 
England (U.S.) ; and from one 
of them came John Pierpont, 
the celebrated American poet, 
born at Newhaven in 1785. 
Philip Fresnau, Jefferson's 
secretary, was another of the 
American poets of Huguenot 

PILOT, JOSUB : a refugee of 
this name settled in Ireland, 
several of whose descendants 
occupied high positions. Josue, 
the original refugee, possessed 
Jands in Poitou, which he lost 
by his flight for conscience' 
sake. He commanded an inde- 
pendent company at the siege 
of Derry. By intermarriages 
his descendants are connected 
with the families of Hamon, 
Champagne, Bouherau (Bur- 
rowes), Deg Yoaux, etc. His 
son, Dr. Pilot, was doctor of 
Battereau's Regiment of Foot, 
and served through the Duke 
of Cumberland's northern cam- 
paign of 1745-G. 

CHAMBRUN : for notice of, see 
p. 254. 

PLANCHE" : the first refugee 
of this name is said to have 
escaped from France concealed 
in a tub. Pierre Antoine 
Planche, one of his grandsons, 
was an East India merchant 
in London. Another grandson, 
Paul, married Marie Anne 
Fournier, and had five sons. 
One of these, Andrew, was the 
first maker of porcelain in 
Derby. From him is descended 
the present James Robinson 
Planche, the distinguished an- 
tiquarian and author. He is 

now Somerset Herald, with the 
title of Rouge Croix. See his 
" Recollections and Reflec- 
tions," published in 1872. 

PLIMSOLL : several refugees 
of this name fled from Brittany 
at the Revocation, and took 
refuge in the southern counties 
of England. One of the fami- 
lies settled at Bristol. It is 
from this branch that Mr. 
Plimsoll, M.P., the friend of 
the merchant seamen, is de- 
scended. There are still many 
Plimsolls in Brittany. 

PORTAL : an ancient noble 
Protestant family of Toulouse. 
For notice of refugees of the 
name in England, see p. 273. 

cal composer, born in London 
of a French refugee family. 
He began life as a writing- 
master in Spitalfields, after 
which he applied himself exclu- 
sively to music. He composed 
a number of pieces for the 
theatre in Goodman's Fields, 
in which David Carrick, or 
Garrigue, the son of another 
French refugee, made his first 
appearance as an actor: Prel- 
leur also held the office of 
organist of the church of St. 
Albans, and afterwards of 
Christ Church, Middlesex. 

origin, who settled in France in 
1601, as minister of the Protest- 
ant church of Mirambeau, and 
afterwards of Bourdeaux. In 
1623, Louis XIII. ordered his 
banishment from France, when 
he proceeded to London and 
became minister of the French 
church in Threadneedle Street ; 
after which we find him ap- 
pointed chaplain to the king, 




then canon of Windsor, and 
eventually bishop of Ely. His 
two sons, David and James, 
were remarkable men in their 
time the one as a theologian, 
the other as a physician. Both 
were authors of numerous works. 

PROVOST : a refugee family 
who settled at Thorney Abbey 
about 1652. One of this name 
was a large occupier of land 
in "French Drove," so called 
because farmed principally by 
French colonists ; and the farm 
to this day continues to be occu- 
pied by one of his descendants, 
the uncle of our informant. 

refugee from Ypres in Flanders 
during the persecutions of the 
Duke of Alva. He settled, 
with many others of his coun- 
trymen, in the Level of Hat- 
field Chace, after the same had 
been drained by Vermuyden. 
His son was the Rev. Abraham 
de la Pryme. George Pryme, 
Esq., late M.P., and professor 
of political economy at Cam- 
bridge, was lineally descended 
from the above. 

PUGET : a Huguenot refugee, 
who settled in London, and 
founded the banking house of 
Puget, Bainbridge, and Co., 
St. Paul's Churchyard, whose 
establishment was formerly the 
medium of monetary transac- 
tions between the British Gov- 
ernment and Ireland. They 
had a large connection with 
the commercial class of French 
settlers ; and their books were 
kept in French down to the 
beginning of the present cen- 
tury. Mr. Digges La louche, 
one of the bankers of Dublin, 
married Miss Grace Puget. 

Admiral Puget also belonged to 
the family. 

quis of : was appointed colonel 
of the 24th regiment in 1695, and 
afterwards served in Flanders. 

PUSEY : see Bouveries. 

a refugee from Pont-Gibaud, 
near Rochelle, who settled in 
Dublin, and prospered as a 
wine-merchant. For notice of 
his nieces, the Misses Raboteau, 
see p. 172. 

RADNOR, EARL OF : see Bou- 

for notice of, see p. 238. 

of a Protestant gentleman of 
Picardy who came into England 
before the Revocation. He 
afterwards married the niece of 
Marlborough. Hozier supposes 
that Edward Ravenel, director 
of the French Hospital in 1740, 
w r as his son. 

REBOW : a refugee of this 
name, from Flanders, settled 
at Colchester, from whom Sir 
Isaac Rebow, knighted by King 
William (whom he entertained), 
was descended. Several mem- 
bers of the family have since 
represented the town in Parlia- 

REGIS : see De Pegis. 

RENOCARD : a distinguished 
Huguenot family from San- 
cerre, near Orleans. At the 
Revocation the members fled 
into Holland and England. 
David Renouard became a 
well-known merchant at Am- 
sterdam. His son entered the 
army of William LLL, and was 
colonel of the 1st Royal Dra- 
go^ns. He was a brave and 




distinguished officer. His son 
Peter was captain in the 10th 
Dragoons ; also a man of con- 
siderable military reputation. 
Colonel Renouard married Miss 
St. Pierre, daughter of Colonel 
St. Pierre, also of a refugee 
family, a distinguished soldier, 
colonel of the 1st Jragoons. The 
late Rev. Mr. Renouard, rector 
of Swanscombe, Kent, was also 
a descendant of the original 

refugee family who held landed 
estates in the Vivarais, from 
whence they emigrated at the 
Revocation, and settled at 
Waterford. Henri de Reynet 
had a family of five or six sons, 
two onty of whom remained in 
Ireland. The youngest returned 
to France, and, having professed 
the Roman Catholic religion, 
he was put in possession of the 
family estate, which his descen- 
dants in the female line still 
hold. Another of the sons be- 
came a distinguished traveller. 
The freedom of the city of 
Waterford was conferred in 
perpetuity on the descendants 
of Henri de Reynet. The Rev. 
Henry Reynet, D.D., and Gene- 
ral Sir James Henry Reynet, 
K.C.B., K.C.H., belonged to 
the family, whose descendants 

RIGATJD : the late distin- 
guished Professor of Astronomy 
at Oxford, Stephen Peter Ri- 
gaud, F.R.S., was descended 
from a Huguenot gentleman, 
Monsieur Rigaud, whose wife 
was a daughter of M. La Brue, 
a celebrated military engineer 
under Henri IV. His mater- 
nal grandfather, D. S. Demain- 

bray, was at the head of the 
Kew Observatory, as King's 
Observer, in which office he 
was succeeded by Professor 
Rigaud's father. Major-General 
Rigaud is the head of the family. 
Riou, RIEUX : an ancient 
family, whose estates at Ver- 
noux, in Languedoc, were for- 
feited at the Revocation. 
Estienne Riou, who was born 
after his father's death, left 
France with his uncle Matthieu 
Labrune, when only eleven years 
old, and took refuge with him 
at Berne in Switzerland. La- 
brune there established himself 
as a merchant. In his nine- 
teenth year Estienne joined 
the English army in Piedmont 
under the Duke of Schomberg, 
entering the Huguenot regi- 
ment of Lord Gal way as a cadet, 
and serving at the siege of 
Cassale. His uncle being 
anxious for his return to Berne, 
Estienne left the regiment 
after about two years' service. 
In 1698, the uncle and nephew 
left Berne and came to London, 
accompanied by Pastor Ber- 
mondsey, formerly pastor of 
Vernoux. Matthieu Labrune 
brought with him a capital of 
8000, and taking his nephew 
into partnership, they began 
business as merchants in 1700, 
in which they were very suc- 
cessful. Estienne, when in his 
fortieth year, married Magda- 
len, daughter of Christopher 
Baudoin, a refugee gentleman 
from Tourraine, and left issue. 
His son Stephen entered the 
army, served as a captain of 
horse, and afterwards accom- 
panied Sir R. K. Porter in his 
embassy to Constantinople. 




His sons were distinguished 
officers. The eldest, Philip, 
served in the Royal Artillery, 
and died senior colonel at 
Woolwich in 1817. The second, 
Edward, entered the navy at 
twelve years old, and in 1776 
was appointed to the "Dis- 
covery," which accompanied 
the "Resolution" (Captain 
Cook) round the world. He 
also subsequently served in the 
the " Resolution" itself. After 
twenty-seven years of very 
distinguished and honourable 
service, Captain Riou "the 
gallant good Riou " was killed 
while commanding the ' ' Ama- 
zon" frigate at the battle of 
Copenhagen, April 2nd, 1801. 
The only surviving daughter of 
Stephen Riou married Colonel 
Lyde Browne, of the 21st Fusi- 
leers, who was assassinated at 
Dublin on the night of the 23rd 
July, 1803, when hastening to 
the assistance of Lord Kil- 
warden, who was killed on the 
same night. Colonel Browne's 
only daughter married G. Ben- 
son, Esq., of Lutwyche Hall, 

RIVAI, PETER : pastor of 
several of the French churches 
in London, and lastly of that of 
the Savoy. He was a copious 
author and a vehement contro- 
versialist. He died aboxit 1728. 

RIVE : see La Hive. 

ROBETHON, the Right Hon. 
John : a French refugee in 
London. His brother remained 
in Paris, and was attorney- 
general of the Mint in 1722. 
William III. made John Robe- 
thon his private secretary. He 
was afterwards made secretaiy 
to the Embassies, and privy 

councillor. In 1721 he was 
elected governor of the French 
Hospital He died in the fol- 
lowing year. 

ROCHE, Louis : a refugee 
manufacturer who settled in 
Lisburn at the same time that 
Louis Crommelin established 
himself there. He became an 
extensive merchant, and his 
descendants are now among the 
first inhabitants of Belfast. 


pastor in succession of the 
French churches of Greenwich, 
Swallow Street, Hungerford, 
the Quarre, St. James's, and, 
last of all, of Dublin, where he 
died in 1709. 

ROMAINE : a Huguenot re- 
fugee who settled at Hartle- 
pool as a corndealer ; father of 
the celebrated Rev. W. Ro- 
maine, author of the Triumph 
of Faith. One of his sisters 
married one of the Callenders 
of Manchester. The late M.P. 
for Manchester was called after 
him W. Romaine Callender. 
The Rev. W. Romaine had 
two sons. One, Captain Ro- 
maine, died in India. The 
other was the Rev. Dr. Ro- 
maine, of Reading : his two 
daughters married clergymen 
the eldest, the Rev. J. B. 
Storey, of Great Tey, Essex, 
the youngest the Rev. Romaine 
Govett, for 49 years vicar of 
Staines, Middlesex, and a great 
blessing to the place. One of 
the sons of the latter is now 
vicar of All Saint's, New- 
market ; his brother, W. Govett 
Romaine, was late secretary to 
the Admiralty. 

ROMILLY : for notice of this 
family see p. 327. 




Rou, Roux, LE Rou, etc. : 
there were many refugees of 
tliis name, some of whom were 
long settled at Canterbury. 
There was another but more 
aristocratic refugee Rou, Sieur 
de la Butte, some members of 
whose family emigrated to the 
United States, while others set- 
tled in England. In the early 
part of last century, a lineal 
descendant of the Sieur de la 
Butte, named Louis Rou, 
officiated as minister of the 
French church at New York. 
Several of his daughters married 
and came to England, where 
their descendants survive. 

the sculptor ; born at Lyons 
about 1595. Haag says he was 
probably the son of a " new 
convert," and that he only re- 
turned to the religion of his 
fathers. His works in England 
are well known. He was 
buried in the French church of 
St. Martin's-le-Grand in 1762. 

ROUBILLARD : see Campogne. 

ROUMIEU : a Huguenot re- 
fugee in England, descended 
from Romieu, the Albigensian 
hero. The present representa- 
tive of the family is Robert 
Lewis Roumieu, the celebrated 

ROUQUET, JAMES : son of a 
French Protestant condemned 
to the galleys for life. The 
young man reached London, 
and was educated at Merchant 
Taylors' school. He entered 
the church, but became a fol- 
lower of Wesley, and superin- 
tended Wesley's school at 
Kingswood. He eventually 
accepted the curacy of St. 
Werburgh, Bristol, where he 

laboured with great zeal in re- 
claiming outcasts, and died in 

ROUQUET, N. : a painter in 
enamel, belonging to a French 
refugee family of Geneva, who 
spent the greater part of his 
life in England. He was an 
artist, and wrote an account of 
The State of Art in England, 
which was published at Paris in 

ROUSSEAU, JAMES : an excel- 
lent landscape-painter, mostly 
in fresco, son of a joiner at 
Paris, where he was born in 
1630. He studied art in Italy, 
and on his return to France his 
reputation became great. He 
was employed in decorating the 
palaces at Versailles and Mar- 
ley, and other important works. 
In 1662 he was admitted a 
member of the Royal Academy 
of Painting, and was afterwards 
elected a member of the coun- 
cil. But in ItiSl, when the 
persecution of the Protestants 
set in with increased severity, 
Rousseau was excluded from 
the Academy because of his 
being a Huguenot. At the 
same time, eight other Pro- 
testant artists were expelled. 
At the Revocation of the Edict, 
Rousseau first took refuge in 
Switzerland, from whence he 
proceeded to Holland, and 
afterwards to England, where 
he settled. The Duke of Mon- 
tague employed him to execute 
the decorations of his town- 
house, on the site of the pre- 
sent British Museum. It is 
also said that he superintended 
the erection of the buildings. 
He executed other fresco-paint- 
ings on the walk of Hampton 




Court, where they are still to 
beseen. He died in London in 

entalist scholar, the son of a 
French refugee settled in Lon- 
don. He was an extensive 
contributor to the Gentleman's 
Magazine on classical subjects, 
as well as the author of several 
works on the Persian and Hin- 
dostanee languages. 

ROUSSELI,, ISAAC : a French 
Protestant refugee from Quille- 
bceu, in Normandy, who fled 
into England in 1699. He 
settled in London, and became 
a silk-manufacturer in Spital- 
iields. The present represen- 
tative of the family is John 
Beuzeville Byles, Esq., of Hen- 
ley-on Thames. 

ROTE, DE : see Larochefo'a- 

RUVIGNY, Marquis of : see 

SARA VIA : a family of Spanish 
Protestants, who fled from the 
Low Countries in the time of the 
Duke of Alva's persecution. Dr. 
Hadrian Saravia, one of the tran- 
slators of the Bible into English, 
was for some time master of the 
Free Grammar School at South- 
ampton ; and, taking orders in 
the church, he was afterwards 
appointed a prebendary of Can- 

SATTRIK, JACQUES : for notice 
of, as well as other members 
ofthe family, see pp. 253, 

SAVARY : the family of Tanzia 
was originally of considerable 
importance in the province of 
Perigord, in the south-west of 
France. In the latter part 
of the sixteenth century a 

younger brother, holding the 
lands of Savary, becoming Pro- 
testant, was under the necessity 
of fleeing from France and tak- 
ing refuge at Antwerp. His 
elder brother transmitted to him 
money for the maintenance of 
his family. The lineal descen- 
dant of this Tanzia de Savary 
entered the service of William 
of Orange, and came over with 
him to England, where he after- 
wards held the rank of colonel 
of horse. William made him a 
grant of land ; he also owned 
property at Greenwich, on part 
of which the French church 
was built. Several tombstones 
erected to members of the family 
are still to be found in the 
churchyard of St. Alphage at 
Greenwich. There are still de- 
scendants of the Savary family 
in England, bearing the name. 
One of them informs us that 
"there are many interesting 
anecdotes and legends in the 
family : of a buried Bible, 
afterwards recovered, and 
patched on every leaf ; of a 
beautiful cloak made by a refu- 
gee, and given to my great- 
great-grandfather as a token of 
gratitude for help given by him 
in time of need ; besides many 
others." The lands of the 
family in Perigord were after- 
wards held by Savary, created 
by Napoleon I. Due de Ruvigo. 
SAY : a French Protestant 
family of Languedoc, of whom 
several members settled in Eng 
land. One of them, Samuel 
Say, who died in 1743, was a 
dissenting minister in London ; 
another, Francis-Samuel, was 
minister of the French church 
in Wheeler Street. Thomas 




Say emigrated to America and 
joined the Quakers ; and his 
son was the well-known natural 
historian of the United States. 
Jean Baptiste Say, the celebrate d 
writer on political economy, 
belonged to the same family. 

SCHOMBERG, Dukes of : for 
notices of Frederick Armand, 
1st duke, see pp. 200, 221; 
Charles, 2nd duke, p. 229 ; 
Menard, 3rd duke, pp. 225, 231. 

SIMON ; a family of artists 
originally from Normandy, who 
belonged to the Protestant 
church of Charenton, near 
Paris. John, a refugee in Lon- 
don, acquired great reputation 
as an engraver. He was em- 
ployed by Sir Godfrey Kneller 
to engrave the portraits painted 
by him, a long list of which, as 
well as of his other works, is 
given by Haag. Simon died at 
London in 1755. 

ST. PIERRE : see Renouard. 

testant refugee from the pro- 
vince of Anjou, who came to 
England on the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, leaving 
behind considerable landed pro- 
perty, which was confiscated. 
He was naturalised in 1687, 
and, settling in London, became 
a wealthy merchant. He died 
29th November, 1730, and is 
still represented by his descen- 
dants, one of whom is an emi- 
nent London solicitor. 

TANZIA : see Savary. 

TASCHER ; several refugees of 
this name were ministers of 
French churches in London at 
the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. Pierre de Tascher was 
a director of the French Hos- 
pital in 1727. 

TERROT : the De Terrots be- 
longed to the petite noblesse, 
and held property in the neigh- 
bourhood of La Rochelle. 
They were Protestants, and 
fled into England at the Revo- 
cation. Many members of the